Matching Items (58)

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Effective Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Description

Expansive soils in the United States cause extensive damage to roadways, buildings, and various structures. There are several treatment or methods of mitigation for these expansive soils. These treatments can be physical or chemical treatments that serve to provide more

Expansive soils in the United States cause extensive damage to roadways, buildings, and various structures. There are several treatment or methods of mitigation for these expansive soils. These treatments can be physical or chemical treatments that serve to provide more suitable building qualities for foundations and roadways alike. The main issue with expansive soils, is the volumetric variations, which are known as swelling and consolidation. These behaviors of the soil are usually stabilized through the use of lime solution, Portland Cement Concrete, and a newer technology in chemical treatments, sodium silicate solutions. Although the various chemical treatments show benefits in certain areas, the most beneficial method for stabilization comes from the combination of the chemical treatments. Lime and Portland cement concrete are the most effective in terms of increasing compressive strength and reduction of swell potential. However, with the introduction of silicate into either treatment, the efficacy of the treatments increases by a large amount lending itself more as an additive for the former processes. Sodium silicate solution does not lend itself to effectively increase the compressive strength of expansive soils. The sodium silicate solution treatment needs extensive research and development to further improve the process. A proposed experiment plan has been recommended to develop trends of pH and temperature and its influence on the effectiveness of the treatment. Nonetheless, due to the high energy consumption of the other processes, sodium silicate solution may be a proper step in decreases the carbon footprint, that is currently being created by the synthesis of Portland Cement Concrete and lime.

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2018-12

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Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis (LSCA) of Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitate (EICP)

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Current practice and a new technology for mitigating fugitive dust on construction sites are compared on the basis of economic, environmental and social impacts for this assessment. Fugitive dust can have serious health impacts, such as repertory illnesses and valley

Current practice and a new technology for mitigating fugitive dust on construction sites are compared on the basis of economic, environmental and social impacts for this assessment. Fugitive dust can have serious health impacts, such as repertory illnesses and valley fever, on affected persons and is regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency and enforced by state and local agencies. Current practice consists of either relatively continuous application of potable water, a valuable resource, or application of expensive polymers, however, water application is considered the best available technology (BAT). The new technology, developed by the Center of Bio-medicated and Bio-inspired Geotechnics at Arizona State University, consists of application of Enzyme-Induced Carbonate Precipitate (EICP) to create an erosion-resistant crust. This crust is considered a "one and done" solution, until it is disturbed, however will last longer and stay more effective than quickly evaporating water. Future work will need to include how much disturbance is required to disturb the crust until ineffective towards mitigating fugitive dust. Results of the comparison show that a single EICP treatment produces 37 times less pollutants, uses 41 times less water and is 1.14 times cheaper than using water treatment to mitigate fugitive dust on a 7 acre site for 2 weeks (14 days). 14 days is the threshold at where EICP treatment becomes less expensive than water application for the purpose of mitigating fugitive dust. The EICP treatment benefits include lowering global warming inducing emissions, providing better air quality, becoming more cost effective, staying constantly effective to mitigate fugitive dust, and saving potable water.

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2018-12

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Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction

Description

This thesis was prepared by Tyler Maynard and Hayley Monroe, who are students at Arizona State University studying to complete their B.S.E.s in Civil Engineering and Construction Engineering, respectively. Both students are members of Barrett, the Honors College, at Arizona

This thesis was prepared by Tyler Maynard and Hayley Monroe, who are students at Arizona State University studying to complete their B.S.E.s in Civil Engineering and Construction Engineering, respectively. Both students are members of Barrett, the Honors College, at Arizona State University, and have prepared the following document for the purpose of completing their undergraduate honors thesis. The early sections of this document comprise a general, introductory overview of earthquakes and liquefaction as a phenomenon resulting from earthquakes. In the latter sections, this document analyzes the relationship between the furthest hypocentral distance to observed liquefaction and the earthquake magnitude published in 2006 by Wang, Wong, Dreger, and Manga. This research was conducted to gain a greater understanding of the factors influencing liquefaction and to compare the existing relationship between the maximum distance for liquefaction and earthquake magnitude to updated earthquake data compiled for the purpose of this report. As part of this research, 38 different earthquake events from the Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) Association with liquefaction data were examined. Information regarding earthquake depth, distance to the furthest liquefaction event (epicentral and hypocentral), and earthquake magnitude (Mw) from recent earthquake events (1989 to 2016) was compared to the previously established relationship of liquefaction occurrence distance to moment magnitude. The purpose of this comparison was to determine if recent events still comply with the established relationship. From this comparison, it was determined that the established relationship still generally holds true for the large magnitude earthquakes (magnitude 7.5 or above) that were considered herein (with only 2.6% falling above the furthest expected liquefaction distance). However, this relationship may be too conservative for recent, low magnitude earthquake events; those events examined below magnitude 6.3 did not approach established range of furthest expected liquefaction distance. The overestimation of furthest hypocentral distance to liquefaction at low magnitudes suggest the empirical relationship may need to be adjusted to more accurately capture recent events, as reported by GEER.

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2017-12

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Large Scale Direct Shear Testing of Municipal Solid Waste

Description

This thesis describes the conduct and interpretation of large scale direct shear testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) which was recently conducted at Arizona State University under the guidance of Dr. Edward Kavazanjian Jr. This research was performed to establish

This thesis describes the conduct and interpretation of large scale direct shear testing of municipal solid waste (MSW) which was recently conducted at Arizona State University under the guidance of Dr. Edward Kavazanjian Jr. This research was performed to establish the shear strength parameters for MSW of a particular landfill in the eastern United States. As part of this research, the unit weight of the material of interest was recorded to help establish if the properties of the waste tested in this project were consistent with the properties of MSW reported in the technical literature.
The paper begins with an overview of scholarly articles on shear strength and unit weight of MSW. This overview summarizes trends found in other MSW investigations. The findings described in these articles served as a basis to determine if the direct shear test results in this investigation complied with typical values reported in other MSW investigations.
A majority of this thesis is dedicated to describing testing protocol, nuances of experimental execution, and test results of the direct shear tests. This culminates in an analysis of the shear strength parameters and consolidated unit weight exhibited by the MSW tested herein. Throughout the testing displacement range of 3.5 inches, none of the MSW specimens achieved a peak shear stress. Consequently, the test results were analyzed at displacements of 1.7 inches, 2.1 inches, and 2.4 inches during the tests to develop Mohr-Coulomb envelopes for each specified displacement. All three envelopes indicated that the cohesion of the material was effectively 0 psf). The interpreted angles of internal friction were of 30.6°, 33.7°, and 36.0° for the displacements of 1.7, 2.1, and 2.4 inches, respectively. These values correlate well with values from previous investigations, indicating that from a shear strength basis the waste tested in this project was typical of MSW from other landfills. Analysis of the consolidated unit weight of the MSW specimens also suggests the MSW was similar to in-situ MSW which was placed in a landfill with low levels of compaction and small amounts of cover soil.

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2016-05

Bio-Inspired Cementation of Soil Using Plant Enzyme

Description

This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and urea in water and added sand.

This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and urea in water and added sand. The urease catalyzes the synthesis of carbonate from urea, and the carbonate then bonds with a dissociated calcium ion and precipitates from the solution as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This precipitate can form small crystal bridges at contacts between sand grains that lock the sand grains in place. Using enzyme induced carbonate precipitation we created a cemented sand sample with a maximum compressive strength of 319 kPa and an elastic modulus of approximately 10 MPa. Images from the SEM showed that a major failure mechanism in the cemented samples was the delamination of the CaCO3 from the sand grains. We observed that CaCO3 cementation did not when solutions with high concentrations of CaCl2 and urea were used.

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2014-05

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The Stimulation of a Ureolytic Denitrifying Microbial Community for Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation

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This dissertation investigates the potential for stimulating ureolytic and denitrifying microbes concurrently (i.e., stimulating a ureolytic, denitrifying microbial community) for a more efficient microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. Three sand columns were run for a treatment period of six

This dissertation investigates the potential for stimulating ureolytic and denitrifying microbes concurrently (i.e., stimulating a ureolytic, denitrifying microbial community) for a more efficient microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. Three sand columns were run for a treatment period of six weeks with a continuous flow of nutrient solution containing calcium nitrate, calcium acetate, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, tryptic soy broth and trace metals. The first and third columns served as control columns, within which only denitrification processes were at work. The first column was used for periodic sampling to measure the pH, ion concentrations, and total nitrogen over time. The third column was used to measure compressional (P-) and shear (S-) wave velocities to monitor cementation and desaturation over time. The second column was subject to initial conditions identical to the other two columns except that urea was added to the nutrient solution to stimulate ureolysis and was also subject to sampling. This was done to determine whether the use of the combined MICP processes resulted in increased efficiency of precipitation. Results from ion chromatography analysis, acid digestion and scanning electron microscope imaging did not show an increase in the amount of carbonate precipitated for the second column, possibly due to nitrite inhibition and abiotic hydrolysis of the urea from sterilization of the nutrient solution through autoclaving. However, the stimulation of denitrification and ureolysis in combination was achieved, and the amount of carbonate precipitation per mol of nitrate reduced increased, which in a sense increased the efficiency of the system. Ultimately, more experimentation is needed to determine if this combination is beneficial for MICP.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Geomembrane Seam Strain Concentrations in Landfill Liners

Description

This dissertation details an attempt to experimentally evaluate the Giroud et al. (1995) concentration factors for geomembranes loaded in tension perpendicular to a seam by laboratory measurement. Field observations of the performance of geomembrane liner systems indicates that tears occur

This dissertation details an attempt to experimentally evaluate the Giroud et al. (1995) concentration factors for geomembranes loaded in tension perpendicular to a seam by laboratory measurement. Field observations of the performance of geomembrane liner systems indicates that tears occur at average strains well below the yield criteria. These observations have been attributed, in part, to localized strain concentrations in the geomembrane loaded in tension in a direction perpendicular to the seam. Giroud et al. (1995) has presented theoretical strain concentration factors for geomembrane seams loaded in tension when the seam is perpendicular to the applied tensile strain. However, these factors have never been verified. This dissertation was prepared in fulfillment of the requirements for graduation from Barrett, the Honors College at Arizona State University. The work described herein was sponsored by the National Science Foundation as a part of a larger research project entitled "NEESR: Performance Based Design of Geomembrane Liner Systems Subject to Extreme Loading." The work is motivated by geomembrane tears observed at the Chiquita Canyon landfill following the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Numerical analysis of the strains in the Chiquita Canyon landfill liner induced by the earthquake indicated that the tensile strains, were well below the yield strain of the geomembrane material. In order to explain why the membrane did fail, strain concentration factors due to bending at seams perpendicular to the load in the model proposed by Giroud et al. (1995) had to be applied to the geomembrane (Arab, 2011). Due to the localized nature of seam strain concentrations, digital image correlation (DIC) was used. The high resolution attained with DIC had a sufficient resolution to capture the localized strain concentrations. High density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane samples prepared by a leading geomembrane manufacturer were used in the testing described herein. The samples included both extrusion fillet and dual hot wedge fusion seams. The samples were loaded in tension in a standard triaxial test apparatus. to the seams in the samples including both extrusion fillet and dual hot wedge seams. DIC was used to capture the deformation field and strain fields were subsequently created by computer analysis.

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2016-05

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Laboratory determination of hydraulic conductivity functions for unsaturated cracked fine grained soil

Description

In geotechnical engineering, measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils can be time consuming and tedious. The various applications that require knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function are great, and in geotechnical engineering, they range from

In geotechnical engineering, measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils can be time consuming and tedious. The various applications that require knowledge of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function are great, and in geotechnical engineering, they range from modeling seepage through landfill covers to determining infiltration of water under a building slab. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function can be measured using various direct and indirect techniques. The instantaneous profile method has been found to be the most promising unsteady state method for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function for fine grained soils over a wide range of suction values. The instantaneous profile method can be modified by using different techniques to measure suction and water content and also through the way water is introduced or removed from the soil profile. In this study, the instantaneous profile method was modified by creating duplicate soil samples compacted into cylindrical tubes at two different water contents. The techniques used in the duplicate method to measure the water content and matric suction included volumetric moisture probes, manual water content measurements, and filter paper tests. The experimental testing conducted in this study provided insight into determining the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using the instantaneous profile method for a sandy clay soil and recommendations are provided for further evaluation. Overall, this study has demonstrated that the presence of cracks has no significant impact on the hydraulic behavior of soil in high suction ranges. The results of this study do not examine the behavior of cracked soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at low suction and at moisture contents near saturation.

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Date Created
2011

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Creep characteristics and shear strength of recycled asphalt blends

Description

The trend towards using recycled materials on new construction projects is growing as the cost for construction materials are ever increasing and the awareness of the responsibility we have to be good stewards of our environment is heightened. While recycled

The trend towards using recycled materials on new construction projects is growing as the cost for construction materials are ever increasing and the awareness of the responsibility we have to be good stewards of our environment is heightened. While recycled asphalt is sometimes used in pavements, its use as structural fill has been hindered by concern that it is susceptible to large long-term deformations (creep), preventing its use for a great many geotechnical applications. While asphalt/soil blends are often proposed as an alternative to 100% recycled asphalt fill, little data is available characterizing the geotechnical properties of recycled asphalt soil blends. In this dissertation, the geotechnical properties for five different recycled asphalt soil blends are characterized. Data includes the particle size distribution, plasticity index, creep, and shear strength for each blend. Blends with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% recycled asphalt were tested. As the recycled asphalt material used for testing had particles sizes up to 1.5 inches, a large 18 inch diameter direct shear apparatus was used to determine the shear strength and creep characteristics of the material. The results of the testing program confirm that the creep potential of recycled asphalt is a geotechnical concern when the material is subjected to loads greater than 1500 pounds per square foot (psf). In addition, the test results demonstrate that the amount of soil blended with the recycled asphalt can greatly influence the creep and shear strength behavior of the composite material. Furthermore, there appears to be an optimal blend ratio where the composite material had better properties than either the recycled asphalt or virgin soil alone with respect to shear strength.

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Date Created
2011

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Novel biopolymer treatment for wind induced soil erosion

Description

It is estimated that wind induced soil transports more than 500 x 106 metric tons of fugitive dust annually. Soil erosion has negative effects on human health, the productivity of farms, and the quality of surface waters. A variety of

It is estimated that wind induced soil transports more than 500 x 106 metric tons of fugitive dust annually. Soil erosion has negative effects on human health, the productivity of farms, and the quality of surface waters. A variety of different polymer stabilizers are available on the market for fugitive dust control. Most of these polymer stabilizers are expensive synthetic polymer products. Their adverse effects and expense usually limits their use. Biopolymers provide a potential alternative to synthetic polymers. They can provide dust abatement by encapsulating soil particles and creating a binding network throughout the treated area. This research into the effectiveness of biopolymers for fugitive dust control involved three phases. Phase I included proof of concept tests. Phase II included carrying out the tests in a wind tunnel. Phase III consisted of conducting the experiments in the field. Proof of concept tests showed that biopolymers have the potential to reduce soil erosion and fugitive dust transport. Wind tunnel tests on two candidate biopolymers, xanthan and chitosan, showed that there is a proportional relationship between biopolymer application rates and threshold wind velocities. The wind tunnel tests also showed that xanthan gum is more successful in the field than chitosan. The field tests showed that xanthan gum was effective at controlling soil erosion. However, the chitosan field data was inconsistent with the xanthan data and field data on bare soil.

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2011