Matching Items (6)

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Optical computed tomography for spatially isotropic four-dimensional imaging of live single cells

Description

Quantitative three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging of living single cells enables orientation-independent morphometric analysis of the intricacies of cellular physiology. Since its invention, x-ray CT has become indispensable in

Quantitative three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging of living single cells enables orientation-independent morphometric analysis of the intricacies of cellular physiology. Since its invention, x-ray CT has become indispensable in the clinic for diagnostic and prognostic purposes due to its quantitative absorption-based imaging in true 3D that allows objects of interest to be viewed and measured from any orientation. However, x-ray CT has not been useful at the level of single cells because there is insufficient contrast to form an image. Recently, optical CT has been developed successfully for fixed cells, but this technology called Cell-CT is incompatible with live-cell imaging due to the use of stains, such as hematoxylin, that are not compatible with cell viability. We present a novel development of optical CT for quantitative, multispectral functional 4D (three spatial + one spectral dimension) imaging of living single cells. The method applied to immune system cells offers truly isotropic 3D spatial resolution and enables time-resolved imaging studies of cells suspended in aqueous medium. Using live-cell optical CT, we found a heterogeneous response to mitochondrial fission inhibition in mouse macrophages and differential basal remodeling of small (0.1 to 1 fl) and large (1 to 20 fl) nuclear and mitochondrial structures on a 20- to 30-s time scale in human myelogenous leukemia cells. Because of its robust 3D measurement capabilities, live-cell optical CT represents a powerful new tool in the biomedical research field.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-06

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A platform for high-throughput bioenergy production phenotype characterization in single cells

Description

Driven by an increasing number of studies demonstrating its relevance to a broad variety of disease states, the bioenergy production phenotype has been widely characterized at the bulk sample level.

Driven by an increasing number of studies demonstrating its relevance to a broad variety of disease states, the bioenergy production phenotype has been widely characterized at the bulk sample level. Its cell-to-cell variability, a key player associated with cancer cell survival and recurrence, however, remains poorly understood due to ensemble averaging of the current approaches. We present a technology platform for performing oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification measurements of several hundreds to 1,000 individual cells per assay, while offering simultaneous analysis of cellular communication effects on the energy production phenotype. The platform comprises two major components: a tandem optical sensor for combined oxygen and pH detection, and a microwell device for isolation and analysis of single and few cells in hermetically sealed sub-nanoliter chambers. Our approach revealed subpopulations of cells with aberrant energy production profiles and enables determination of cellular response variability to electron transfer chain inhibitors and ion uncouplers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-28

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Platform for combined analysis of functional and biomolecular phenotypes of the same cell

Description

Functional and molecular cell-to-cell variability is pivotal at the cellular, tissue and whole-organism levels. Yet, the ultimate goal of directly correlating the function of the individual cell with its biomolecular

Functional and molecular cell-to-cell variability is pivotal at the cellular, tissue and whole-organism levels. Yet, the ultimate goal of directly correlating the function of the individual cell with its biomolecular profile remains elusive. We present a platform for integrated analysis of functional and transcriptional phenotypes in the same single cells. We investigated changes in the cellular respiration and gene expression diversity resulting from adaptation to repeated episodes of acute hypoxia in a premalignant progression model. We find differential, progression stage-specific alterations in phenotypic heterogeneity and identify cells with aberrant phenotypes. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration of an integrated approach to elucidate how heterogeneity at the transcriptional level manifests in the physiologic profile of individual cells in the context of disease progression.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-16

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Development of Microfabrication Technologies on Oil-based Sealing Devices for Single Cell Metabolic Analysis

Description

In the past decades, single-cell metabolic analysis has been playing a key role in understanding cellular heterogeneity, disease initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Therefore, it is critical to develop technologies

In the past decades, single-cell metabolic analysis has been playing a key role in understanding cellular heterogeneity, disease initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Therefore, it is critical to develop technologies for individual cellular metabolic analysis using various configurations of microfluidic devices. Compared to bulk-cell analysis which is widely used by reporting an averaged measurement, single-cell analysis is able to present the individual cellular responses to the external stimuli. Particularly, oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) are two key parameters to monitor heterogeneous metabolic profiles of cancer cells. To achieve multi-parameter metabolic measurements on single cells, several technical challenges need to be overcome: (1) low adhesion of soft materials micro-fabricated on glass surface for multiple-sensor deposition and single-cell immobilization, e.g. SU-8, KMPR, etc.; (2) high risk of using external mechanical forces to create hermetic seals between two rigid fused silica parts, even with compliance layers; (3) how to accomplish high-throughput for single-cell trapping, metabolic profiling and drug screening; (4) high process cost of micromachining on glass substrate and incapability of mass production.

In this dissertation, the development of microfabrication technologies is demonstrated to design reliable configurations for analyzing multiple metabolic parameters from single cells, including (1) improved KMPR/SU-8 microfabrication protocols for fabricating microwell arrays that can be integrated and sealed to 3 × 3 tri-color sensor arrays for OCR and ECAR measurements; (2) design and characterization of a microfluidic device enabling rapid single-cell trapping and hermetic sealing single cells and tri-color sensors within 10 × 10 hermetically sealed microchamber arrays; (3) exhibition of a low-cost microfluidic device based on plastics for single-cell metabolic multi-parameter profiling. Implementation of these improved microfabrication methods should address the aforementioned challenges and provide a high throughput and multi-parameter single cell metabolic analysis platform.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Single cell RT-qPCR on 3D cell spheroids

Description

A single cell is the very fundamental element in an organism; however, it contains the most complicated and stochastic information, such as DNA, RNA, and protein expression. Thus, it is

A single cell is the very fundamental element in an organism; however, it contains the most complicated and stochastic information, such as DNA, RNA, and protein expression. Thus, it is a necessity to study stochastic gene expression in order to discover the biosignatures at the single-cell level. The heterogeneous gene expression of single cells from an isogenic cell population has already been studied for years. Yet to date, single-cell studies have been confined in a fashion of analyzing isolated single cells or a dilution of cells from the bulk-cell populations. These techniques or devices are limited by either the mechanism of cell lysis or the difficulties to target specific cells without harming neighboring cells.

This dissertation presents the development of a laser lysis chip combined with a two-photon laser system to perform single-cell lysis of single cells in situ from three-dimensional (3D) cell spheroids followed by analysis of the cell lysate with two-step reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The 3D spheroids were trapped in a well in the custom-designed laser lysis chip. Next, each single cell of interest in the 3D spheroid was identified and lysed one at a time utilizing a two-photon excited laser. After each cell lysis, the contents inside the target cell were released to the surrounding media and carried out to the lysate collector. Finally, the gene expression of each individual cell was measured by two-step RT-qPCR then spatially mapped back to its original location in the spheroids to construct a 3D gene expression map.

This novel technology and approach enables multiple gene expression measurements in single cells of multicellular organisms as well as cell-to-cell heterogeneous responses to the environment with spatial recognition. Furthermore, this method can be applied to study precancerous tissues for a better understanding of cancer progression and for identifying early tumor development.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Improved microfabrication technologies for single cell metabolic analysis

Description

Within the last decade there has been remarkable interest in single-cell metabolic analysis as a key technology for understanding cellular heterogeneity, disease initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Technologies have been

Within the last decade there has been remarkable interest in single-cell metabolic analysis as a key technology for understanding cellular heterogeneity, disease initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Technologies have been developed for oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurements using various configurations of microfluidic devices. The technical challenges of current approaches include: (1) deposition of multiple sensors for multi-parameter metabolic measurements, e.g. oxygen, pH, etc.; (2) tedious and labor-intensive microwell array fabrication processes; (3) low yield of hermetic sealing between two rigid fused silica parts, even with a compliance layer of PDMS or Parylene-C. In this thesis, several improved microfabrication technologies are developed and demonstrated for analyzing multiple metabolic parameters from single cells, including (1) a modified "lid-on-top" configuration with a multiple sensor trapping (MST) lid which spatially confines multiple sensors to micro-pockets enclosed by lips for hermetic sealing of wells; (2) a multiple step photo-polymerization method for patterning three optical sensors (oxygen, pH and reference) on fused silica and on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface; (3) a photo-polymerization method for patterning tri-color (oxygen, pH and reference) optical sensors on both fused silica and on the PET surface; (4) improved KMPR/SU-8 microfabrication protocols for fabricating microwell arrays that can withstand cell culture conditions. Implementation of these improved microfabrication methods should address the aforementioned challenges and provide a high throughput and multi-parameter single cell metabolic analysis platform.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014