Matching Items (28)

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The influence of incarceration and Re-entry on the availability of health care organizations in Arkansas

Description

Background
Studies show that ex-prisoners often experience more health problems than the general population; unfortunately, these issues follow them upon their release from prison. As such, it is possible re-entry

Background
Studies show that ex-prisoners often experience more health problems than the general population; unfortunately, these issues follow them upon their release from prison. As such, it is possible re-entry rates signal the need for neighborhood-based health care organizations (HCOs). We ask: are incarceration and re-entry rates associated with the availability of HCOs?.
Methods
MethodsUsing 2008 Central Business Pattern data, 2008 prison admissions and release data, and 2000 and 2010 census data, we test whether prison admission and release rates impact the availability of HCOs net of neighborhood characteristics in Arkansas using Logit-Poisson hurdle models with county fixed effects.
Results
We find that the incarceration and re-entry rates – together known as coercive mobility -- are related to whether a neighborhood has one or more HCOs, but not to the number of HCOs in a neighborhood.
Conclusion
Future public policies should aim to locate health care organizations in areas where there is significant churning of individuals in and out of prison.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-24

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People's Perception of Muslims in America

Description

This study provides insight into the perceptions of peoples by assessing their reaction to Muslim and non Muslim couples at two different settings and showing them four photographs of in

This study provides insight into the perceptions of peoples by assessing their reaction to Muslim and non Muslim couples at two different settings and showing them four photographs of in which two of them have the non Muslim couple and two have the Muslim couple. I examine various themes in the responses, including minority, racism, terrorism, hijab and acceptance. Results show that respondents frequently associated traditional clothing with one of the four themes when shown photos of the Muslim couple compared to photos of the non Muslim couple.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Understanding Perceptions of Juvenile Offenders

Description

Given the many changes taking place within the juvenile justice system, it is not surprising that there are clashing opinions about those changes. The development of research surrounding adolescents and

Given the many changes taking place within the juvenile justice system, it is not surprising that there are clashing opinions about those changes. The development of research surrounding adolescents and juvenile offenders has grown substantially in the past few decades, but now there are many legislative changes taking place. Throughout these changes, there are several colliding opinions. Should juvenile offenders be sentenced in a more lenient fashion? Should justice policies match developmental processes for juveniles? The different stances on these issues have caused some serious public disagreement. In light of these recent events, research gauging public opinions regarding these concepts has slowly grown. In order to take a look at opinions regarding juvenile offenders and their justice treatment, in this study, I examined the differences in opinion between juvenile and adult offenders. The goal of this survey was to help gain an understanding about the public’s perceptions of juvenile offenders and how that relates to current issues with both research and policy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

Criminal Justice Response to the Sex Trafficking of Minors

Description

This study examined the criminal process for 355 sex traffickers involved in domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) from the years 2010 and 2014 to analyze how the criminal justice system

This study examined the criminal process for 355 sex traffickers involved in domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) from the years 2010 and 2014 to analyze how the criminal justice system handles these cases and how their conduct could affect the types of cases that are being investigated. Areas of interest included traffickers' demographic information, criminal history and associations, recruitment and control techniques, victimology, how law enforcement officials became aware of the cases, details of the arrests, prosecutions, and sentencing. The cases from 2010 and the cases from 2014 were then compared using all of these factors to determine any significant changes in the practices of law enforcement officials and the types of cases that were investigated from 2010 to 2014. These changes will showcase some of the progress the criminal justice system has made in handling DMST cases, and also showcase some of the areas in which progress should still be made.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

Comparing Police Use of Force Policies to Scholarly Recommendations

Description

Police use of force is a controversial practice on both the political stage and by scholars of criminal justice. Scholarly research has highlighted best practice for police departments’ use of

Police use of force is a controversial practice on both the political stage and by scholars of criminal justice. Scholarly research has highlighted best practice for police departments’ use of force policies. Diverging from these policies may produce ineffective and harmful use of force practices within departments. Because of these potential consequences of police departments diverging from research-based evidence, it is necessary to identify when recommended policy is not being utilized. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there are points of dissent or congruence between criminal justice scholars and police departments with regards to use of force policy. Efforts have been made to empirically identify best practices of use of force policy. The findings of this study indicate that points of dissent do exist in the policies of police departments in the U.S. and the policy recommendations of criminal justice scholars. The implications of these findings include reform to the use of force policies of police departments to more accurately reflect the policies recommended by scholars in the use of force.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

Comparing Police Use of Force Policies to Scholarly Recommendations

Description

Police use of force is a controversial practice on both the political stage and by scholars of criminal justice. Scholarly research has highlighted best practice for police departments’ use of

Police use of force is a controversial practice on both the political stage and by scholars of criminal justice. Scholarly research has highlighted best practice for police departments’ use of force policies. Diverging from these policies may produce ineffective and harmful use of force practices within departments. Because of these potential consequences of police departments diverging from research-based evidence, it is necessary to identify when recommended policy is not being utilized. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there are points of dissent or congruence between criminal justice scholars and police departments with regards to use of force policy. Efforts have been made to empirically identify best practices of use of force policy. The findings of this study indicate that points of dissent do exist in the policies of police departments in the U.S. and the policy recommendations of criminal justice scholars. The implications of these findings include reform to the use of force policies of police departments to more accurately reflect the policies recommended by scholars in the use of force.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Nopal En La Frente"": Latino(s) Perceptions of Disorder and Neighborhood Ethnicity

Description

Wilson and Kelling's (1982) broken windows theory (BWT) says that disorder causes crime at the neighborhood level. More specifically, this theory posits that perceptions of disorder increase fear of crime,

Wilson and Kelling's (1982) broken windows theory (BWT) says that disorder causes crime at the neighborhood level. More specifically, this theory posits that perceptions of disorder increase fear of crime, which then reduces community involvement, making crime more likely. Recent studies show that race plays a pivotal role in people's perceptions of disorder. In short, people tend to associate race with low socioeconomic status, high arrest rates, and lack of policing. Therefore, race plays a central role in the BWT framework as it is linked to perceptions of disorder and crime. However, ethnicity is less well understood when analyzing the perceptions of disorder. To explore this further, the current study examines Latino responses regarding safety and ethnicity to a photograph depicting a religious mural of importance for the Mexican community (La Virgen de Guadalupe). This paper qualitatively analyzes a sample of 299 survey responses of undergraduate Latino students to better understand how Latinos recognize and identify their own culture/heritage and disorder. Implications for understanding ethnicity and broken windows theory are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Blameworthiness: Rape Myths and Their Role in College Students’ Perspectives on Victim Blaming

Description

The current study examines the effects that college students' personal characteristics, such as age, sex, gender, or race/ethnicity, have on students’ perceptions of perceived victim blameworthiness. This study also examines

The current study examines the effects that college students' personal characteristics, such as age, sex, gender, or race/ethnicity, have on students’ perceptions of perceived victim blameworthiness. This study also examines how college students’ perceptions of blameworthiness change after being exposed to real life sexual assault vignettes that tap into issues surrounding rape myths. Specifically, I assess blameworthiness perceptions surrounding rape myths regarding clothing, drinking, and various situational characteristics. Blameworthiness perceptions were examined through a survey with pre-test and post-test questions that occurred before and after the student reviewed different sexual assault vignettes. Descriptive statistics show that the majority of college students, after being introduced to the vignettes, reduced their blameworthiness beliefs. Results from the regression analysis show that few individual characteristics are associated with changes in blameworthiness beliefs. Overall, these findings suggest that exposure to sexual assault vignettes have an effect on how individuals perceive victim blameworthiness.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Compassionate Release During the Time of Covid-19 and the Response of Wardens in Utilizing it as a Means of Reducing Infections

Description

The emergence of COVID-19 has ravaged through the United States generally and prison facilities in particular. By reducing prison populations and protecting a facility's most vulnerable members, compassionate release is

The emergence of COVID-19 has ravaged through the United States generally and prison facilities in particular. By reducing prison populations and protecting a facility's most vulnerable members, compassionate release is a means of mitigating the consequences of COVID-19 facing prison facilities across the country. This thesis will examine compassionate release requests for the months of March 2020 through May 2020 from minimum and low-security prison facilities within the Bureau of Prisons. By examining this data, the goal of this thesis will be to determine whether the Bureau’s use of compassionate release was conducted in a manner that would protect the well-being of incarcerated individuals in response to the emergence of COVID-19. Similarly, the data will be examined in order to identify any significant differences between prison facilities in their use of compassionate release and subsequent outcomes from COVID-19 infections and deaths. Lastly, this thesis will examine this data to determine whether the Bureau’s use of compassionate release was consistent with the general objective of reducing prison populations and overcrowding in response to COVID-19.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Examining Variation in Police Discretion: The Impact of Context and Body-Worn Cameras on Officer Behavior

Description

Discretion is central to policing. The way officers use their discretion is influenced by situational, officer, and neighborhood-level factors. Concerns that discretion could be used differentially across neighborhoods have resulted

Discretion is central to policing. The way officers use their discretion is influenced by situational, officer, and neighborhood-level factors. Concerns that discretion could be used differentially across neighborhoods have resulted in calls for increased police transparency and accountability. Body-worn cameras (BWCs) have been promoted to further these goals through increasing oversight of police-citizen encounters. The implication is that BWCs will increase officer self-awareness and result in more equitable outcomes. Prior researchers have largely evaluated the direct impact of BWCs. Researchers have yet to examine the potential for BWCs to moderate the influence of neighborhood context in individual incidents.

To address this gap, I use Phoenix Police Department data collected as part of a three-year randomized-controlled trial of BWCs to examine variation in police discretion. These data include over 1.5 million police-citizen contacts nested within 826 officers and 388 neighborhoods. I examine two research questions. First, how do proactivity, arrests, and use of force vary depending on situational, officer, and neighborhood contexts? This provides a baseline for my next research question. Second, examining the same contexts and outcomes, do BWCs moderate the influence of neighborhood factors on police behavior? As such, I examine the untested, though heavily promoted, argument that BWCs will reduce the influence of extralegal factors on officer behavior.

Using cross-classified logistic regression models, I found that situational, officer, and neighborhood factors all influenced proactivity, arrest, and use of force. BWCs were associated with a lower likelihood of proactivity, but an increased likelihood of arrest and use of force. Officers were more proactive and were more likely to conduct arrests in immigrant and Hispanic neighborhoods. The moderating effects suggest that officers were even more likely to proactively initiate contacts and conduct arrests in immigrant and Hispanic neighborhoods when BWCs were activated. However, after BWCs were deployed, use of force was significantly less likely to occur in black neighborhoods. Given that high-profile police use of force incidents involving black suspects are often cited as a major impetus for the adoption of BWCs in American police agencies, this finding is a key contribution to the literature.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020