Matching Items (21)

153289-Thumbnail Image.png

Optimal substation ground grid design based on genetic algorithm and pattern research

Description

Substation ground system insures safety of personnel, which deserves considerable attentions. Basic substation safety requirement quantities include ground grid resistance, mesh touch potential and step potential, moreover, optimal design of

Substation ground system insures safety of personnel, which deserves considerable attentions. Basic substation safety requirement quantities include ground grid resistance, mesh touch potential and step potential, moreover, optimal design of a substation ground system should include both safety concerns and ground grid construction cost. In the purpose of optimal designing the ground grid in the accurate and efficient way, an application package coded in MATLAB is developed and its core algorithm and main features are introduced in this work.

To ensure accuracy and personnel safety, a two-layer soil model is applied instead of the uniform soil model in this research. Some soil model parameters are needed for the two-layer soil model, namely upper-layer resistivity, lower-layer resistivity and upper-layer thickness. Since the ground grid safety requirement is considered under the earth fault, the value of fault current and fault duration time are also needed.

After all these parameters are obtained, a Resistance Matrix method is applied to calculate the mutual and self resistance between conductor segments on both the horizontal and vertical direction. By using a matrix equation of the relationship of mutual and self resistance and unit current of the conductor segments, the ground grid rise can be calculated. Green's functions are applied to calculate the earth potential at a certain point produced by horizontal or vertical line of current. Furthermore, the three basic ground grid safety requirement quantities: the mesh touch potential in the worst case point can be obtained from the earth potential and ground grid rise; the step potential can be obtained from two points' earth potential difference; the grid resistance can be obtained from ground grid rise and fault current.

Finally, in order to achieve ground grid optimization problem more accurate and efficient, which includes the number of meshes in the horizontal grid and the number of vertical rods, a novel two-step hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS) optimization method is developed. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used first to search for an approximate starting point, which is used by the Pattern Search (PS) algorithm to find the final optimal result. This developed application provides an optimal grid design meeting all safety constraints. In the cause of the accuracy of the application, the touch potential, step potential, ground potential rise and grid resistance are compared with these produced by the industry standard application WinIGS and some theoretical ground grid model.

In summary, the developed application can solve the ground grid optimization problem with the accurate ground grid modeling method and a hybrid two-step optimization method.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

153876-Thumbnail Image.png

Solving for the low-voltage/large-angle power-flow solutions by using the holomorphic embedding method

Description

For a (N+1)-bus power system, possibly 2N solutions exists. One of these solutions

is known as the high-voltage (HV) solution or operable solution. The rest of the solutions

are the low-voltage (LV),

For a (N+1)-bus power system, possibly 2N solutions exists. One of these solutions

is known as the high-voltage (HV) solution or operable solution. The rest of the solutions

are the low-voltage (LV), or large-angle, solutions.

In this report, a recently developed non-iterative algorithm for solving the power-

flow (PF) problem using the holomorphic embedding (HE) method is shown as

being capable of finding the HV solution, while avoiding converging to LV solutions

nearby which is a drawback to all other iterative solutions. The HE method provides a

novel non-iterative procedure to solve the PF problems by eliminating the

non-convergence and initial-estimate dependency issues appeared in the traditional

iterative methods. The detailed implementation of the HE method is discussed in the

report.

While published work focuses mainly on finding the HV PF solution, modified

holomorphically embedded formulations are proposed in this report to find the

LV/large-angle solutions of the PF problem. It is theoretically proven that the proposed

method is guaranteed to find a total number of 2N solutions to the PF problem

and if no solution exists, the algorithm is guaranteed to indicate such by the oscillations

in the maximal analytic continuation of the coefficients of the voltage power series

obtained.

After presenting the derivation of the LV/large-angle formulations for both PQ

and PV buses, numerical tests on the five-, seven- and 14-bus systems are conducted

to find all the solutions of the system of nonlinear PF equations for those systems using

the proposed HE method.

After completing the derivation to find all the PF solutions using the HE method, it

is shown that the proposed HE method can be used to find only the of interest PF solutions

(i.e. type-1 PF solutions with one positive real-part eigenvalue in the Jacobian

matrix), with a proper algorithm developed. The closet unstable equilibrium point

(UEP), one of the type-1 UEP’s, can be obtained by the proposed HE method with

limited dynamic models included.

The numerical performance as well as the robustness of the proposed HE method is

investigated and presented by implementing the algorithm on the problematic cases and

large-scale power system.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

152258-Thumbnail Image.png

Thermal performance of 69 kV underground cables

Description

Underground cables have been widely used in big cities. This is because underground cables offer the benefits of reducing visual impact and the disturbance caused by bad weather (wind, ice,

Underground cables have been widely used in big cities. This is because underground cables offer the benefits of reducing visual impact and the disturbance caused by bad weather (wind, ice, snow, and the lightning strikes). Additionally, when placing power lines underground, the maintenance costs can also be reduced as a result. The underground cable rating calculation is the most critical part of designing the cable construction and cable installation. In this thesis, three contributions regarding the cable ampacity study have been made. First, an analytical method for rating of underground cables has been presented. Second, this research also develops the steady state and transient ratings for Salt River Project (SRP) 69 kV underground system using the commercial software CYMCAP for several typical substations. Third, to find an alternative way to predict the cable ratings, three regression models have been built. The residual plot and mean square error for the three methods have been analyzed. The conclusion is dawn that the nonlinear regression model provides the sufficient accuracy of the cable rating prediction for SRP's typical installation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

152257-Thumbnail Image.png

Grounding systems analysis and optimization

Description

Today, more and more substations are created and reconstructed to satisfy the growing electricity demands for both industry and residence. It is always a big concern that the designed substation

Today, more and more substations are created and reconstructed to satisfy the growing electricity demands for both industry and residence. It is always a big concern that the designed substation must guarantee the safety of persons who are in the area of the substation. As a result, the safety metrics (touch voltage, step voltage and grounding resistance), which should be considered at worst case, are supposed to be under the allowable values. To improve the accuracy of calculating safety metrics, at first, it is necessary to have a relatively accurate soil model instead of uniform soil model. Hence, the two-layer soil model is employed in this thesis. The new approximate finite equations with soil parameters (upper-layer resistivity, lower-layer resistivity and upper-layer thickness) are used, which are developed based on traditional infinite expression. The weighted- least-squares regression with new bad data detection method (adaptive weighted function) is applied to fit the measurement data from the Wenner-method. At the end, a developed error analysis method is used to obtain the error (variance) of each parameter. Once the soil parameters are obtained, it is possible to use a developed complex images method to calculate the mutual (self) resistance, which is the induced voltage of a conductor/rod by unit current form another conductor/rod. The basis of the calculation is Green's function between two point current sources, thus, it can be expanded to either the functions between point and line current sources, or the functions between line and line current sources. Finally, the grounding system optimization is implemented with developed three-step optimization strategy using MATLAB solvers. The first step is using "fmincon" solver to optimize the cost function with differentiable constraint equations from IEEE standard. The result of the first step is set as the initial values to the second step, which is using "patternsearch" solver, thus, the non-differentiable and more accurate constraint calculation can be employed. The final step is a backup step using "ga" solver, which is more robust but lager time cost.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

156921-Thumbnail Image.png

Transmission Line Parameter Estimation using Synchrophasor Data

Description

Transmission line parameters play an important role in state estimation, dynamic line rating, and fault analysis. Because of this, several methods have been proposed in the literature for line parameter

Transmission line parameters play an important role in state estimation, dynamic line rating, and fault analysis. Because of this, several methods have been proposed in the literature for line parameter estimation, especially using synchrophasor data. However, success of most prior research has been demonstrated using purely synthetic data. A synthetic dataset does not have the problems encountered with real data, such as invariance of measurements and realistic field noise. Therefore, the algorithms developed using synthetic datasets may not be as effective when used in practice. On the other hand, the true values of the line parameters are unknown and therefore the algorithms cannot be directly implemented on real data. A multi-stage test procedure is developed in this work to circumvent this problem.

In this thesis, two popular algorithms, namely, moving-window total least squares (MWTLS) and recursive Kalman filter (RKF) are applied on real data in multiple stages. In the first stage, the algorithms are tested on a purely synthetic dataset. This is followed by testing done on pseudo-synthetic datasets generated using real PMU data. In the final stage, the algorithms are implemented on the real PMU data obtained from a local utility. The results show that in the context of the given problem, RKF has better performance than MWTLS. Furthermore, to improve the performance of RKF on real data, ASPEN data are used to calculate the initial estimates. The estimation results show that the RKF algorithm can reliably estimate the sequence impedances, using ASPEN data as a starting condition. The estimation procedure is repeated over different time periods and the corresponding results are presented.

Finally, the significance of data drop-outs and its impact on the use of parameter estimates for real-time power system applications, such as state estimation and dynamic line rating, is discussed. To address the problem (of data drop-outs), an auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is implemented. The ability of this model to predict the variations in sequence impedances is demonstrated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

151595-Thumbnail Image.png

Implementing a nuclear power plant model for avaluating [sic] load-following capability on a small grid

Description

A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) model is introduced into Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) software by General Electric in order to evaluate the load-following capability of

A pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) model is introduced into Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) software by General Electric in order to evaluate the load-following capability of NPPs. The nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) consists of a reactor core, hot and cold legs, plenums, and a U-tube steam generator. The physical systems listed above are represented by mathematical models utilizing a state variable lumped parameter approach. A steady-state control program for the reactor, and simple turbine and governor models are also developed. Adequacy of the isolated reactor core, the isolated steam generator, and the complete PWR models are tested in Matlab/Simulink and dynamic responses are compared with the test results obtained from the H. B. Robinson NPP. Test results illustrate that the developed models represents the dynamic features of real-physical systems and are capable of predicting responses due to small perturbations of external reactivity and steam valve opening. Subsequently, the NSSS representation is incorporated into PSLF and coupled with built-in excitation system and generator models. Different simulation cases are run when sudden loss of generation occurs in a small power system which includes hydroelectric and natural gas power plants besides the developed PWR NPP. The conclusion is that the NPP can respond to a disturbance in the power system without exceeding any design and safety limits if appropriate operational conditions, such as achieving the NPP turbine control by adjusting the speed of the steam valve, are met. In other words, the NPP can participate in the control of system frequency and improve the overall power system performance.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

151127-Thumbnail Image.png

Economics of residential photovoltaic and wind systems in Arizona and California

Description

Renewable energy has been a very hot topic in recent years due to the traditional energy crisis. Incentives that encourage the renewables have been established all over the world. Ordinary

Renewable energy has been a very hot topic in recent years due to the traditional energy crisis. Incentives that encourage the renewables have been established all over the world. Ordinary homeowners are also seeking ways to exploit renewable energy. In this thesis, residential PV system, wind turbine system and a hybrid wind/solar system are all investigated. The solar energy received by the PV panels varies with many factors. The most essential one is the irradiance. As the PV panel been installed towards different orientations, the incident insolation received by the panel also will be different. The differing insolation corresponds to the different angles between the irradiance and the panel throughout the day. The result shows that for PV panels in the northern hemisphere, the ones facing south obtain the highest level insolation and thus generate the most electricity. However, with the two different electricity rate plans, flat rate plan and TOU (time of use) plan, the value of electricity that PV generates is different. For wind energy, the wind speed is the most significant variable to determine the generation of a wind turbine. Unlike solar energy, wind energy is much more regionally dependent. Wind resources vary between very close locations. As expected, the result shows that, larger wind speed leads to more electricity generation and thus shorter payback period. For the PV/wind hybrid system, two real cases are analyzed for Altamont and Midhill, CA. In this part, the impact of incentives, system cost and system size are considered. With a hybrid system, homeowners may choose different size combinations between PV and wind turbines. It turns out that for these two locations, the system with larger PV output always achieve a shorter payback period due to the lower cost. Even though, for a longer term, the system with a larger wind turbine in locations with excellent wind resources may lead to higher return on investment. Meanwhile, impacts of both wind and solar incentives (mainly utility rebates) are analyzed. At last, effects of the cost of both renewables are performed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

151289-Thumbnail Image.png

Comparison of distributed parameter and multi-lump models for a pressurized water reactor core

Description

A distributed-parameter model is developed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in order to analyze the frequency behavior of the nuclear reactor. The model is built based upon the partial

A distributed-parameter model is developed for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in order to analyze the frequency behavior of the nuclear reactor. The model is built based upon the partial differential equations describing heat transfer and fluid flow in the reactor core. As a comparison, a multi-lump reactor core model with five fuel lumps and ten coolant lumps using Mann's model is employed. The derivations of the different transfer functions in both models are also presented with emphasis on the distributed parameter. In order to contrast the two models, Bode plots of the transfer functions are generated using data from the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. Further, a detailed contradistinction between these two models is presented. From the comparison, the features of both models are presented. The distributed parameter model has the ability to offer an accurate transfer function at any location throughout the reactor core. In contrast, the multi-lump parameter model can only provide the average value in a given region (lump). Also, in the distributed parameter model only the feedback according to the specific location under study is incorporated into the transfer function; whereas the transfer functions derived from the multi-lump model contain the average feedback effects happening all over the reactor core.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

154180-Thumbnail Image.png

Assessment of 69 kV underground cable thermal ratings using distributed temperature sensing

Description

Underground transmission cables in power systems are less likely to experience electrical faults, however, resulting outage times are much greater in the event that a failure does occur. Unlike overhead

Underground transmission cables in power systems are less likely to experience electrical faults, however, resulting outage times are much greater in the event that a failure does occur. Unlike overhead lines, underground cables are not self-healing from flashover events. The faulted section must be located and repaired before the line can be put back into service. Since this will often require excavation of the underground duct bank, the procedure to repair the faulted section is both costly and time consuming. These added complications are the prime motivators for developing accurate and reliable ratings for underground cable circuits.

This work will review the methods by which power ratings, or ampacity, for underground cables are determined and then evaluate those ratings by making comparison with measured data taken from an underground 69 kV cable, which is part of the Salt River Project (SRP) power subtransmission system. The process of acquiring, installing, and commissioning the temperature monitoring system is covered in detail as well. The collected data are also used to evaluate typical assumptions made when determining underground cable ratings such as cable hot-spot location and ambient temperatures.

Analysis results show that the commonly made assumption that the deepest portion of an underground power cable installation will be the hot-spot location does not always hold true. It is shown that distributed cable temperature measurements can be used to locate the proper line segment to be used for cable ampacity calculations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

151322-Thumbnail Image.png

The impact of increased penetration of photovoltaic generation on smart grids

Description

With the rapid growth of power systems and the concomitant technological advancements, the goal of achieving smart grids is no longer a vision but a foreseeable reality. Hence, the existing

With the rapid growth of power systems and the concomitant technological advancements, the goal of achieving smart grids is no longer a vision but a foreseeable reality. Hence, the existing grids are undergoing infrastructural modifications to achieve the diverse characteristics of a smart grid. While there are many subjects associated with the operation of smart grids, this dissertation addresses two important aspects of smart grids: increased penetration of renewable resources, and increased reliance on sensor systems to improve reliability and performance of critical power system components. Present renewable portfolio standards are changing both structural and performance characteristics of power systems by replacing conventional generation with alternate energy resources such as photovoltaic (PV) systems. The present study investigates the impact of increased penetration of PV systems on steady state performance as well as transient stability of a large power system which is a portion of the Western U.S. interconnection. Utility scale and residential rooftop PVs are added to replace a portion of conventional generation resources. While steady state voltages are observed under various PV penetration levels, the impact of reduced inertia on transient stability performance is also examined. The simulation results obtained effectively identify both detrimental and beneficial impacts of increased PV penetration both for steady state stability and transient stability performance. With increased penetration of the renewable energy resources, and with the current loading scenario, more transmission system components such as transformers and circuit breakers are subject to increased stress and overloading. This research work explores the feasibility of increasing system reliability by applying condition monitoring systems to selected circuit breakers and transformers. A very important feature of smart grid technology is that this philosophy decreases maintenance costs by deploying condition monitoring systems that inform the operator of impending failures; or the approach can ameliorate problematic conditions. A method to identify the most critical transformers and circuit breakers with the aid of contingency ranking methods is presented in this study. The work reported in this dissertation parallels an industry sponsored study in which a considerable level of industry input and industry reported concerns are reflected.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012