Matching Items (5)

149530-Thumbnail Image.png

Vitamin C supplementation and physical activity levels in young men

Description

Among its many roles in the body, ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor in carnitine and catecholamine synthesis, metabolites involved in fat oxidation and mood regulation, respectively. Given that

Among its many roles in the body, ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor in carnitine and catecholamine synthesis, metabolites involved in fat oxidation and mood regulation, respectively. Given that fat oxidation and mood affect one's feelings of vigor, I hypothesized that those with lower levels of plasma ascorbic acid would be less likely to exercise at high levels than individuals with adequate or high levels of vitamin C. To test this, I conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A group of healthy, non-smoking males between the ages of 18 and 40 were put on a vitamin C-restricted diet for two weeks and then randomized to a control group that received placebo capsules for six weeks or an intervention group that received 500 mg of vitamin C daily for six weeks. The men were restricted from eating foods high in vitamin C, instructed to wear a pedometer daily and to record their step counts, and to take a pill daily (either the placebo or vitamin C supplement). Unexpectedly, the subjects receiving the intervention had lower step counts than the control group; the control group, rather than the vitamin C group, significantly (p=0.017) increased their steps at week 8 compared to week 2. However, I also estimated daily Metabolic Equivalent Tasks (METs), and subjects receiving the placebo had lower MET outputs than subjects receiving vitamin C at the end of the trial, in spite of having higher step counts. This means the intensity of their activity was higher, based on METs expenditure. Additionally, depression scores (POMS-D) as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire were significantly higher (p=0.041) among subjects receiving the placebo at the end of the study. These latter results are consistent with my expectations that subjects with higher levels of plasma vitamin C would have improved mood and higher energy output than subjects with low levels of vitamin C.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

152558-Thumbnail Image.png

Effect of a Wii Fit® intervention on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in middle-aged women

Description

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on its preventative ability in non-clinical populations. The purpose was to determine the impact of 12-weeks of interactive play with the Wii Fit® on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in peri- menopausal women. METHODS: 24 peri-menopausal-women were randomized into study groups. Balance was assessed using the Berg/FICSIT-4 and a force plate. Muscular strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/180°/240°/sec and endurance was assessed using 50 repetitions at 240°/sec. Bone health was tracked using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the hip/lumbar spine and qualitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel. Serum osteocalcin was assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Physical activity was quantified using the Women's Health Initiative Physical Activity Questionnaire and dietary patterns were measured using the Nurses' Health Food Frequency Questionnaire. All measures were repeated at weeks 6 and 12, except for the DXA, which was completed pre-post. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in diet and PA between groups. Wii Fit® training did not improve scores on the Berg/FICSIT-4, but improved center of pressure on the force plate for Tandem Step, Eyes Closed (p-values: 0.001-0.051). There were no significant improvements for muscular fitness at any of the angular velocities. DXA BMD of the left femoral neck improved in the intervention group (+1.15%) and decreased in the control (-1.13%), but no other sites had significant changes. Osteocalcin indicated no differences in bone turnover between groups at baseline, but the intervention group showed increased bone turnover between weeks 6 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that WiiFit® training may improve balance by preserving center of pressure. QUS, DXA and osteocalcin data confirm that those in the intervention group were experiencing more bone turnover and bone formation than the control group. In summary, twelve weeks of strength /balance training with the Wii Fit® shows promise as a preventative intervention to reduce fall and fracture risk in non-clinical middle aged women who are at risk.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

156037-Thumbnail Image.png

Effect of a lifestyle and Type 2 diabetes-prevention intervention on biomarkers of oxidative stress in obese prediabetic Latino youth

Description

Background. Effects of lifestyle interventions on early biomarkers of oxidative stress and CVD risk in youth with prediabetes are unknown. Objective. To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention to

Background. Effects of lifestyle interventions on early biomarkers of oxidative stress and CVD risk in youth with prediabetes are unknown. Objective. To evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes among obese prediabetic Latino adolescents on oxidized lipoproteins. Design: In a quasi-experimental design, 35 adolescents (51.4% male, age 15.5(1.0) y, body mass index (BMI) percentile 98.5(1.2), and glucose 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test-OGTT 141.2(12.2) mg/dL) participated in a 12-week intervention that included weekly exercise (three 60 min-sessions) and nutrition education (one 60 min-session). Outcomes measured at baseline and post-intervention were: fasting oxidized LDL and oxidized HDL (oxLDL and oxHDL) as oxidative stress variables; dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetable (F&V) and fitness (VO2max) as behavioral variables; weight, BMI, body fat, and waist circumference as anthropometric variables; fasting glucose and insulin, 2hour glucose and insulin after an OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid panel (triglycerides, total cholesterol, VLDL-c, LDL-c, HDL-c, and Non-HDL) as cardiometabolic variables. Results. Comparing baseline to post-intervention, significant decreases in oxLDL concentration were shown (51.0(14.0) and 48.7(12.8) U/L, p=0.022); however, the intervention did not decrease oxHDL (395.2(94.6) and 416.1(98.4) ng/mL, p=0.944). F&V dietary intake (116.4(97.0) and 165.8(91.0) g/d, p=0.025) and VO2max (29.7(5.0) and 31.6(4.7) ml*kg-1*min-1, p<0.001) significantly increased. Within-subjects correlations between changes in F&V intake and oxidized lipoproteins, adjusted for VO2max changes, were non-significant (R=-0.15, p=0.52 for oxLDL; R=0.22, p=0.25 for oxHDL). Anthropometric variables were significantly reduced (weight -1.3% p=0.042; BMI -2.2% and BMI percentile -0.4%, p=0.001; body fat -6.6% and waist circumference -1.8%, p=0.025). Cardiometabolic variables significantly improved, including reductions in glucose 2hour (-19.3% p<0.001), fasting insulin (-12.9% p=0.008), insulin 2hour (-53.5% p<0.001), and HOMA-IR (-12.5% p=0.015), with 23 participants (66%) that reverted toward a normal glucose tolerance status. Most lipid panel significantly changed (triglycerides -10.2% p=0.032; total cholesterol -5.4% p=0.002; VLDL-c -10.4% p=0.029; HDL-c -3.2% p=0.022; and Non-HDL -5.5% p=0.0007). Conclusion. The intervention resulted in differential effects on oxidized lipoproteins and significant improvements in behavioral, anthropometric and cardiometabolic variables, reducing the high metabolic risk of obese prediabetic kids.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

149741-Thumbnail Image.png

The indices of bone changes in response to exercise

Description

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus can be used as indicators of bone change but the sensitivity and time course of these indices to short term interventions are unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold: to compare monthly changes in OST and QUS in response to jump training and to evaluate the relationship between DXA, OST and QUS. Young women with QUS t-scores less than 1.0 were randomized into a jump training (J) (n=16) or control (C) (n=16). J consisted of a progressive routine of 1 and 2-footed jumping performed 3 days per week for 4 months. Body composition, QUS and OST were measured at baseline, and monthly for 4 months. DXA and 24-hour dietary recalls were completed at baseline and 4 months. Low attrition rate (12.5%) and high compliance (98%) with the exercise intervention was recorded. No significant correlations between QUS and OST existed. No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline in body composition or bone variables. Monthly increases in OST were observed but there were no significant differences over time between groups in any bone variables. OST and QUS may be indicative of short term bone changes but these variables were not specifically sensitive to the jumping intervention in this population of women.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

157388-Thumbnail Image.png

Does It Work for Me? Supporting Self-Experimentation of Simple Health Behavior Interventions

Description

Many individual-level behavioral interventions improve health and well-being. However, most interventions exhibit considerable heterogeneity in response. Put differently, what might be effective on average might not be effective for specific

Many individual-level behavioral interventions improve health and well-being. However, most interventions exhibit considerable heterogeneity in response. Put differently, what might be effective on average might not be effective for specific individuals. From an individual’s perspective, many healthy behaviors exist that seem to have a positive impact. However, few existing tools support people in identifying interventions that work for them, personally.

One approach to support such personalization is via self-experimentation using single-case designs. ‘Hack Your Health’ is a tool that guides individuals through an 18-day self-experiment to test if an intervention they choose (e.g., meditation, gratitude journaling) improves their own psychological well-being (e.g., stress, happiness), whether it fits in their routine, and whether they enjoy it.

The purpose of this work was to conduct a formative evaluation of Hack Your Health to examine user burden, adherence, and to evaluate its usefulness in supporting decision-making about a health intervention. A mixed-methods approach was used, and two versions of the tool were tested via two waves of participants (Wave 1, N=20; Wave 2, N=8). Participants completed their self-experiments and provided feedback via follow-up surveys (n=26) and interviews (n=20).

Findings indicated that the tool had high usability and low burden overall. Average survey completion rate was 91%, and compliance to protocol was 72%. Overall, participants found the experience useful to test if their chosen intervention helped them. However, there were discrepancies between participants’ intuition about intervention effect and results from analyses. Participants often relied on intuition/lived experience over results for decision-making. This suggested that the usefulness of Hack Your Health in its current form might be through the structure, accountability, and means for self-reflection it provided rather than the specific experimental design/results. Additionally, situations where performing interventions within a rigorous/restrictive experimental set-up may not be appropriate (e.g., when goal is to assess intervention enjoyment) were uncovered. Plausible design implications include: longer experimental and phase durations, accounting for non-compliance, missingness, and proximal/acute effects, and exploring strategies to complement quantitative data with participants’ lived experiences with interventions to effectively support decision-making. Future work should explore ways to balance scientific rigor with participants’ needs for such decision-making.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019