Matching Items (4)

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Bi-phase Synthesis of the Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework, UiO-66

Description

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for gas separations due to their abilities to be tailored toward specific applications. Zirconium MOFs in particular are known for their high stability under standard temperature and pressure due to the strength of the Zirconium-Oxygen coordination bond. However, the acid modulator needed to ensure long range order of the product also prevents complete linker deprotonation. This leads to a powder product that cannot easily be incorporated into continuous MOF membranes. This study therefore implemented a new bi-phase synthesis technique with a deprotonating agent to achieve intergrowth in UiO-66 membranes. Crystal intergrowth will allow for effective gas separations and future permeation testing. During experimentation, successful intergrown UiO-66 membranes were synthesized and characterized. The degree of intergrowth and crystal orientations varied with changing deprotonating agent concentration, modulator concentration, and ligand:modulator ratios. Further studies will focus on achieving the same results on porous substrates.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Synthesis and Characterization of 2D Metal-organic Frameworks for Mixed-matrix Membrane Gas Separations

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Membrane-based technology for gas separations is currently at an emerging stage of advancement and adoption for environmental and industrial applications due to its substantial advantages like lower energy and operating

Membrane-based technology for gas separations is currently at an emerging stage of advancement and adoption for environmental and industrial applications due to its substantial advantages like lower energy and operating costs over the conventional gas separation technologies. Unfortunately, the available polymeric (or organic) membranes suffer a trade-off between permeance and selectivity. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) containing two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as fillers are a highly sought approach to redress this trade-off given their enhanced gas permeabilities and selectivities compared to the pure polymeric membrane. These MMMs are increasingly gaining attention by researchers due to their unique properties and wide small- and large-scale gas separation applications. However, straightforward and scalable methods for the synthesis of MOFs nanosheets have thus far been persistently elusive. This study reports the single-phase preparation, and characterization of MMMs with 2D MOFs nanosheets as fillers. The prepared MOF and the polymer matrix form the ‘dense’ MMMs which exhibit increased gas diffusion resistance, and thus improved separation abilities. The single-phase approach was more successful than the bi-phase at synthesizing the MOFs. The influence of sonication power and time on the characteristics and performance of the membranes are examined and discussed. Increasing the sonication power from 50% to 100% reduces the pore size. Additionally, the ultimate effect on the selectivity and permeance of the MMMs with different single gases is reported. Analysis of results with various gas mixers indicates further performance improvements in these MMMs could be achieved by increasing sonication time and tuning suitable membrane thicknesses. Reported results reveal that MMMs are excellent candidates for next-generation gas mixture separations, with potential applications in CO2 capture and storage, hydrogen recovery, alkene recovery from alkanes, and natural gas purification.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

Description

Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and,

Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

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Date Created
  • 2014-09-01

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Synthesis and Characterization of 2D and 3D Metal Organic Frameworks

Description

Among the alternative processes for the traditional distillation, adsorption and membrane separations are the two most promising candidates and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are the new material candidate as adsorbent or

Among the alternative processes for the traditional distillation, adsorption and membrane separations are the two most promising candidates and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are the new material candidate as adsorbent or membrane due to their high surface area, various pore sizes, and highly tunable framework functionality. This dissertation presents an investigation of the formation process of MOF membrane, framework defects, and two-dimensional (2D) MOFs, aiming to explore the answers for three critical questions: (1) how to obtain a continuous MOF membrane, (2) how defects form in MOF framework, and (3) how to obtain isolated 2D MOFs. To solve the first problem, the accumulated protons in the MOF synthesis solution is proposed to be the key factor preventing the continuous growth among Universitetet I Oslo-(UiO)-66 crystals. The hypothesis is verified by the growth reactivation under the addition of deprotonating agent. As long as the protons were sufficiently coordinated by the deprotonating agent, the continuous growth of UiO-66 is guaranteed. Moreover, the modulation effect can impact the coordination equilibrium so that an oriented growth of UiO-66 film was achieved in membrane structures. To find the answer for the second problem, the defect formation mechanism in UiO-66 was investigated and the formation of missing-cluster (MC) defects is attributed to the partially-deprotonated ligands. Experimental results show the number of MC defects is sensitive to the addition of deprotonating agent, synthesis temperature, and reactant concentration. Pore size distribution allows an accurate and convenient characterization of the defects. Results show that these defects can cause significant deviations of its pore size distribution from the perfect crystal. The study of the third questions is based on the established bi-phase synthesis method, a facile synthesis method is adopted for the production of high quality 2D MOFs in large scale. Here, pyridine is used as capping reagent to prevent the interplanar hydrogen bond formation. Meanwhile, formic acid and triethylamine as modulator and deprotonating agent to balance the anisotropic growth, crystallinity, and yield in the 2D MOF synthesis. As a result, high quality 2D zinc-terephthalic acid (ZnBDC) and copper-terephthalic acid (CuBDC) with extraordinary aspect ratio samples were successfully synthesized.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019