Matching Items (166)

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Twelve-Step Programs and Buddhism in Treating Addiction to Alcohol and Drugs

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Common treatments for substance addiction in the United States (U.S) are the twelve-step programs of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). However, there is a lack of evidence indicating

Common treatments for substance addiction in the United States (U.S) are the twelve-step programs of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). However, there is a lack of evidence indicating the effectiveness of AA and NA as substance addiction treatment methods. The U.S. is currently grappling with one of its worst-ever alcohol and drug crises, illustrating that now more than ever it is necessary to examine alternative treatment methods for substance addiction to successfully treat this type of addiction. Thus, Buddhism can be seen as both a complement to and alternative for AA and NA treatment programs for treating substance addiction. The Buddhist teachings and practices of the Four Noble Truths, The Eightfold Path, mindfulness, and meditation can be used to treat substance addiction. Although only recently utilized in the U.S. to treat substance addiction, Buddhist teachings and practices offer a nontheistic approach to recovery which research has shown to be successful in treating substance addiction in countries with established Buddhist cultures. By determining what treatment method is most successful in treating this type of addiction, the U.S. will be able to effectively reduce substance addiction rates -- which is crucial to protect the health, safety, and quality of life for all.

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  • 2019-05

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Regional Approach: The North American Free Trade Agreement

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The North American Free Trade Agreement was passed by the U.S. Congress in November 1993. The United States had decided that a regional trade approach would be more beneficial than

The North American Free Trade Agreement was passed by the U.S. Congress in November 1993. The United States had decided that a regional trade approach would be more beneficial than bilateral trade with its neighbors. This move accepted Mexico as an equal economic partner with the United States and Canada despite their economic deficiencies. The NAFTA agreement came into effect on January 1, 1994. Canada, Mexico, and the United States agreed to eliminate tariffs on roughly ninety-nine percent of internationally traded goods by the end of 2004. The agreement was also significant because the three nations took a big step in further liberalizing Foreign Direct Investment policies. NAFTA resulted in what is today a $19 trillion regional market with over 470 million consumers. The U.S. Chamber of Commerce estimates that six million U.S. jobs depend on trade with Mexico and another eight million jobs depend on trade with Canada. As seen, economic interests clearly dominated the NAFTA debate on all fronts. There still were other domestic political interests that further pushed the United States to seek regional integration with Canada and Mexico. Drugs, energy, pollution, and the threat of American jobs as a result of Mexico’s low wages were all major issues considered in the United States at the time. The issues noted above can be closely linked to the United States’ national security interests. Policy-makers and treaty negotiators constantly connected the passage of this agreement to the long-term interests of the United States. For NAFTA to have a chance in the first place, all operational concerns had to have been resolved first. The governing structure for management of the activities that fall under NAFTA’s umbrella was a huge prerequisite. Additionally, separate side agreements with Canada and Mexico had to be negotiated so that the they would offset any future problems NAFTA might create for the United States. Although a challenge, it all came together perfectly and the passage was successfully implemented. Taking everything into consideration, the United States should stray way from its’ isolationist ways and pursue a regional agreement like NAFTA for the betterment of all North Americans.

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  • 2019-05

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Black Widows on an Urban Heat Island: Understanding Physiological Responses to Global Change

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The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) controls molting in arthropods. The timing of 20E production, and subsequent developmental transitions, is regulated by a variety of factors including nutrition and photoperiod. Environmental

The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) controls molting in arthropods. The timing of 20E production, and subsequent developmental transitions, is regulated by a variety of factors including nutrition and photoperiod. Environmental factors, such as temperature, play a critical role in regulation as well. The increasing prevalence of urban heat islands (UHI), or areas with elevated temperature due to retained heat by built structures, in response to rapid urbanization has made it critical to understand how organisms respond to elevating global temperatures. Some arthropods, such as the Western black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus, appear to thrive under UHI conditions, but the physiological mechanism underlying their success has not been explored. Recently, we have shown that L. hesperus, a troublesome urban pest, in fact responds to urban heat island conditions in Phoenix, AZ with delayed development, reduced body mass, and increased mortality. Here we look at the relationship between 20E levels and development in spiderlings reared under desert (27ᵒC), intermediate (30ᵒC), and urban (33ᵒC) temperatures, filling a noticeable gap in not only understanding ecdysteroids’ role in arachnid development but how incremental changes in environmental conditions affect the regulation of this process. Developmental progression and hemolymph 20E titers were recorded for several families of spiders collected from across the urban Phoenix area with data spanning from day 55 to 75 of development, focusing on the second developmental instar. We found that 33°C, but not 30°C, led to 1) a significantly higher production of 20E throughout development, 2) a reduced and delayed molt-inducing 20E peak, and 3) noticeable reductions in growth rate and mass. At 30°C, a variable response is seen in molt timing, without the negative impacts on size and mortality as seen at 33°C, suggesting that at UHI temperatures, the optimal developmental temperature threshold has been surpassed.

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  • 2019-05

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You Gotta Eat the Lettuce: An Examination of the Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Contrast Sensitivity

Description

Lutein and zeaxanthin are two important carotenoid vitamins related to ocular health and human visual processing. These vitamins can be ingested through supplementation and in regular diet. They concentrate in

Lutein and zeaxanthin are two important carotenoid vitamins related to ocular health and human visual processing. These vitamins can be ingested through supplementation and in regular diet. They concentrate in the central retina where they form a filter of macular pigment and protect the eye from high energy blue and yellow light. We examined participants who had a natural diet of high vs low lutein and zeaxanthin intake on tests of contrast sensitivity and glare disability. We also examined participant performance while wearing blue light blocking glasses in order to determine whether these glasses serve a similar protective function as macular pigment in benefiting participants on contrast sensitivity and glare disability tasks. Most of our data did not show statistically significant differences between the high and low lutein and zeaxanthin groups. An unexpected result that the blue blocker glasses hindered the ability of low lutein participants on their glare disability test was observed. We hypothesize that this is due to light scatter produced by the by glasses resulting in an impoverish retinal image reaching the primary visual cortex. Further research is required to examine this new finding.

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  • 2019-05

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Organizational Culture: Leadership, Values, and Communication

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This work aims to provide a review of the literature on the concept of organizational culture, and apply that knowledge to four companies: Salesforce, Adobe, Facebook, and Twitter. Organizational culture

This work aims to provide a review of the literature on the concept of organizational culture, and apply that knowledge to four companies: Salesforce, Adobe, Facebook, and Twitter. Organizational culture is the shared learning any group goes through over time that guides future thoughts and behaviors. Culture can be influenced and created by leaders in specific ways, as well as by the members of the organization in how they communicate and behave with each other. The focus of this thesis is to analyze recent earnings calls for the values communicated by CEOs of the companies in question. The earnings calls were conducted by the companies, and in them, senior leaders inform shareholders and analysts on financial updates and other pertinent information about the performance of the company. Those four companies were chosen because they are popularly known to have effective and successful cultures. By understanding the foundation of organizational culture and how it might apply to such companies, people who are interested in the concept of organizational culture, and leaders in particular, may stand to learn of an aspect of business where an untapped advantage can be gained.

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  • 2019-05

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An Evidence-Based Resource for Faculty Addressing Non-Course-Specific Student Needs

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The goal of this thesis was to create a resource addressing non-course-specific (NCS) student needs that College of Integrative Sciences and Arts (CISA) faculty can provide to their students when

The goal of this thesis was to create a resource addressing non-course-specific (NCS) student needs that College of Integrative Sciences and Arts (CISA) faculty can provide to their students when appropriate. Students attend faculty office hours for a variety of reasons, and not all are academic in nature. Data was collected in order to determine which resources were lacking in addressing these needs. Student need was identified through a 13-item survey regarding faculty perception of NCS student needs, including the primary reason for office hour visitation and the primary sources of stress, academic advising, and time management complaints from their students. Additionally, feedback was collected regarding faculty perception of available resources and likelihood of utilizing a new resource. Throughout the Downtown, Tempe, and Polytechnic campuses, 24 faculty responded. It was found that work stress, familial stress, academic advising requests, and students comments of being overwhelmed were the primary NCS student needs as perceived by faculty. Additionally, the majority of faculty reported not feeling fully equipped to address these needs. This information was used to create a resource compiling a list of University and off-campus tools that students can access to address these needs. The resource combined data from faculty and from the literature to address general and specific issues of stress, academic advising, feeling ‘off,’ and recovery and was created a double-sided handout to be used electronically or for print. It is currently available for faculty use. With further research, this resource could be expanded or refined to address the needs of a larger population of students in different colleges or on different campuses. Eventually, this could be used as a University-wide tool.

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  • 2019-05

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Autism Awareness: A Focus on the Effects of Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Family

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The purpose of this paper is to bring awareness to autism to those whom may not be familiar with the disorder, or may know someone that has been diagnosed and

The purpose of this paper is to bring awareness to autism to those whom may not be familiar with the disorder, or may know someone that has been diagnosed and is looking for references. Another purpose of this paper is to identify possible effects or strains that a family can face when there is a child diagnosed with autism. Research shows that an array of stressors can be experienced by the family. Stressors include marital strain or divorce, additional stress or relational strains with siblings, the diagnosis process, as well as the subsequent therapies and treatments that will be received after the diagnosis. Research shows that mothers are especially susceptible to stress, depression, and strain from various doctor's appointments. The method used for this research was a single case study. An interview was conducted with the mother, as well as a short interview with the adult child that asks questions concerning his view of autism and how it has affected him personally. The interview did allow a view of how autism can affect the family through stress and differences in sibling and parental relationships. The interview also lends some insight into possible prognoses for children with autism. The mother discusses the positive attributes of her son also. The case study shows that there is stress on the whole family, and in their case how little personal and medical support through the process contributed to that stress.

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  • 2017-05

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The Changing Landscape of Youth Sports: An Exploration of Youth Athlete's Perceptions and Experiences of Club Sport

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Youth club sport has become a dominant part of society and the forefront of many childhoods. Youth sport participation holds various physical, psychological, and social benefits for children but as

Youth club sport has become a dominant part of society and the forefront of many childhoods. Youth sport participation holds various physical, psychological, and social benefits for children but as this industry continues to expand, when poorly managed, sport participation can become detrimental (Meân, 2013, p. 339). In this study the experiences and perceptions of female youth club volleyball players (ages 15-17) were explored through semi-structured interviews with a particular focus on key areas of concern identified in the research literature: early specialization, overuse injury, and burnout (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004, p. 4, 15-37). A thematic analysis was used to explore these a priori themes alongside emergent themes that were identified: early motivation and perception, current motivation and perception, pressure and athletic scholarships, perception of high school volleyball, and schedules. The positive perceptions arising from the themes were addressed as a foundation to improve on the negative perceptions. Recommendations to reduce the pressure and stress associated with winning are made, in addition to proposals regarding the schedule of club volleyball in an effort to provide athletes with adequate rest period in order to reduce risks of burnout and overuse injury.
Keywords: youth sport, specialization, overuse injury, burnout, club volleyball.

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  • 2018-05

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Fooled Them Again: Combating Impostor Phenomenon in First-Time Freshmyn with Self-Compassion

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Impostor Phenomenon (IP) is defined as an occurrence in individuals who have difficulty internalizing success, and live in constant fear of the "mask being unveiled," or being exposed as a

Impostor Phenomenon (IP) is defined as an occurrence in individuals who have difficulty internalizing success, and live in constant fear of the "mask being unveiled," or being exposed as a fraud (Clance, 1985). It is estimated that 70% of the population will experience at least one episode of Impostor Phenomenon in their lifetime. (Gravois, 2007) This study surveyed 120 first-time freshmyn at Arizona State University West campus to gain access to demographic information, first-year programming attendance, and their Impostor Phenomenon scores using the Clance Impostor Phenomenon Scale. After the data was analyzed, it was determined that there were no significant findings between Impostor Phenomenon scores, honors status, and generational status, nor were there statistically significant findings when compared against age, gender, and first-year programming attendance. The average score for all students surveyed ranged in the "frequent bouts" of Impostor Phenomenon, which is the third-highest level of Impostor Phenomenon. Although there are no statistical differences between the identified groups, it is important to note that the average scores are high, and that changes can be made to first-year programming to help lower the average Impostor Phenomenon scores. Teaching students self-compassion is one way to address the common symptoms of Impostor Phenomenon. In addition to background on self-compassion, this thesis offers suggestions on how self-compassion teachings could be incorporated into first-year programming to make students more comfortable and confident during their first year at Arizona State University.

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  • 2018-05

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Art as an Invitation to World-Traveling: A Psycho-Theoretical Approach to Understanding Neuro-atypicality

Description

Caring for others is hard work, it takes time, it takes emotional labor, and ultimately it is not immediately apparent how caring for others helps ourselves, so why should we

Caring for others is hard work, it takes time, it takes emotional labor, and ultimately it is not immediately apparent how caring for others helps ourselves, so why should we do it? In caring for others, we become an active participant in the world of another, and we must take this active role because we already have an emotional investment in the wellbeing of the other. We must care for others because we already care about them. This concept of caring for others is addressed in Art as an invitation to world-traveling: a psycho-analytic approach to Understanding neuro-atypicality as well as a corresponding gallery featuring the artwork analyzed within the written work. In this work the act of World-Sharing is discussed, an idea brought to us by the philosopher Maria Lugones. The idea is that we create worlds by having relationships with others. We have worlds that we live in with our family, our workplace, our circles of friends, and smaller worlds between us and those we are closest to and ourselves. We are world-travelers, evidenced by our ability to empathize with others, and through this thesis we can become able to use art as a means of world-traveling. Art has a unique way of creating a way with which we can understand the other without the use of words, as verbal language isn't the only path to world-traveling. In the first section of this work, there is an introduction. In sections two through four the philosophical importance of expressive and empathetic communication, the psychological standpoint including how neuro-atypical people are already attempting to share their world with others by utilizing therapy, and an analysis of artwork by neuro-atypical artists are discussed. Section two utilizes the concept of world-sharing brought to us by Maria Lugones, the concept of therapy as a way to care for others and develop relationships, as well as the importance of love as it related to caring by Carol Gilligan, the way that language can be used to form these relationships by Hans-Georg Gadamer, and the way that language lends itself to communication and the creation of worlds by Georges Gusdorf. In this section the importance of the social majority, or those who hold social power, to travel to the world to the minority, because the minority in order to exist in society already travels to the world of the majority is discussed. In the third section how neuro-atypical people attempt to travel to the world of the majority by utilizing therapy and at times the importance of artwork in that therapy is discussed as well as the art therapy called SEAT which utilizes viewing the patients as artists first in order to have a more dynamic and influential intervention.

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  • 2018-05