Matching Items (22)

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Aerodynamics of a Racecar Underbody

Description

Mathematical and analytical approach at the floor and diffuser of a Formula 1 vehicle and how they produce downforce. Reaches a conclusion about how engineers and aerodynamicists creates the desired effects underneath the vehicle to produce substantial downforce.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Manufacturing and Effects of Core Geometry in 3D Printed Fuel Grains

Description

The standard for hybrid fuel grains is Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). With the advances in additive manufacturing, the promise of 3D printed fuel grains has become a possibility. Yet, 3D printed

The standard for hybrid fuel grains is Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). With the advances in additive manufacturing, the promise of 3D printed fuel grains has become a possibility. Yet, 3D printed grains do not have as good of a regression rate as the casted HTPB grains. However, with 3D printing, the core of these grains can be printed to maximize surface area in contact with the oxidizer. The goal of this research is to print hybrid rocket fuel grains with various core geometries and test them on a small-scale hybrid test stand. While the hot fires are still under testing at the time of this abstract, the manufacturing posed an interesting outcome, being more time intensive than expected, contradicting the initial hypothesis of faster manufacturing. Future endeavors will continue research into the cores of the 3D printed grains, possible multi-material made grains and creating core structures for HTPB grains from 3D printed materials.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Multiscale modeling of heterogeneous material systems

Description

Damage detection in heterogeneous material systems is a complex problem and requires an in-depth understanding of the material characteristics and response under varying load and environmental conditions. A significant amount

Damage detection in heterogeneous material systems is a complex problem and requires an in-depth understanding of the material characteristics and response under varying load and environmental conditions. A significant amount of research has been conducted in this field to enhance the fidelity of damage assessment methodologies, using a wide range of sensors and detection techniques, for both metallic materials and composites. However, detecting damage at the microscale is not possible with commercially available sensors. A probable way to approach this problem is through accurate and efficient multiscale modeling techniques, which are capable of tracking damage initiation at the microscale and propagation across the length scales. The output from these models will provide an improved understanding of damage initiation; the knowledge can be used in conjunction with information from physical sensors to improve the size of detectable damage. In this research, effort has been dedicated to develop multiscale modeling approaches and associated damage criteria for the estimation of damage evolution across the relevant length scales. Important issues such as length and time scales, anisotropy and variability in material properties at the microscale, and response under mechanical and thermal loading are addressed. Two different material systems have been studied: metallic material and a novel stress-sensitive epoxy polymer.

For metallic material (Al 2024-T351), the methodology initiates at the microscale where extensive material characterization is conducted to capture the microstructural variability. A statistical volume element (SVE) model is constructed to represent the material properties. Geometric and crystallographic features including grain orientation, misorientation, size, shape, principal axis direction and aspect ratio are captured. This SVE model provides a computationally efficient alternative to traditional techniques using representative volume element (RVE) models while maintaining statistical accuracy. A physics based multiscale damage criterion is developed to simulate the fatigue crack initiation. The crack growth rate and probable directions are estimated simultaneously.

Mechanically sensitive materials that exhibit specific chemical reactions upon external loading are currently being investigated for self-sensing applications. The "smart" polymer modeled in this research consists of epoxy resin, hardener, and a stress-sensitive material called mechanophore The mechanophore activation is based on covalent bond-breaking induced by external stimuli; this feature can be used for material-level damage detections. In this work Tris-(Cinnamoyl oxymethyl)-Ethane (TCE) is used as the cyclobutane-based mechanophore (stress-sensitive) material in the polymer matrix. The TCE embedded polymers have shown promising results in early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence. A spring-bead based network model, which bridges nanoscale information to higher length scales, has been developed to model this material system. The material is partitioned into discrete mass beads which are linked using linear springs at the microscale. A series of MD simulations were performed to define the spring stiffness in the statistical network model. By integrating multiple spring-bead models a network model has been developed to represent the material properties at the mesoscale. The model captures the statistical distribution of crosslinking degree of the polymer to represent the heterogeneous material properties at the microscale. The developed multiscale methodology is computationally efficient and provides a possible means to bridge multiple length scales (from 10 nm in MD simulation to 10 mm in FE model) without significant loss of accuracy. Parametric studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the crosslinking degree on the material behavior. The developed methodology has been used to evaluate damage evolution in the self-sensing polymer.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Multiscale analysis of nanocomposites and their use in structural level applications

Description

This research focuses on the benefits of using nanocomposites in aerospace structural components to prevent or delay the onset of unique composite failure modes, such as delamination. Analytical, numerical, and

This research focuses on the benefits of using nanocomposites in aerospace structural components to prevent or delay the onset of unique composite failure modes, such as delamination. Analytical, numerical, and experimental analyses were conducted to provide a comprehensive understanding of how carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can provide additional structural integrity when they are used in specific hot spots within a structure. A multiscale approach was implemented to determine the mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites, which were used in detailed finite element models (FEMs) to analyze interlaminar failures in T and Hat section stringers. The delamination that first occurs between the tow filler and the bondline between the stringer and skin was of particular interest. Both locations are considered to be hot spots in such structural components, and failures tend to initiate from these areas. In this research, nanocomposite use was investigated as an alternative to traditional methods of suppressing delamination. The stringer was analyzed under different loading conditions and assuming different structural defects. Initial damage, defined as the first drop in the load displacement curve was considered to be a useful variable to compare the different behaviors in this study and was detected via the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) implemented in the FE analysis.

Experiments were conducted to test T section skin/stringer specimens under pull-off loading, replicating those used in composite panels as stiffeners. Two types of designs were considered: one using pure epoxy to fill the tow region and another that used nanocomposite with 5 wt. % CNTs. The response variable in the tests was the initial damage. Detailed analyses were conducted using FEMs to correlate with the experimental data. The correlation between both the experiment and model was satisfactory. Finally, the effects of thermal cure and temperature variation on nanocomposite structure behavior were studied, and both variables were determined to influence the nanocomposite structure performance.

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Date Created
  • 2014

Hydrodynamic study of a suction stabilized float (SSF)

Description

In this work, the hydrodynamics of Suction Stabilization is studied. Suction stabilization was found to stabilize floating platforms/floats in a much better way as compared to the conventional methods.

In this work, the hydrodynamics of Suction Stabilization is studied. Suction stabilization was found to stabilize floating platforms/floats in a much better way as compared to the conventional methods. This was achieved by an effective increment in the metacentric height due to the Inverse Slack Tank (IST) effect. The study involves the analysis of the existing designs and optimizing its performance. This research investigates the stability of such floats and the hydrodynamic forces acting on the same for offshore applications, such as wind turbines. A simple mathematical model for the condition of parametric resonance is developed and the results are verified, both analytically and experimentally.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Feature and statistical model development in structural health monitoring

Description

All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects.

All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development.

The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally.

Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering.

The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network, are trained and utilized to interpret nonlinear far-field wave patterns.

Next, a novel bridge scour estimation approach that comprises advantages of both empirical and data-driven models is developed. Two field datasets from the literature are used, and a Support Vector Machine (SVM), a machine-learning algorithm, is used to fuse the field data samples and classify the data with physical phenomena. The Fast Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is evaluated on the model performance objective functions to search for Pareto optimal fronts.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Physics-Based Modeling of Material Behavior and Damage Initiation in Nanoengineered Composites

Description

Materials with unprecedented properties are necessary to make dramatic changes in current and future aerospace platforms. Hybrid materials and composites are increasingly being used in aircraft and spacecraft frames; however,

Materials with unprecedented properties are necessary to make dramatic changes in current and future aerospace platforms. Hybrid materials and composites are increasingly being used in aircraft and spacecraft frames; however, future platforms will require an optimal design of novel materials that enable operation in a variety of environments and produce known/predicted damage mechanisms. Nanocomposites and nanoengineered composites with CNTs have the potential to make significant improvements in strength, stiffness, fracture toughness, flame retardancy and resistance to corrosion. Therefore, these materials have generated tremendous scientific and technical interest over the past decade and various architectures are being explored for applications to light-weight airframe structures. However, the success of such materials with significantly improved performance metrics requires careful control of the parameters during synthesis and processing. Their implementation is also limited due to the lack of complete understanding of the effects the nanoparticles impart to the bulk properties of composites. It is common for computational methods to be applied to explain phenomena measured or observed experimentally. Frequently, a given phenomenon or material property is only considered to be fully understood when the associated physics has been identified through accompanying calculations or simulations.

The computationally and experimentally integrated research presented in this dissertation provides improved understanding of the mechanical behavior and response including damage and failure in CNT nanocomposites, enhancing confidence in their applications. The computations at the atomistic level helps to understand the underlying mechanochemistry and allow a systematic investigation of the complex CNT architectures and the material performance across a wide range of parameters. Simulation of the bond breakage phenomena and development of the interface to continuum scale damage captures the effects of applied loading and damage precursor and provides insight into the safety of nanoengineered composites under service loads. The validated modeling methodology is expected to be a step in the direction of computationally-assisted design and certification of novel materials, thus liberating the pace of their implementation in future applications.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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A new atomistic simulation framework for mechanochemical reaction analysis of mechanophore embedded nanocomposites

Description

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order

A hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulation framework is developed to emulate mechanochemical reaction of mechanophores in epoxy-based nanocomposites. Two different force fields, a classical force field and a bond order based force field are hybridized to mimic the experimental processes from specimen preparation to mechanical loading test. Ultra-violet photodimerization for mechanophore synthesis and epoxy curing for thermoset polymer generation are successfully simulated by developing a numerical covalent bond generation method using the classical force field within the framework. Mechanical loading tests to activate mechanophores are also virtually conducted by deforming the volume of a simulation unit cell. The unit cell deformation leads to covalent bond elongation and subsequent bond breakage, which is captured using the bond order based force field. The outcome of the virtual loading test is used for local work analysis, which enables a quantitative study of mechanophore activation. Through the local work analysis, the onset and evolution of mechanophore activation indicating damage initiation and propagation are estimated; ultimately, the mechanophore sensitivity to external stress is evaluated. The virtual loading tests also provide accurate estimations of mechanical properties such as elastic, shear, bulk modulus, yield strain/strength, and Poisson’s ratio of the system. Experimental studies are performed in conjunction with the simulation work to validate the hybrid MD simulation framework. Less than 2% error in estimations of glass transition temperature (Tg) is observed with experimentally measured Tgs by use of differential scanning calorimetry. Virtual loading tests successfully reproduce the stress-strain curve capturing the effect of mechanophore inclusion on mechanical properties of epoxy polymer; comparable changes in Young’s modulus and yield strength are observed in experiments and simulations. Early damage signal detection, which is identified in experiments by observing increased intensity before the yield strain, is captured in simulations by showing that the critical strain representing the onset of the mechanophore activation occurs before the estimated yield strain. It is anticipated that the experimentally validated hybrid MD framework presented in this dissertation will provide a low-cost alternative to additional experiments that are required for optimizing material design parameters to improve damage sensing capability and mechanical properties.

In addition to the study of mechanochemical reaction analysis, an atomistic model of interphase in carbon fiber reinforced composites is developed. Physical entanglement between semi-crystalline carbon fiber surface and polymer matrix is captured by introducing voids in multiple graphene layers, which allow polymer matrix to intertwine with graphene layers. The hybrid MD framework is used with some modifications to estimate interphase properties that include the effect of the physical entanglement. The results are compared with existing carbon fiber surface models that assume that carbon fiber has a crystalline structure and hence are unable to capture the physical entanglement. Results indicate that the current model shows larger stress gradients across the material interphase. These large stress gradients increase the viscoplasticity and damage effects at the interphase. The results are important for improved prediction of the nonlinear response and damage evolution in composite materials.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Performance analysis of solar assisted domestic hot water system

Description

Testing was conducted for a solar assisted water heater and conventional all electric water heater for the purpose of investigating the advantages of utilizing solar energy to heat up water.

Testing was conducted for a solar assisted water heater and conventional all electric water heater for the purpose of investigating the advantages of utilizing solar energy to heat up water. The testing conducted simulated a four person household living in the Phoenix, Arizona region. With sensors and a weather station, data was gathered and analyzed for the water heaters. Performance patterns were observed that correlated to ambient conditions and functionality of the solar assisted water heater. This helped better understand how the solar water heater functioned and how it may continue to function. The testing for the solar assisted water heater was replicated with the all-electric water heater. One to one analyzes was conducted for comparison. The efficiency and advantages were displayed by the solar assisted water heater having a 61% efficiency. Performance parameters were calculated for the solar assisted water heater and it showed how accurate certified standards are. The results showed 8% difference in performance, but differed in energy savings. This further displayed the effects of uncontrollable ambient conditions and the effects of different testing conditions.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Stochastic multiscale modeling and statistical characterization of complex polymer matrix composites

Description

There are many applications for polymer matrix composite materials in a variety of different industries, but designing and modeling with these materials remains a challenge due to the intricate architecture

There are many applications for polymer matrix composite materials in a variety of different industries, but designing and modeling with these materials remains a challenge due to the intricate architecture and damage modes. Multiscale modeling techniques of composite structures subjected to complex loadings are needed in order to address the scale-dependent behavior and failure. The rate dependency and nonlinearity of polymer matrix composite materials further complicates the modeling. Additionally, variability in the material constituents plays an important role in the material behavior and damage. The systematic consideration of uncertainties is as important as having the appropriate structural model, especially during model validation where the total error between physical observation and model prediction must be characterized. It is necessary to quantify the effects of uncertainties at every length scale in order to fully understand their impact on the structural response. Material variability may include variations in fiber volume fraction, fiber dimensions, fiber waviness, pure resin pockets, and void distributions. Therefore, a stochastic modeling framework with scale dependent constitutive laws and an appropriate failure theory is required to simulate the behavior and failure of polymer matrix composite structures subjected to complex loadings. Additionally, the variations in environmental conditions for aerospace applications and the effect of these conditions on the polymer matrix composite material need to be considered. The research presented in this dissertation provides the framework for stochastic multiscale modeling of composites and the characterization data needed to determine the effect of different environmental conditions on the material properties. The developed models extend sectional micromechanics techniques by incorporating 3D progressive damage theories and multiscale failure criteria. The mechanical testing of composites under various environmental conditions demonstrates the degrading effect these conditions have on the elastic and failure properties of the material. The methodologies presented in this research represent substantial progress toward understanding the failure and effect of variability for complex polymer matrix composites.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016