Matching Items (98)

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Relationship between Ambient Temperature and Mental Health in the USA

Description

Climatic variables such as temperature have been shown to correlate with demand for mental health services in other countries. An attempt by the present study to replicate this correlation using

Climatic variables such as temperature have been shown to correlate with demand for mental health services in other countries. An attempt by the present study to replicate this correlation using existing USA treatment data on mental health was not substantiated. Using annual state-level data from 2007 through 2015, the rate of mental health service utilization per 1000 population was correlated with average temperature and precipitation, while adjusting for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, and urbanization. No statistically significant correlation was found.

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Date Created
  • 2017-10-08

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The Water Loss and Solar Panel Operating Condition Effects of Using Solar Photovoltaic Panels to Shade a Body of Water

Description

Ensuring that people across the globe have enough water and electricity are two large issues that continue to grow. This study performs a test on whether using solar photovoltaic

Ensuring that people across the globe have enough water and electricity are two large issues that continue to grow. This study performs a test on whether using solar photovoltaic modules to shade water can potentially help diminish the issues of water and power. Using the setup of a PV module shading water, a stand-alone PV module, and unshaded water, it was found that shading water can reduce evaporation and lower PV module operating temperature at the same time. Using averaged data from two days of testing, the volume per unit surface area of water that evaporated per hour was 0.319 cm3/cm2 less for the shaded water compared to the unshaded water. The evaporation rates found in the experiment are compared to those of Lake Mead to see the amount of water lost on a large scale. For the operating temperature of the PV module, the module used for shading had a consistently lower temperature than the stand-alone module. On the first day, the shading module had an average temperature 5.1 C lower than the stand-alone module average temperature. On day two, the shading module had an average temperature 3.4 C lower than the stand-alone module average temperature. Using average temperatures between the two days from 10:30am and 4:45pm, the average daily temperature of the panel used for shading was 4.5C less than the temperature of the stand-alone panel. These results prove water shading by solar PV modules to be effective in reducing evaporation and lowering module operating temperature. Last, suggestions for future studies are discussed, such as performance analysis of the PV modules in this setting, economic analysis of using PV modules as shading, and the isolation of the different factors of evaporation (temperature, wind speed, and humidity).

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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E-bike Retrofitting Kit

Description

The goal of this honors thesis creative project was to design, manufacture and test a retrofitted E-bike kit that met certain stated design objections. To design a successful E-bike kit,

The goal of this honors thesis creative project was to design, manufacture and test a retrofitted E-bike kit that met certain stated design objections. To design a successful E-bike kit, the needs of the customer were researched and turned into measurable engineering requirements. For the biker, these requirements are speed, range, cost and simplicity. The approach is outlined similarly to the capstone program here at ASU. There is an introduction in sections 1 and 2 which gives the motivation and an overview of the project done. In section 3, the voice of the customer is discussed and converted into requirements. In sections 4, 5,6,7 and 8 the design process is described. Section 4 is the conceptual design where multiple concepts are narrowed down to one design. Section 5 is the preliminary design, where the design parts are specified and optimized to fit requirements. Section 6 is fabrication and assembly which gives details into how the product was manufactured and built. Sections 7 and 8 are the testing and validation sections where tests were carried out to verify that the requirements were met. Sections 9 and 10 were part of the conclusion in which recommendations and the project conclusions are depicted. In general, I produced a successful prototype. Each phase of the design came with its own issues and solutions but in the end a functioning bike was delivered. There were a few design options considered before selecting the final design. The rear-drive friction design was selected based on its price, simplicity and performance. The design was optimized in the preliminary design phase and items were purchased. The purchased items were either placed on the bike directly or had to be manufactured in some way. Once the assembly was completed, testing and validation took place to verify that the design met the requirements. Unfortunately, the prototype did not meet all the requirements. The E-bike had a maximum speed of 14.86 mph and a range of 12.75 miles which were below the performance requirements of 15 mph and 15 miles. The cost was $41.67 over the goal of $300 although the total costs remained under budget. At the end of the project, I delivered a functioning E-bike retrofitting kit on the day of the defense. While it did not meet the requirements fully, there was much room for improvement and optimization within the design.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Electrode Surface Area Roughness Effect on Power Output of Thermogalvanic Cells

Description

This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of altering electrode surface area roughness on thermogalvanic cell performance. A temperature difference between two electrodes was induced and brought to

This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of altering electrode surface area roughness on thermogalvanic cell performance. A temperature difference between two electrodes was induced and brought to steady state to achieve a difference of around 50 °C, which was maintained with a DC power generated hot wire and a pumped ice bath. The open-circuit voltage values at steady-state were measured by a programed multimeter and the temperatures were measured by a series of type K thermocouples. Electrode surface area roughness was altered using different grit values of sandpaper and measuring the values using a Zescope Optical Profilometer. Once three different surface area average values were achieved, 6 trials were performed with 2 trials per roughness value. The results were tabulated in Section 4 of this report.
It was predicted that increasing the surface area roughness would increase the number of electrons present in the reduction oxidation reaction and decrease the activation resistance of the thermogalvanic system. Decreasing the activation resistance, a component of total internal resistance, would therefore increase the power output of the cell by a small magnitude. The results showed that changing the surface area roughness of the Copper electrodes evidently had no effect on the outputs of the cell system. Additionally, the Seebeck coefficient was also unaffected by the presence of increased surface area roughness.
The work presented in the following paper is part of a continuing effort to better understand the performance of thermogalvanic cells and their heat to electrical energy transfer properties.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Silver Recovery from Silver Fluoride Solution for Solar Module Recycling

Description

As Energy needs grow and photovoltaics expand to meet humanity’s demand for electricity, waste modules will start building up. Tao et. al. propose a recycling process to recover all precious

As Energy needs grow and photovoltaics expand to meet humanity’s demand for electricity, waste modules will start building up. Tao et. al. propose a recycling process to recover all precious solar cell materials, a process estimated to generate a potential $15 billion in revenue by 2050. A key part of this process is metal recovery, and specifically, silver recovery. Silver recovery via electrowinning was studied using a hydrofluoric acid leachate/electrolyte. Bulk electrolysis trials were performed at varied voltages using a silver working electrode, silver pseudo-reference electrode and a graphite counter-electrode. The highest mass recovery achieved was 98.8% which occurred at 0.65 volts. Product purity was below 90% for all trials and coulombic efficiency never reached above 20%. The average energy consumption per gram of reduced silver was 2.16kWh/kg. Bulk electrolysis indicates that parasitic reactions are drawing power from the potentiostat and limiting the mass recovery of the system. In order to develop this process to the practical use stage, parasitic reactions must be eliminated, and product purity and power efficiency must improve. The system should be run in a vacuum environment and the reduction peaks in the cell should be characterized using cyclic voltammetry.

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Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Copper Slag Concrete

Description

In this investigation, copper slag was used as a coarse aggregate in four different mixes of concrete, consisting of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% copper slag by volume. Locally available

In this investigation, copper slag was used as a coarse aggregate in four different mixes of concrete, consisting of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% copper slag by volume. Locally available Salt river aggregate was used as a control, and mixes were tested for density, strength, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity. Density was shown to increase with increasing copper slag content, increasing an average of 2298 kg/m^3, 2522 kg/m^3, and 2652 kg/m^3 in the 25%, 50%, and 100% mixes. This represents a 15% increase in density from 0% to 100%. Compressive strength testing indicated that the presence of copper slag in concrete provides no definitive strength benefit over Salt River aggregate. This result was expected, as concrete's strength is primarily derived from the cement matrix and not the aggregate. Thermal conductivity showed a decreasing trend with increasing copper slag content. Th control mix had an average conductivity of 0.660 W/m*K, and the 25%, 50%, and 100% mixes had conductivities of 0.649 W/m*K, 0.647 W/m*K, and 0.519 W/m*K, respectively. This represents 21% drop in thermal conductivity over the control. This result was also expected, as materials formed at higher temperatures, like copper slag, tend to have lower thermal conductivities. Specific heat capacity testing yielded results that were statistically indeterminate, though unlike strength testing this arose from inaccurate assumptions made during testing. This also prevented accurate thermal diffusivity results, as diffusivity is a function of density, thermal conductivity, and specific heat capacity. However, given the trends of the first two parameters, it is plausible to say that diffusivity in copper slag concrete would be lower than that of the control ix. All of these results were plugged into ASU's Pavement Temperature Model to see what effect they had in mitigating the UHI effect.

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Date Created
  • 2012-05

Energy Efficiency, Sustainability, and Minimalism of Van Homes with Digital Build Guide

Description

Every year hundreds of people are trading in their cubicle to experience the freedom of an open road in a van home. The van life movement is growing rapidly as

Every year hundreds of people are trading in their cubicle to experience the freedom of an open road in a van home. The van life movement is growing rapidly as people seek more sustainable, adventurous, and financially effective ways of life. Many van lifers pursue the luxury of time over the luxury of money. Others fund their journey by working remote jobs from the comfort of their van home while parked next to their favorite waterfall. These camper vans are unique in their minimalist, interior designs as well as their energy efficient systems. This project encompassed the design of an off-grid camper van while following set guidelines of only using clean energy sources for power and including low weight items within the van. My design is showcased with a SolidWorks model and is equipped with a solar panel awning, a rainwater collection system, and a full bathroom with a solar shower. The design includes a general wiring diagram and recommendations for all materials and features to incorporate in the build. In addition, a downloadable bill of materials and website were created to show how this nomadic lifestyle can be achieved by those eager to travel and meet new people. As I begin my own van build and embark on my journey, this website will be updated to share my findings and connect with the larger community currently involved in their own venture or curious about starting their own build. The greatest moments in life will be outside your comfort zone so choose to take that step and embrace the experience.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Solar Power and Controllable Light Transmission for Greenhouses

Description

Increasing reliable produce farming and clean energy generation in the southwestern United States will be important for increasing the food supply for a growing population and reducing reliance on fossil

Increasing reliable produce farming and clean energy generation in the southwestern United States will be important for increasing the food supply for a growing population and reducing reliance on fossil fuels to generate energy. Combining greenhouses with photovoltaic (PV) films can allow both food and electric power to be produced simultaneously. This study tests if the combination of semi-transparent PV films and a transmission control layer can generate energy and spectrally control the transmission of light into a greenhouse. Testing the layer combinations in a variety of real-world conditions, it was shown that light can be spectrally controlled in a greenhouse. The transmission was overall able to be controlled by an average of 11.8% across the spectrum of sunlight, with each semi-transparent PV film able to spectrally select transmission of light in both the visible and near-infrared light wavelength. The combination of layers was also able to generate energy at an average efficiency of 8.71% across all panels and testing conditions. The most efficient PV film was the blue dyed, at 9.12%. This study also suggests additional improvements for this project, including the removal of the red PV film due to inefficiencies in spectral selection and additional tests with new materials to optimize plant growth and energy generation in a variety of light conditions.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Heat Transport System Design

Description

Part of the AORA and LightWorks collaboration in utilizing exhaust heat for the AORA Tulip is the purpose to design a heat transport system that meets system requirements. The

Part of the AORA and LightWorks collaboration in utilizing exhaust heat for the AORA Tulip is the purpose to design a heat transport system that meets system requirements. The investigation included research in potential fluids, equipment, costs, and conducting an analysis to determine favorably fluids. The operating range of the system is 100℃ to 200℃ from the 270℃ exhaust heat 30 meters high. The best, affordable heat transfer fluids (HTF) for this operating temperature range are: XCELTHERM CA, XCELTHERM 600, XCELTHERM 315, Therminol 55, Paratherm NF, Water, Dynalene PG-XT, and Dynalene HC-20. These fluids consist of synthetic oils, mineral oils, propylene glycol, potassium formate/water-based, and water. The ideal operating temperature and HTF depends on the location, accessibility to these fluids, and load application for the heat transport system design. Furthermore, the cost of electricity in the area is a factor for whether the system should use a variable speed drive on the pump. Water is the ideal heat transfer fluid if the operating temperature doesn’t exceed 170℃ and can be readily maintained to avoid corrosion. It has the lowest initial cost and most favorable heat transfer characteristics. The potassium formate/water-based Dynalene HC is the next best choice if the operating temperature doesn’t exceed 210℃. It has similar heat transfer characteristics, but costs more. Lastly, if the operating temperature range exceeds 210℃, then XCELTHERM 600 (white oil) is likely the best HTF to use. It has an operating range up to 315℃, has favorable characteristics, the most affordable oil price, is food contact rated, and has one of the longest life of any fluid of its type.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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LCOE Analyis of Solar Panel Recycling Methods

Description

Solar panels need to be both cost effective and environmentally friendly to compete with traditional energy forms. Photovoltaic recycling has the potential to mitigate the harm of waste, which is

Solar panels need to be both cost effective and environmentally friendly to compete with traditional energy forms. Photovoltaic recycling has the potential to mitigate the harm of waste, which is often landfilled, while putting material back into the manufacturing process. Out of many, three methods show much promise: Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP), mechanical, and sintering-based recycling. FRELP recycling has quickly gained prominence in Europe and promises to fully recover the components in a solar cell. The mechanical method has produced high yields of valuable materials using basic and inexpensive processes. The sintering method has the potential to tap into a large market for feldspar. Using a levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) analysis, the three methods could be compared on an economic basis. This showed that the mechanical method is least expensive, and the sintering method is the most expensive. Using this model, all recycling methods are less cost effective than the control analysis without recycling. Sensitivity analyses were then done on the effect of the discount rate, capacity factor, and lifespan on the LCOE. These results showed that the change in capacity factor had the most significant effect on the levelized cost of electricity. A final sensitivity analysis was done based on the decreased installation and balance of systems costs in 2025. With a 55% decrease in these costs, the LCOE decreased by close to $0.03/kWh for each method. Based on these results, the cost of each recycling method would be a more considerable proportion of the overall LCOE of the solar farm.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05