Matching Items (113)

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Classification Bias in Commercial Business Lists for Retail Food Stores in the U.S.

Description

Background: Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their

Background: Aspects of the food environment such as the availability of different types of food stores have recently emerged as key modifiable factors that may contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity. Given that many of these studies have derived their results based on secondary datasets and the relationship of food stores with individual weight outcomes has been reported to vary by store type, it is important to understand the extent to which often-used secondary data correctly classify food stores. We evaluated the classification bias of food stores in Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) and InfoUSA commercial business lists.

Methods: We performed a full census in 274 randomly selected census tracts in the Chicago metropolitan area and collected detailed store attributes inside stores for classification. Store attributes were compared by classification match status and store type. Systematic classification bias by census tract characteristics was assessed in multivariate regression.

Results: D&B had a higher classification match rate than InfoUSA for supermarkets and grocery stores, while InfoUSA was higher for convenience stores. Both lists were more likely to correctly classify large supermarkets, grocery stores, and convenience stores with more cash registers and different types of service counters (supermarkets and grocery stores only). The likelihood of a correct classification match for supermarkets and grocery stores did not vary systemically by tract characteristics whereas convenience stores were more likely to be misclassified in predominately Black tracts.

Conclusion: Researches can rely on classification of food stores in commercial datasets for supermarkets and grocery stores whereas classifications for convenience and specialty food stores are subject to some systematic bias by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition.

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Date Created
2012-04-18

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A Biobehavioral Model of Weight Loss Associated With Meditative Movement Practice Among Breast Cancer Survivors

Description

Women with breast cancer often experience weight gain during and after treatment, significantly increasing risk for recurrence as well as all-cause mortality. Based on a growing body of evidence, meditative movement practices may be effective for weight management. First, we

Women with breast cancer often experience weight gain during and after treatment, significantly increasing risk for recurrence as well as all-cause mortality. Based on a growing body of evidence, meditative movement practices may be effective for weight management. First, we describe the effects of stress on factors associated with weight gain for breast cancer survivors. Then, a model is proposed that utilizes existing evidence to suggest how meditative movement supports behavioral, psychological, and neurohormonal changes that may explain weight loss. Application of the model suggests how a novel “mindful-body-wisdom” approach may work to help reduce weight for this at-risk group.

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Date Created
2014-12-24

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The Effects of a Medication Therapy Management Program on Quality of Life in Hispanic Patients with Diabetes

Description

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an existing medication management program in Hispanic individuals with diabetes, focusing on overall management and perceived quality of life (QOL). Diseases such as diabetes affect an individual's physical health,

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of an existing medication management program in Hispanic individuals with diabetes, focusing on overall management and perceived quality of life (QOL). Diseases such as diabetes affect an individual's physical health, mental health, and social life. The degree to which these diseases affect an individual's life depend on how well they control and self-manage care needs. It has been found that Hispanic patients report and demonstrate inadequacy with controlling their diabetes compared to other ethnicities, making this an important public health topic (Schneiderman eta al., 2014). One of the greatest issues the Hispanic population reports as causing most concern is medication management and compliance. Poor medication adherence can increase complications of diabetes and depression, thus increasing poor overall health status and perception. Medication therapy management (MTM) programs run by clinical pharmacists are available to help with medication adherence, aiding in developing a tailored plan to help individuals manage the disease. This study is a cross-sectional study which assess reported QOL and functionality of diabetics enrolled in an MTM program. Participants were recruited from a clinic in Phoenix, Az. Patients completed a questionnaire that included demographics, a QOL questionnaire and a health belief questionnaire. A total of sixteen participants completed the study. The association between time in the medication therapy management program and its effect on general health, social functioning, emotional well-being, and hemoglobin A1C were reviewed. Though no significance was found, means were similar in all groups indicating functionality and A1C control through the diabetes support program may exist.

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2016-05

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A Case Study of the Transferability of the EPODE Model for Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs

Description

The purpose of this research was to analyze the EPODE Model for the development community-based interventions against childhood obesity and its transferability on a global scale. The Ensemble, Prevenons L'Obesite des Enfant (EPODE: Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) Model was

The purpose of this research was to analyze the EPODE Model for the development community-based interventions against childhood obesity and its transferability on a global scale. The Ensemble, Prevenons L'Obesite des Enfant (EPODE: Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) Model was developed in France following the successful results of a community-based intervention there. The Model is illustrated by four pillars that are essential to program implementation and positive results. These pillars are: political support, research & evaluation, social marketing principles and public/private partnerships. Using these four pillars, the model has been transferred to diverse countries around the globe and has shown results in these diverse locations. In order to understand what makes this model so transferrable to so many diverse locations, this researcher traveled to the Netherlands, Belgium and France visiting program locations and interviewing professionals who have been involved in the development of the model, its modification and implementation. These interviews addressed specific modifications to the model that were made for implementation in the Netherlands and Belgium. This paper outlines the key transferrable components of this model and outlines a proposed model to be used in the United States.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Grocery Store Promotion of Fruits and Vegetables: Are there Disparities by Neighborhood Demographics?

Description

Introduction: In-store promotion of food products leads to more frequent purchases. Product promotion can vary by store characteristics. We compared marketing strategies used by grocery stores to promote fruit and vegetables (FV) in neighborhoods with varying socio-economic and racial/ethnic characteristics.<br/><br/>Methods:

Introduction: In-store promotion of food products leads to more frequent purchases. Product promotion can vary by store characteristics. We compared marketing strategies used by grocery stores to promote fruit and vegetables (FV) in neighborhoods with varying socio-economic and racial/ethnic characteristics.<br/><br/>Methods: Data was collected from a random sample of 12 large grocery stores from the same national chain located within a 15-mile radius of Downtown Phoenix. Store zip-code level median household income was used to classify stores as located in lower (<$50,000) or higher (>$50,000) income areas. Stores located in neighborhoods with more than 50% Hispanic population were classified as majority Hispanic serving. The ProPromo tool was adapted to document the presence and promotion of FV at 8 distinct locations throughout each store. Types of promotion strategies documented included displays, price promotions, size, or themes.<br/><br/>Results: FV were present at the entrance, islands, checkouts, and produce section; while fruits were promoted in all of these locations, vegetables were promotion in fewer locations. All stores used size and price promotion to promote FV; display was used to promote vegetables in 2 stores and fruits in all stores. On average stores promoted 32 fruits and 38 vegetables. Stores serving higher and lower income areas promoted similar numbers of FV. However, stores in Hispanic majority neighborhoods promoted fewer FV (66) in comparison to those in Hispanic minority areas (73).<br/><br/>Conclusion: Fruit and vegetable promotion disparity associated with neighborhood demographics may contribute to disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption.

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Date Created
2021-05

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The relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress in parents living in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona.

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature by examining differences in "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating behaviors, foods available in the home, how time and low energy impact meal preparation, and the level of stress between food security groups. Methods Parents, 18 years or older, were recruited during two pre-scheduled health fairs, from English as a second language classes, or from the Women, Infants, and Children's clinic at a local community center, Golden Gate Community Center, in Phoenix, Arizona. An interview, electronic, or paper survey were offered in either Spanish or English to collect data on the variables described above. In addition to the survey, height and weight were collected for all participants to determine BMI and weight status. One hundred and sixty participants were recruited. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for weight status, education, race/ethnicity, income level, and years residing in the U.S., were used to assess the relationship between food security status and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress. Results Results concluded that food insecurity was more prevalent among parents reporting lower income levels compared to higher income levels (p=0.017). In adjusted models, higher perceived cost of fruits (p=0.004) and higher perceived level of stress (p=0.001) were associated with food insecurity. Given that the sample population was predominately women, a post-hoc analysis was completed on women only. In addition to the two significant results noted in the adjusted analyses, the women-only analysis revealed that food insecure mothers reported lower amounts of vegetables served with meals (p=0.019) and higher use of fast-food when tired or running late (p=0.043), compared to food secure mothers. Conclusion Additional studies are needed to further assess differences in stress levels between food insecure parents and food insecure parents, with special consideration for directionality and its relationship to weight status.

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Date Created
2014

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Arizona foodshed: estimating capacity to meet fresh fruit and vegetable consumption needs of the Arizona population

Description

Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption continues to lag far behind US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations. Interventions targeting individuals' dietary behaviors address only a small fraction of dietary influences. Changing the food environment by increasing availability of and excitement for

Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption continues to lag far behind US Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations. Interventions targeting individuals' dietary behaviors address only a small fraction of dietary influences. Changing the food environment by increasing availability of and excitement for FV through local food production has shown promise as a method for enhancing intake. However, the extent to which local production is sufficient to meet recommended FV intakes, or actual intakes, of specific populations remains largely unconsidered. This study was the first of its kind to evaluate the capacity to support FV intake of Arizona's population with statewide production of FV. We created a model to evaluate what percentage of Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommendations, as well as actual consumption, state-level FV production could meet in a given year. Intake and production figures were amended to include estimates of only fresh, non-tropical FV. Production was then estimated by month and season to illustrate fluctuations in availability of FV. Based on our algorithm, Arizona production met 184.5% of aggregate fresh vegetable recommendations, as well as 351.9% of estimated intakes of Arizonans, but met only 29.7% of recommended and 47.8% of estimated intake of fresh, non-tropical fruit. Much of the excess vegetable production can be attributed to the dark-green vegetable sub-group category, which could meet 3204.6% and 3160% of Arizonans' aggregated recommendations and estimated intakes, respectively. Only minimal seasonal variations in the total fruit and total vegetable categories were found, but production of the five vegetable sub-groups varied between the warm and cool seasons by 19-98%. For example, in the starchy vegetable group, cool season (October to March) production met only 3.6% of recommendations, but warm season (April to November) production supplied 196.5% of recommendations. Results indicate that Arizona agricultural production has the capacity to meet a large proportion of the population's FV needs throughout much of the year, while at the same time remaining a major producer of dark-green vegetables for out-of-state markets.

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Date Created
2013

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Factors associated with the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status: the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study

Description

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status compared to parent-measured body weight status. Methods: Data were collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households located in five low-income New Jersey cities with large minority populations. A subset of 548 children whose parents completed the survey and returned a worksheet of parent-measured heights and weights were the focus of the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors significantly associated with parental perception of their child's body weight status. Results: Based on parent-measure heights and weights, 36% of the children were overweight or obese (OWOB). Only 21% of OWOB children were perceived by their parents as OWOB. Child gender, child body mass index (BMI) and parent BMI were significant independent predictors of parents' accuracy at perceiving their child's body weight status. Conclusion: Boys, OWOB children, and children of OWOB parents had significantly greater odds of parental underestimation of their body weight status. Parents had better recognition of OWOB in their daughters, especially older daughters, than in their sons, suggesting parental gender bias in identifying OWOB in children. Further research is needed regarding parental gender bias and its implications in OWOB identification in children.

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Date Created
2013

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Meat consumption, moral foundations and ecological behaviors among college students

Description

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in consumers' attitudes towards, and consumption of, meat products. Although concern

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in consumers' attitudes towards, and consumption of, meat products. Although concern regarding animal welfare may contribute to these trends, growing consumer interest in the roles that production and processing of meat play in terms of environmental degradation could also impact individuals' decisions about the inclusion of meat in their diets. Because these factors could be related to moral attitudes as well, the purpose of this study was to explore the relations among meat consumption, general environmental attitudes, and moral `foundations' of decision-making, including concern about minimizing `harm' and maximizing `care,' as well as issues of `purity' and `sanctity.' A survey was conducted among current college students using the New Ecological Paradigm scale and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire to assess environmental and moral attitudes. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess meat consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses explored the relations of environmental and moral attitudes with meat consumption, controlling for potential confounding variables. The results showed no significant correlations among meat consumption, environmental attitudes or moral foundations of harm/care and purity/sanctity.

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Date Created
2013

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The associations among emotions and food choices in college freshmen: a cross-sectional study using ecological momentary assessment

Description

While literature has examined the associations between emotions and overeating, rarely is the relationship between emotions and food choices included. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to utilize mobile-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys to determine the associations

While literature has examined the associations between emotions and overeating, rarely is the relationship between emotions and food choices included. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to utilize mobile-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys to determine the associations among negative, positive, apathetic, and mixed emotions and a variety of food choices in college freshmen living in residence halls. A total of 2142 survey responses from 647 college freshmen were included in this analysis (70.3% female, 51.5% non-white). Mixed model logistic regression assessed the cross-sectional association between emotions and food choices adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, highest parental education, and the clustering of repeated measures within person and of students within residence hall. There were no significant associations between negative emotions and food choices. Positive emotions were significantly and inversely associated with eating pizza/fast food (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.5, 0.8) and cereals (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4, 1.0), while apathetic emotions were significantly and positively associated with consuming salty snacks/fried foods (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.1, 2.5) and inversely associated with consuming sandwiches/wraps (OR=0.5; 95% CI=0.3, 0.8) and meats/proteins (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4, 1.0). It was also found that there were several instances of surveys with mixed emotions, in which participants reported feeling two conflicting emotions at once (i.e. positive and negative). Mixed emotions were significantly associated with consuming sweets (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2, 2.1), meats/proteins (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.2, 2.0), and cereals (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.2, 2.9). Understanding the relationships between different types of emotions and food choices is helpful in understanding the motivation behind healthy versus unhealthy food choices. These findings can be used to develop interventions that encourage positive emotions in college freshmen to better promote healthy food choices and ultimately reduce the risk of weight gain and other health disparities. Future research should examine how college freshmen differ from other college students (i.e. upper classmen and graduate students), particularly related to their emotions and food choices, so that dietary interventions can be better suited to those who are vulnerable.

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Date Created
2016