Matching Items (4)

Process Design and Refinement for Bioproduction of Sustainable Butanol

Description

This document outlines the research work done by Shona Becwar in the process design and refinement for the production of sustainable butanol from Clostridium, along with the required background knowledge

This document outlines the research work done by Shona Becwar in the process design and refinement for the production of sustainable butanol from Clostridium, along with the required background knowledge on the subject. The process that the microbiological organisms go through to produce butanol must be an oxygen free environment for up to 21 days with multiple perforations made into the environment in this period. There was not previously a cost effective method to do this, even in small scale. It was determined that using a butyl rubber septa would allow for the environment to be sustained during the growth process. The pervaporation process was losing butanol product at a rate of approximately 60%, changing the tubing from silicon to stainless steel allowed for a mere 7% loss during the separation process, greatly increasing the prospective of upscaling this process. These improvements to the sustainable butanol production process will allow for a more efficient, therefore more economically competitive product which can be used as a drop in equivalent to the current butanol market.

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  • 2016-05

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New insights into the pore development mechanism of layered hydroxides upon thermal activation

Description

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials, are extensively used as precursors for the preparation of (photo-)catalysts, electrodes, magnetic materials, sorbents, etc. The synthesis typically involves the transformation

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials, are extensively used as precursors for the preparation of (photo-)catalysts, electrodes, magnetic materials, sorbents, etc. The synthesis typically involves the transformation to the corresponding mixed metal oxide via calcination, resulting in atomically dispersed mixed metal oxides (MMOs). This process alters the porosity of the materials, with crucial implications for the performance in many applications. Yet, the mechanisms of pore formation and collapse are poorly understood. Combining an integrated in situ and ex situ characterization approach, here we follow the evolution of porosity changes during the thermal decomposition of LDHs integrating different divalent (Mg, Ni) and trivalent (Al, Ga) metals. Variations in porous properties determined by high-resolution argon sorption are linked to the morphological and compositional changes in the samples by in situ transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which is facilitated by the synthesis of well crystallized LDHs of large crystal size. The observations are correlated with the phase changes identified by X-ray diffraction, the mass losses evidenced by thermogravimetric analysis, the structural changes determined by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the pore connectivity analyzed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The findings show that the multimetallic nature of the LDH governs the size and distribution (geometry, location, and connectivity) of the mesopores developed, which is controlled by the crystallization of the MMO phase, providing key insights for the improved design of porous mixed metal oxides.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Characterizing the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis on primary and secondary alcohol biofuel precursors

Description

The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (RADH or LVIS_0347) from Lactobacillus brevis LB19 was found to possess activity on several short chain aldehydes and ketones. This broad substrate specificity was previously uncharacterized.

The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (RADH or LVIS_0347) from Lactobacillus brevis LB19 was found to possess activity on several short chain aldehydes and ketones. This broad substrate specificity was previously uncharacterized. To demonstrate its relevance to the biofuels industry as well as its broader utility for chiral reductions, a detailed characterization was performed to further investigate the activity and function of RADH.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Renewable production of 5-carbon polyamide monomers using engineered escherichia coli

Description

The diversity of industrially important chemicals that can be produced biocatalytically from renewable resources continues to expand with the aid of metabolic and pathway engineering. In addition to biofuels, these

The diversity of industrially important chemicals that can be produced biocatalytically from renewable resources continues to expand with the aid of metabolic and pathway engineering. In addition to biofuels, these chemicals also include a number of monomers with utility in conventional and novel plastic materials production. Monomers used for polyamide production are no exception, as evidenced by the recent engineering of microbial biocatalysts to produce cadaverine, putrescine, and succinate. In this thesis the repertoire and depth of these renewable polyamide precursors is expanded upon through the engineering of a novel pathway that enables Escherichia coli to produce, as individual products, both δ-aminovaleric acid (AMV) and glutaric acid when grown in glucose mineral salt medium. δ-Aminovaleric acid is the monomeric subunit of nylon-5 homopolymer, whereas glutaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid used to produce copolymers such as nylon-5,5. These feats were achieved by increasing endogenous production of the required pathway precursor, L-lysine. E. coli was engineered for L-lysine over-production through the introduction and expression of metabolically deregulated pathway genes, namely aspartate kinase III and dihydrodipicolinate synthase, encoded by the feedback resistant mutants lysCfbr and dapAfbr, respectively. After deleting a natural L-lysine decarboxylase, up to 1.6 g/L L-lysine could be produced from glucose in shake flasks as a result. The natural L-lysine degradation pathway of numerous Pseudomonas sp., which passes from L-lysine through both δ-aminovaleric acid and glutaric acid, was then functionally reconstructed in a piecewise manner in the E. coli L-lysine over-producer. Expression of davBA alone resulted in the production of over 0.86 g/L AMV in 48 h. Expression of davBADT resulted in the production of over 0.82 g/L glutaric acid under the same conditions. These production titers were achieved with yields of 69.5 and 68.4 mmol/mol of AMV and glutarate, respectively. Future improvements to the ability to synthesize both products will likely come from the ability to eliminate cadaverine by-product formation through the deletion of cadA and ldcC, genes involved in E. coli's native lysine degradation pathway. Nevertheless, through metabolic and pathway engineering, it is now possible produce the polyamide monomers of δ-aminovaleric acid and glutaric acid from renewable resources.

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Date Created
  • 2012