Matching Items (71)

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Distributed CSMA Algorithms for Link Scheduling in Multihop MIMO Networks Under SINR Model

Description

In this paper, we study distributed scheduling in multihop multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) networks. We first develop a "MIMO-pipe" model that provides the upper layers a set of rates and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio

In this paper, we study distributed scheduling in multihop multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) networks. We first develop a "MIMO-pipe" model that provides the upper layers a set of rates and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) requirements that capture the rate-reliability tradeoff in MIMO communications. The main thrust of this paper is then dedicated to developing distributed carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) algorithms for MIMO-pipe scheduling under the SINR interference model. We choose the SINR model over the extensively studied protocol-based interference models because it more naturally captures the impact of interference in wireless networks. The coupling among the links caused by the interference under the SINR model makes the problem of devising distributed scheduling algorithms very challenging. To that end, we explore the CSMA algorithms for MIMO-pipe scheduling from two perspectives. We start with an idealized continuous-time CSMA network, where control messages can be exchanged in a collision-freemanner, and devise a CSMA-based link scheduling algorithm that can achieve throughput optimality under the SINR model. Next, we consider a discrete-time CSMA network, where the message exchanges suffer from collisions. For this more challenging case, we develop a "conservative" scheduling algorithm by imposing a more stringent SINR constraint on the MIMO-pipe model. We show that the proposed conservative scheduling achieves an efficiency ratio bounded from below.

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  • 2013-09-05

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Cost-Effective and Privacy-Preserving Energy Management for Smart Meters

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Smart meters, designed for information collection and system monitoring in smart grid, report fine-grained power consumption to utility providers. With these highly accurate profiles of energy usage, however, it is

Smart meters, designed for information collection and system monitoring in smart grid, report fine-grained power consumption to utility providers. With these highly accurate profiles of energy usage, however, it is possible to identify consumers' specific activities or behavior patterns, thereby giving rise to serious privacy concerns. This paper addresses these concerns by designing a cost-effective and privacy-preserving energy management technique that uses a rechargeable battery. From a holistic perspective, a dynamic programming framework is designed for consumers to strike a tradeoff between smart meter data privacy and the cost of electricity. In general, a major challenge in solving dynamic programming problems lies in the need for the knowledge of future electricity consumption events. By exploring the underlying structure of the original problem, an equivalent problem is derived, which can be solved by using only the current observations. An online control algorithm is then developed to solve the equivalent problem based on the Lyapunov optimization technique. It is shown that without the knowledge of the statistics of the time-varying load requirements and the electricity price processes, the proposed online control algorithm, parametrized by a positive value V, is within O (1/{V) of the optimal solution to the original problem, where the maximum value of V is limited by the battery capacity. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through extensive numerical analysis using real data.

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  • 2015-01-01

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On asynchronous communication systems: capacity bounds and relaying schemes

Description

Practical communication systems are subject to errors due to imperfect time alignment among the communicating nodes. Timing errors can occur in different forms depending on the underlying communication scenario. This

Practical communication systems are subject to errors due to imperfect time alignment among the communicating nodes. Timing errors can occur in different forms depending on the underlying communication scenario. This doctoral study considers two different classes of asynchronous systems; point-to-point (P2P) communication systems with synchronization errors, and asynchronous cooperative systems. In particular, the focus is on an information theoretic analysis for P2P systems with synchronization errors and developing new signaling solutions for several asynchronous cooperative communication systems. The first part of the dissertation presents several bounds on the capacity of the P2P systems with synchronization errors. First, binary insertion and deletion channels are considered where lower bounds on the mutual information between the input and output sequences are computed for independent uniformly distributed (i.u.d.) inputs. Then, a channel suffering from both synchronization errors and additive noise is considered as a serial concatenation of a synchronization error-only channel and an additive noise channel. It is proved that the capacity of the original channel is lower bounded in terms of the synchronization error-only channel capacity and the parameters of both channels. On a different front, to better characterize the deletion channel capacity, the capacity of three independent deletion channels with different deletion probabilities are related through an inequality resulting in the tightest upper bound on the deletion channel capacity for deletion probabilities larger than 0.65. Furthermore, the first non-trivial upper bound on the 2K-ary input deletion channel capacity is provided by relating the 2K-ary input deletion channel capacity with the binary deletion channel capacity through an inequality. The second part of the dissertation develops two new relaying schemes to alleviate asynchronism issues in cooperative communications. The first one is a single carrier (SC)-based scheme providing a spectrally efficient Alamouti code structure at the receiver under flat fading channel conditions by reducing the overhead needed to overcome the asynchronism and obtain spatial diversity. The second one is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based approach useful for asynchronous cooperative systems experiencing excessive relative delays among the relays under frequency-selective channel conditions to achieve a delay diversity structure at the receiver and extract spatial diversity.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Security and privacy in heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks: challenges and solutions

Description

The rapid advances in wireless communications and networking have given rise to a number of emerging heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks along with novel networking paradigms, including wireless sensor networks,

The rapid advances in wireless communications and networking have given rise to a number of emerging heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks along with novel networking paradigms, including wireless sensor networks, mobile crowdsourcing, and mobile social networking. While offering promising solutions to a wide range of new applications, their widespread adoption and large-scale deployment are often hindered by people's concerns about the security, user privacy, or both. In this dissertation, we aim to address a number of challenging security and privacy issues in heterogeneous wireless and mobile networks in an attempt to foster their widespread adoption. Our contributions are mainly fivefold. First, we introduce a novel secure and loss-resilient code dissemination scheme for wireless sensor networks deployed in hostile and harsh environments. Second, we devise a novel scheme to enable mobile users to detect any inauthentic or unsound location-based top-k query result returned by an untrusted location-based service providers. Third, we develop a novel verifiable privacy-preserving aggregation scheme for people-centric mobile sensing systems. Fourth, we present a suite of privacy-preserving profile matching protocols for proximity-based mobile social networking, which can support a wide range of matching metrics with different privacy levels. Last, we present a secure combination scheme for crowdsourcing-based cooperative spectrum sensing systems that can enable robust primary user detection even when malicious cognitive radio users constitute the majority.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Multipath mitigating correlation kernels

Description

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival

Autonomous vehicle control systems utilize real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to provide a position within two-centimeter of truth. GNSS receivers utilize the satellite signal time of arrival estimates to solve for position; and multipath corrupts the time of arrival estimates with a time-varying bias. Time of arrival estimates are based upon accurate direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) code and carrier phase tracking. Current multipath mitigating GNSS solutions include fixed radiation pattern antennas and windowed delay-lock loop code phase discriminators. A new multipath mitigating code tracking algorithm is introduced that utilizes a non-symmetric correlation kernel to reject multipath. Independent parameters provide a means to trade-off code tracking discriminant gain against multipath mitigation performance. The algorithm performance is characterized in terms of multipath phase error bias, phase error estimation variance, tracking range, tracking ambiguity and implementation complexity. The algorithm is suitable for modernized GNSS signals including Binary Phase Shift Keyed (BPSK) and a variety of Binary Offset Keyed (BOC) signals. The algorithm compensates for unbalanced code sequences to ensure a code tracking bias does not result from the use of asymmetric correlation kernels. The algorithm does not require explicit knowledge of the propagation channel model. Design recommendations for selecting the algorithm parameters to mitigate precorrelation filter distortion are also provided.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Performance characterization of communication channels through asymptotic and partial ordering analysis

Description

Asymptotic comparisons of ergodic channel capacity at high and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are provided for several adaptive transmission schemes over fading channels with general distributions, including optimal power and

Asymptotic comparisons of ergodic channel capacity at high and low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are provided for several adaptive transmission schemes over fading channels with general distributions, including optimal power and rate adaptation, rate adaptation only, channel inversion and its variants. Analysis of the high-SNR pre-log constants of the ergodic capacity reveals the existence of constant capacity difference gaps among the schemes with a pre-log constant of 1. Closed-form expressions for these high-SNR capacity difference gaps are derived, which are proportional to the SNR loss between these schemes in dB scale. The largest one of these gaps is found to be between the optimal power and rate adaptation scheme and the channel inversion scheme. Based on these expressions it is shown that the presence of space diversity or multi-user diversity makes channel inversion arbitrarily close to achieving optimal capacity at high SNR with sufficiently large number of antennas or users. A low-SNR analysis also reveals that the presence of fading provably always improves capacity at sufficiently low SNR, compared to the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) case. Numerical results are shown to corroborate our analytical results. This dissertation derives high-SNR asymptotic average error rates over fading channels by relating them to the outage probability, under mild assumptions. The analysis is based on the Tauberian theorem for Laplace-Stieltjes transforms which is grounded on the notion of regular variation, and applies to a wider range of channel distributions than existing approaches. The theory of regular variation is argued to be the proper mathematical framework for finding sufficient and necessary conditions for outage events to dominate high-SNR error rate performance. It is proved that the diversity order being d and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the channel power gain having variation exponent d at 0 imply each other, provided that the instantaneous error rate is upper-bounded by an exponential function of the instantaneous SNR. High-SNR asymptotic average error rates are derived for specific instantaneous error rates. Compared to existing approaches in the literature, the asymptotic expressions are related to the channel distribution in a much simpler manner herein, and related with outage more intuitively. The high-SNR asymptotic error rate is also characterized under diversity combining schemes with the channel power gain of each branch having a regularly varying CDF. Numerical results are shown to corroborate our theoretical analysis. This dissertation studies several problems concerning channel inclusion, which is a partial ordering between discrete memoryless channels (DMCs) proposed by Shannon. Specifically, majorization-based conditions are derived for channel inclusion between certain DMCs. Furthermore, under general conditions, channel equivalence defined through Shannon ordering is shown to be the same as permutation of input and output symbols. The determination of channel inclusion is considered as a convex optimization problem, and the sparsity of the weights related to the representation of the worse DMC in terms of the better one is revealed when channel inclusion holds between two DMCs. For the exploitation of this sparsity, an effective iterative algorithm is established based on modifying the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm. The extension of channel inclusion to continuous channels and its application in ordering phase noises are briefly addressed.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Optimization for resource-constrained wireless networks

Description

Nowadays, wireless communications and networks have been widely used in our daily lives. One of the most important topics related to networking research is using optimization tools to improve the

Nowadays, wireless communications and networks have been widely used in our daily lives. One of the most important topics related to networking research is using optimization tools to improve the utilization of network resources. In this dissertation, we concentrate on optimization for resource-constrained wireless networks, and study two fundamental resource-allocation problems: 1) distributed routing optimization and 2) anypath routing optimization. The study on the distributed routing optimization problem is composed of two main thrusts, targeted at understanding distributed routing and resource optimization for multihop wireless networks. The first thrust is dedicated to understanding the impact of full-duplex transmission on wireless network resource optimization. We propose two provably good distributed algorithms to optimize the resources in a full-duplex wireless network. We prove their optimality and also provide network status analysis using dual space information. The second thrust is dedicated to understanding the influence of network entity load constraints on network resource allocation and routing computation. We propose a provably good distributed algorithm to allocate wireless resources. In addition, we propose a new subgradient optimization framework, which can provide findgrained convergence, optimality, and dual space information at each iteration. This framework can provide a useful theoretical foundation for many networking optimization problems. The study on the anypath routing optimization problem is composed of two main thrusts. The first thrust is dedicated to understanding the computational complexity of multi-constrained anypath routing and designing approximate solutions. We prove that this problem is NP-hard when the number of constraints is larger than one. We present two polynomial time K-approximation algorithms. One is a centralized algorithm while the other one is a distributed algorithm. For the second thrust, we study directional anypath routing and present a cross-layer design of MAC and routing. For the MAC layer, we present a directional anycast MAC. For the routing layer, we propose two polynomial time routing algorithms to compute directional anypaths based on two antenna models, and prove their ptimality based on the packet delivery ratio metric.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Sensitivity-based Pricing and Multiobjective Control for Energy Management in Power Distribution Systems

Description

In the deregulated power system, locational marginal prices are used in transmission engineering predominantly as near real-time pricing signals. This work extends this concept to distribution engineering so that a

In the deregulated power system, locational marginal prices are used in transmission engineering predominantly as near real-time pricing signals. This work extends this concept to distribution engineering so that a distribution class locational marginal price might be used for real-time pricing and control of advanced control systems in distribution circuits. A formulation for the distribution locational marginal price signal is presented that is based on power flow sensitivities in a distribution system. A Jacobian-based sensitivity analysis has been developed for application in the distribution pricing method. Increasing deployment of distributed energy sources is being seen at the distribution level and this trend is expected to continue. To facilitate an optimal use of the distributed infrastructure, the control of the energy demand on a feeder node in the distribution system has been formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem and a solution algorithm has been developed. In multiobjective problems the Pareto optimality criterion is generally applied, and commonly used solution algorithms are decision-based and heuristic. In contrast, a mathematically-robust technique called normal boundary intersection has been modeled for use in this work, and the control variable is solved via separable programming. The Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) has predominantly been used to demonstrate the application of the formulation in distribution system control. A parallel processing environment has been used to replicate the distributed nature of controls at many points in the distribution system. Interactions between the real-time prices in a distribution feeder and the nodal prices at the aggregated load bus have been investigated. The application of the formulations in an islanded operating condition has also been demonstrated. The DLMP formulation has been validated using the test bed systems and a practical framework for its application in distribution engineering has been presented. The multiobjective optimization yields excellent results and is found to be robust for finer time resolutions. The work shown in this report is applicable to, and has been researched under the aegis of the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) center, which is a generation III National Science Foundation engineering research center headquartered at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Micro-particle streak velocimetry: theory, simulation methods and applications

Description

This dissertation describes a novel, low cost strategy of using particle streak (track) images for accurate micro-channel velocity field mapping. It is shown that 2-dimensional, 2-component fields can be efficiently

This dissertation describes a novel, low cost strategy of using particle streak (track) images for accurate micro-channel velocity field mapping. It is shown that 2-dimensional, 2-component fields can be efficiently obtained using the spatial variation of particle track lengths in micro-channels. The velocity field is a critical performance feature of many microfluidic devices. Since it is often the case that un-modeled micro-scale physics frustrates principled design methodologies, particle based velocity field estimation is an essential design and validation tool. Current technologies that achieve this goal use particle constellation correlation strategies and rely heavily on costly, high-speed imaging hardware. The proposed image/ video processing based method achieves comparable accuracy for fraction of the cost. In the context of micro-channel velocimetry, the usability of particle streaks has been poorly studied so far. Their use has remained restricted mostly to bulk flow measurements and occasional ad-hoc uses in microfluidics. A second look at the usability of particle streak lengths in this work reveals that they can be efficiently used, after approximately 15 years from their first use for micro-channel velocimetry. Particle tracks in steady, smooth microfluidic flows is mathematically modeled and a framework for using experimentally observed particle track lengths for local velocity field estimation is introduced here, followed by algorithm implementation and quantitative verification. Further, experimental considerations and image processing techniques that can facilitate the proposed methods are also discussed in this dissertation. Unavailability of benchmarked particle track image data motivated the implementation of a simulation framework with the capability to generate exposure time controlled particle track image sequence for velocity vector fields. This dissertation also describes this work and shows that arbitrary velocity fields designed in computational fluid dynamics software tools can be used to obtain such images. Apart from aiding gold-standard data generation, such images would find use for quick microfluidic flow field visualization and help improve device designs.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Cognitive communications in white space: opportunistic scheduling, spectrum shaping and delay analysis

Description

A unique feature, yet a challenge, in cognitive radio (CR) networks is the user hierarchy: secondary users (SU) wishing for data transmission must defer in the presence of active primary

A unique feature, yet a challenge, in cognitive radio (CR) networks is the user hierarchy: secondary users (SU) wishing for data transmission must defer in the presence of active primary users (PUs), whose priority to channel access is strictly higher.Under a common thread of characterizing and improving Quality of Service (QoS) for the SUs, this dissertation is progressively organized under two main thrusts: the first thrust focuses on SU's throughput by exploiting the underlying properties of the PU spectrum to perform effective scheduling algorithms; and the second thrust aims at another important QoS performance of the SUs, namely delay, subject to the impact of PUs' activities, and proposes enhancement and control mechanisms. More specifically, in the first thrust, opportunistic spectrum scheduling for SU is first considered by jointly exploiting the memory in PU's occupancy and channel fading. In particular, the underexplored scenario where PU occupancy presents a {long} temporal memory is taken into consideration. By casting the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, a set of {multi-tier} tradeoffs are quantified and illustrated. Next, a spectrum shaping framework is proposed by leveraging network coding as a {spectrum shaper} on the PU's traffic. Such shaping effect brings in predictability of the primary spectrum, which is utilized by the SUs to carry out adaptive channel sensing by prioritizing channel access order, and hence significantly improve their throughput. On the other hand, such predictability can make wireless channels more susceptible to jamming attacks. As a result, caution must be taken in designing wireless systems to balance the throughput and the jamming-resistant capability. The second thrust turns attention to an equally important performance metric, i.e., delay performance. Specifically, queueing delay analysis is conducted for SUs employing random access over the PU channels. Fluid approximation is taken and Poisson driven stochastic differential equations are applied to characterize the moments of the SUs' steady-state queueing delay. Then, dynamic packet generation control mechanisms are developed to meet the given delay requirements for SUs.

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Date Created
  • 2012