Matching Items (19)

135509-Thumbnail Image.png

Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners in Arizona's Mainstream Math and Science Classes: The Teachers' Perspectives

Description

This study aims to understand how Arizona's current approach to ESL education \u2014 a recently developed version of Structured English Immersion (SEI) known as the four-hour ELD block \u2014 affects

This study aims to understand how Arizona's current approach to ESL education \u2014 a recently developed version of Structured English Immersion (SEI) known as the four-hour ELD block \u2014 affects high school teachers and students in mainstream math and science classes containing a mixed population of English Language Learners (ELLs) and native English-speaking students. This focus was chosen due to a lack of prior research on the ELD block's effects at the high school level, and the unique consequences of the ELD block for the timing of ELL students' math and science enrollment. Four teachers of mixed-population, mainstream math and science classes, from four different high schools within a single Arizona district, were interviewed and observed in order to understand their perspectives on their own experiences and those of their students. Areas of focus included students' academic and social experiences, challenges faced by teachers and their responses to these challenges, and teachers' evaluations of their teaching situation and of the ELD block itself. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction. The study found that teachers believe the following: that the ELD block causes ELLs to be socially isolated; that it damages ELLs' content development; and that, by forcing some ELLs to take mainstream math and science classes before they have received any ESL instruction, it damages their ability to succeed in these classes. Additionally, teachers indicated that they struggled to meet the needs of their ELL students and non-ELL students at once. Given these findings, the removal of the ELD block, and the addition of bilingual, ESL specialist aides into mainstream classes, is recommended as a solution.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

132083-Thumbnail Image.png

Perceptions of English Language Education by Taiwanese International Students

Description

While English language education has become increasingly prominent worldwide, countries have adopted various initiatives to increase English language development. One country making a push for English language development is Taiwan;

While English language education has become increasingly prominent worldwide, countries have adopted various initiatives to increase English language development. One country making a push for English language development is Taiwan; however, current educational practices and values can prove to be challenges in implementing new methods. For example, although Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) methods gained popularity starting in the 1990s, they have been slow to take hold in Taiwan. Additionally, Taiwan’s Ministry of Education is pushing for bilingualism by the year 2030, introducing curricular reforms and new strategies to increase the prominence of English on a social level. In order to analyze current educational methods and practices in Taiwan, as well as predict the efficacy of new strategies, this study focused on gathering the perspectives and experiences of the students themselves. International students were specifically targeted, as they have had exposure to multiple educational environments, as well as firsthand experience applying their English language knowledge in an immersive environment. To gather student perspective, an online survey was made available to Taiwanese international students currently studying in a U.S. university. Respondents were asked multiple-choice questions on curricular focus, as well as short answer questions regarding their educational experiences. Overall, the respondents showed an agreement in regards to the heavy emphasis of reading, writing, and grammar in Taiwan, which they correlated directly with high-stakes exams, particularly the university entrance exam. They also noted the lack of speaking and listening practice, as well as a strong desire to apply English in a communicative sense. These observations hold significant implications for various stakeholders, including teachers, principals, curriculum developers, exam designers, and university admissions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

152654-Thumbnail Image.png

The use and perception of English In Brazilian magazine advertisements

Description

This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two

This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a survey to investigate the difficulty of English slogans as a determinant for people's attitudes towards English in advertising. For the first part, three major Brazilian news magazines, Veja, Época, and ISTOÉ were used. From three issues of each magazine, results showed that 57% of the advertisements in all nine magazines contained English in different parts of the advertisements, with most occurrences in the product name, followed by the body copy, headline, subheadline, and slogan. English was used to advertise a number of different product types, but was especially used for advertising cars, electronics, events, and banks. It was also found that the majority of English was used for its symbolic representations of modernity, prestige, globalization, and reliability. Using a survey for the second part of the study, I investigated how Brazilian participants judged four advertisements that featured English slogans that were comparable to slogans judged to be easy or difficult to understand in a similar study conducted by Hornikx, van Meurs, and de Boer (2010). Participants were offered attitudinal choices to mark off on a 4-point Likert scale, where they indicated their attitudes towards the English slogans provided. They were also asked to determine if they understood the slogans and to translate them to indicate their actual understanding of the slogans. Participants showed more positive attitudes towards the uses of English than negative attitudes. The survey provided evidence that with the very low numbers of correctly translated slogans, many participants believed they understood the slogans, which could prove to be more of an indicator of positive attitudes than their actual understanding of the slogans. This project provides an example from one Expanding Circle context touched by the far-reaching influences of World Englishes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

156028-Thumbnail Image.png

A theoretical framework for exploring second language writers' beliefs in first year composition

Description

Situated in the influx of Chinese students entering U.S. higher education and the L2 writing research growing interests in investigating learners’ experience to gain further insights into their emic perspectives

Situated in the influx of Chinese students entering U.S. higher education and the L2 writing research growing interests in investigating learners’ experience to gain further insights into their emic perspectives on English literacy development, this dissertation argues that the identifying the beliefs as the underlying principle shaping and being shaped by our experience. In this dissertation, I propose a theoretical framework of beliefs and validates the framework by using it to examine multilingual writers’ learning experience in the context of First Year Composition. The framework advances a definition of beliefs and a framework demonstrating the relationship among three constructs—perception, attitude, and behavior. In order to develop the framework, I first synthesized existing literature on language learning beliefs and argue the scarcity of L2 writing researchers’ discussing belief when exploring learners’ experience. I define beliefs as an individual’s generalizations from the mental construction of the experience, based on evaluation and judgment, thus are predisposed to actions. I proposed a framework of belief, consisting three mental constructs—perception, attitude and action—to identify and examine factors contributing the formation and change of beliefs. I drew on drawing on Dewey's theory of experience and Rokeach's (1968) belief theory, and contextual approach to beliefs in the field of second language acquisition. I analyzed the interview data of twenty-two Chinses students accounting their English learning experiences across four different contexts, including English class in China, TOEFL training courses, intensive English program, and FYC classroom. The findings show that their beliefs were formed and transformed in the contexts before FYC. They perceived all the writing learning in those courses as similar content and curriculum, but the attitudes vary regarding the immediate contexts and long-term goal of using the knowledge. They believe grammar and vocabulary is the “king’s way,” the most effective and economic approach, which was emphasized in the test-oriented culture. Moreover, the repetitive course content and various pedagogies, including multiple revisions and the requirement of visiting writing center, have been perceived as requiring demonstration more efforts, which in turn prompted them to develop their own negotiation strategies, the actions, to gain more credits for the class. This dissertation concludes that the beliefs can be inferred from these all three constructs, but to change beliefs of learners, we need to make them explicit and incorporate them into writing instruction or curriculum design. Implications on how to further the research of beliefs as well as translating these findings into classroom pedagogies are also discussed. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of how the framework can be used to inform future research and classroom practices informed by writing beliefs identified in this study.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

158000-Thumbnail Image.png

Examining an Out-of-Class Collaborative Writing in an Interdisciplinary Research Project in Science and Technology Studies

Description

This dissertation explores the nature of collaborative writing in an interdisciplinary research context beyond classrooms. Most of the current studies in collaborative writing in second language contexts are based on

This dissertation explores the nature of collaborative writing in an interdisciplinary research context beyond classrooms. Most of the current studies in collaborative writing in second language contexts are based on collaborative writing in classroom-based contexts such as English as a Second Language courses with undergraduate students. Collaborative writing tasks are getting its popularity both in classrooms and beyond classrooms with various purposes and objectives. Thus, it is more likely that multilingual writers encounter some kinds of collaborative writing tasks in various contexts. For writing instructors and writing curriculum developers, it is important to understand various types of collaborative writing tasks and their writing practices.

The current study investigates the nature of collaborative writing in an interdisciplinary collaborative research project. The study examines the processes of a multilingual writer’s literacy development in collaborative writing tasks. Based on a qualitative case study, the study focuses on identifying what literate activities were involved in, what effects from the writing collaboration were observed, and what factors influenced this multilingual writer’s writing development. I analyzed various sources of data such as writing samples, writing journal notes, observation fieldnotes, project documents, and the interviews from the focal participant, the graduate student, and two other co-authors as informants in the study. Based on a multilingual writer’s perspective, the findings show what the collaborative writing practices look like in an interdisciplinary research setting. The findings indicate that a multilingual writer’s writing skills were constantly evolving while interacting with collaborators through various phases of collaborative writing. Particularly tasks in collaborative revision process such as mediating the gaps between co-authors and responding to research members were crucial in developing awareness for audience and content organization. Drawing on a naturalistic qualitative study, this dissertation discusses that studies of collaborative writing in second language learning contexts needs to provide broader perspective and aspects of collaborative writing in various settings that multilingual writers engage in. The research concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications, limitations of the study and future research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

151395-Thumbnail Image.png

Standing our sacred ground: one school community's struggle to negotiate restrictive language policy

Description

This is a qualitative case study using ethnographic methods of how one school community has been able to negotiate Arizona's restrictive English only language policies. Drawing from classroom and school-wide

This is a qualitative case study using ethnographic methods of how one school community has been able to negotiate Arizona's restrictive English only language policies. Drawing from classroom and school-wide observations, extensive interviews, and document collection, this case study explores three key questions in relation to this school's negotiation process: 1) What characterizes the curriculum for English learners (ELs) and bilingual students at the case study school? 2) How do key actors, processes, and cultural practices at the case study school support the negotiation of Proposition 203 and House Bill 2064? and 3) What are the perspectives of key school community stakeholders in relation to the curriculum supporting bilingualism and the policy negotiation process? Findings show that by sharing certain key beliefs and practices, the school community has been able to work together, at times through struggle and perseverance, to negotiate for what they believe to be most important in school. They do so by sharing such key beliefs as the importance of seeing the whole child and teaching in ways that are real and meaningful. They also negotiate by engaging in a set of shared practices, which include: the use of Spanish campus-wide both for instruction and for the life and operation of the school, the cultivation of relationships amongst all school community members, and key curricular practices. These practices include providing a variety of learning experiences, especially those based upon the Arts, as well as a curriculum that focuses on providing opportunities to examine real world issues in an integrated and in-depth manner, to learn by integrating students' language, families, and experiences into the curriculum, and has a final goal of creating students who are critical thinkers, self-advocates, and agents within their own lives. All of these beliefs and practices contribute to a strong sense of community. It is this sense of community and the shared beliefs and practices, along with the increased agency this interconnectedness creates for all stakeholders, which has facilitated the successful use of parent waivers. These parent waivers have enabled parents to continue choosing alternative language education programs to those mandated by the state, namely integrated content and English instruction within the mainstream K-4 classroom and the Spanish/English dual language program option at the 5-8 grade levels.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

154050-Thumbnail Image.png

Changing language loyalty and identity: an ethnographic inquiry of societal transformation among the Javanese people in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Description

This study examines changing language loyalties of the sociopolitically most dominant ethnic group in Indonesia, the Javanese. Although Javanese language has the largest number of speakers, within the last five

This study examines changing language loyalties of the sociopolitically most dominant ethnic group in Indonesia, the Javanese. Although Javanese language has the largest number of speakers, within the last five decades the language is gradually losing its speakers who prioritize the national language, Indonesian. This phenomenon led me to inquire into the extent to which their native language matters for their Javanese identity and how the language planning and policy (LPP) mechanism works to foster Javanese language. To collect data, I conducted a six-month ethnographic research project in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The findings show that Javanese language shift occurs because of strong supports from the government toward Indonesian by emphasizing its role as a symbol to unify all ethnic groups in Indonesia into one nation. Consequently, interference in intergenerational language transmission, a limited scope of Javanese use, decrease language competence, and negative attitude toward Javanese are evident. Although Javanese language is still perceived as the most profound marker of Javanese identity, it is now challenging to maintain it because of its limited role in most domains. The study also indicates that the Javanese people are now strongly inclined to Islam reflected by their piety to Islamic rules such as positive attitude to learn liturgic Arabic, to leave behind Javanese tradition not in line with Islam, and to view religion as a panacea to heal social problems. This high regard for Islam is also evident in schools. Furthermore, the Javanese people value highly English although nobody uses it as a medium of daily communication. However, the fact that English is tested in the secondary education national exams and the university entrance exam makes it necessary

for people to learn it. In addition, English is regarded as a modern, intellectual, and elite language. In short, the Javanese people perceive English as an avenue to achieve academic and professional success as well as higher social status. Altogether, this study shows that shifting language loyalty among the Javanese people is an indication of societal transformation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

153591-Thumbnail Image.png

Exploring student engagement with written corrective feedback in first-year composition courses

Description

This study provides insights into the nature of L2 writers' engagement with written corrective feedback (WCF) - how they process it and what they understand about the nature of the

This study provides insights into the nature of L2 writers' engagement with written corrective feedback (WCF) - how they process it and what they understand about the nature of the error - to explore its potential for language development. It also explores various factors, such as individual, socio-contextual, and pedagogical, which influence the extent of student engagement. Data include students' revisions recorded with screen-capture software and video-stimulated recall. The video-stimulated recall data were transcribed and coded for evidence of processing, error awareness, and error resolution. In addition, I conducted interviews with students and their instructors, and through a thematic analysis, I identified individual and socio-contextual factors that appeared to influence students' engagement.

The findings of the study indicate that the processing of WCF and error awareness may be affected by pedagogical factors, such as the type of feedback and its delivery method. In addition, I found that while socio-contextual factors, such as grading policy, may influence students' attitudes toward the importance of grammar accuracy in their writing or motivation to seek help with grammar outside of class, such factors do not appear to affect students' engagement with WCF at the time of revision.

Based on the insights gained from this study, I suggest that direct feedback may be more beneficial if it is provided in a comment or in the margin of the paper, and that both direct and indirect feedback may be more effective if a brief explanation about the nature of the error is included. In addition, students may need to be provided with guidelines on how to engage with their instructors' feedback. I conclude by suggesting that if WCF is provided, students should be held accountable for making revisions, and I recommend ways in which this can be done without penalizing students for not showing immediate improvements on subsequent writing projects.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

153984-Thumbnail Image.png

Language and literacy practices of Kurdish children across their home and school spaces in Turkey: an ethnography of language policy

Description

ABSTRACT

This study examines the language and literacy experiences of Kurdish minority children during their first year of mainstream schooling in a southeastern village in Turkey. I employed ethnographic research

ABSTRACT

This study examines the language and literacy experiences of Kurdish minority children during their first year of mainstream schooling in a southeastern village in Turkey. I employed ethnographic research methods (participant observation, multi-modal data collection, interviewing, and focus groups) to investigate the language practices of the children in relation to language ideologies circulating in the wider context. I focused on the perspectives and practices of one 1st grade classroom (14 students) but also talked with seven parents, three teachers, and two administrators.

A careful analysis of the data collected shows that there is a hierarchy among languages used in the community—Turkish, English, and Kurdish. The children, their parents, and their teachers all valued Turkish and English more than Kurdish. While explaining some of their reasons for this view, they discussed the status and functions of each language in society with an emphasis on their functions. My analysis also shows that, although participants devalue the Kurdish language, they still value Kurdish as a tie to their ethnic roots. Another key finding of this study is that policies that appear in teachers’ practices and the school environment seemed to be robust mediators of the language beliefs and practices of the Kurds who participated in my study. School is believed to provide opportunities for learning languages in ways that facilitate greater participation in society and increased access to prestigious jobs for Kurdish children who do not want to live in the village long-term. Related to that, one finding demonstrates that current circumstances make language choice like a life choice for Kurdish children. While Kurds who choose Turkish are often successful in school (and therefore have access to better jobs), the ones who maintain their Kurdish usually have only animal breeding or farming as employment options. I also found that although the Kurdish children that I observed subscribed to ideologies that valued Turkish and English over their native language, they did not entirely abandon their Kurdish language. Instead, they were involved in Turkish- Kurdish bilingual practices such as language broking, language sharing, and language crossing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

158162-Thumbnail Image.png

The L2 Classroom as a Crossroads: Merging Creative Pedagogy and Second Language Instruction

Description

Creativity is increasingly cited as an educational goal in many international contexts and as a facet of academic and economic success. However, many myths surround creativity that impede its facilitation

Creativity is increasingly cited as an educational goal in many international contexts and as a facet of academic and economic success. However, many myths surround creativity that impede its facilitation in the classroom: it is an individual talent, not teachable, and not relevant to adult life outside of artistic domains. Further, perceptions of creativity are largely informed by treatment in North American contexts. In second language instruction, linguistic creativity in particular faces greater hurdles for recognition and value, as language learners’ creative language use is often treated as error. In this paper, I argue that creative pedagogies and second language instruction can inform each other; creative pedagogy can lead to greater recognition of the creative power of language learners, and second language research can provide a cultural lens through which to gain understanding of how creativity is enacted in language. To argue that creativity facilitates language learning and is a necessary component of proficiency, I employ B. Kachru’s (1985) notion of bilingual creativity to demonstrate the ubiquity of linguistic creativity in the lives of bilingual language users. With support from Carter (2016) and G. Cook’s (2000) works on everyday creative language and language play, respectively, I demonstrate the value of linguistic creativity for language learning and language socialization. I end by suggesting five guidelines for second language instructors interested in implementing a creative pedagogy framework: (1) promote reflection and noticing in learning and creativity, (2) offer authentic models of linguistic creativity, (3) provide emotion language and multiple methods for emotional expression in interaction, (4) allow for a fusion of L1 and L2 linguistic and cultural knowledge, and (5) respond actively to opportunities for collaborative creativity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020