Matching Items (4)

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Use of a Conformational Switching Aptamer for Rapid and Specific Ex Vivo Identification of Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a Xenograft Model

Description

Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions such as CNS B-cell lymphoma from operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating

Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions such as CNS B-cell lymphoma from operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures which require up to 24-48 hours. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of generating rapid ex vivo specific labeling using a novel lymphoma-specific fluorescent switchable aptamer. Our B-cell lymphoma-specific switchable aptamer produced only low-level fluorescence in its unbound conformation and generated an 8-fold increase in fluorescence once bound to its target on CD20-positive lymphoma cells. The aptamer demonstrated strong binding to B-cell lymphoma cells within 15 minutes of incubation as observed by flow cytometry. We applied the switchable aptamer to ex vivo xenograft tissue harboring B-cell lymphoma and astrocytoma, and within one hour specific visual identification of lymphoma was routinely possible. In this proof-of-concept study in human cell culture and orthotopic xenografts, we conclude that a fluorescent switchable aptamer can provide rapid and specific labeling of B-cell lymphoma, and that developing aptamer-based labeling approaches could simplify tissue staining and drastically reduce time to histopathological diagnoses compared with IHC-based methods. We propose that switchable aptamers could enhance expeditious, accurate intraoperative decision-making.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-15

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Targeted Delivery DNA-Tetrahedron Assembled Therapeutics

Description

As advanced as current cancer therapeutics are, there are still challenges that need to be addressed. One of them is the non-specific killing of normal cells in addition to cancerous

As advanced as current cancer therapeutics are, there are still challenges that need to be addressed. One of them is the non-specific killing of normal cells in addition to cancerous cells. Ideal cancer therapeutics should be targeted specifically toward tumor cells. Due to the robust self-assembly and versatile addressability of DNA-nanostructures, a DNA tetrahedron nanostructure was explored as a drug carrier. The nanostructure can be decorated with various molecules to either increase immunogenicity, toxicity, or affinity to a specific cell type. The efficiency of the specific binding and internalization of the chosen molecules was measured via flow cytometry. Using a murine B cell lymphoma as the model system, several targeting molecules have been evaluated for their specific binding and induced internalization of DNA nanostructures, including an anti-Igκ antibody, an idiotype-binding peptide, and a g-quadruplex nucleolin specific aptamer. It was found that adding the anti-Igκ antibody appeared to provide increased binding and facilitated cellular internalization. Also, it was found that the presence of CpG appeared to aid in the binding of nanostructures decorated with other molecules, as compared to nanostructures without CpG. The g-quadruplex aptamer thought to specifically bind cancer cells that overexpress nucleolin was tested and found to have better binding to cells when linked to the nanostructure than when alone. The drug doxorubicin was used to load the DNA-nanostructure and attempt to inhibit cancer cell growth. The DNA-nanostructure has the benefit of being self-assembled and customizable, and it has been shown to bind to and internalize into a cancer cell line. The next steps are to test the toxicity of the nanostructure as well as its specificity for cancerous cells compared to noncancerous cells. Furthermore, once those tests are completed the structure’s drug delivery capacity will be tested in tumor bearing mice. The DNA-nanostructure exhibits potential as a cancer specific therapeutic.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

DNA nanostructure as a scaffold for immunological applications

Description

DNA nanotechnology has been a rapidly growing research field in the recent decades, and there have been extensive efforts to construct various types of highly programmable and robust DNA nanostructures.

DNA nanotechnology has been a rapidly growing research field in the recent decades, and there have been extensive efforts to construct various types of highly programmable and robust DNA nanostructures. Due to the advantage that DNA nanostructure can be used to organize biochemical molecules with precisely controlled spatial resolution, herein we used DNA nanostructure as a scaffold for biological applications. Targeted cell-cell interaction was reconstituted through a DNA scaffolded multivalent bispecific aptamer, which may lead to promising potentials in tumor therapeutics. In addition a synthetic vaccine was constructed using DNA nanostructure as a platform to assemble both model antigen and immunoadjuvant together, and strong antibody response was demonstrated in vivo, highlighting the potential of DNA nanostructures to serve as a new platform for vaccine construction, and therefore a DNA scaffolded hapten vaccine is further constructed and tested for its antibody response. Taken together, my research demonstrated the potential of DNA nanostructure to serve as a general platform for immunological applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The Adjuvant Properties of RNA Origami for Immunotherapy in a CT26 Cancer Model

Description

The properties of adjuvants to stimulate an immune response to treat cancer has sparked a major area of research in the field of immunotherapy. Given the presence of multiple RNA

The properties of adjuvants to stimulate an immune response to treat cancer has sparked a major area of research in the field of immunotherapy. Given the presence of multiple RNA sensors in mammalian host cells for eliciting innate immunity, synthetic RNA nanostructures present a unique opportunity for adjuvant exploration. While RNA nanostructures are organic and biocompatible in nature than other adjuvants, they could be tailored to have desired structural stability and functional diversity for in vivo application. In this study, a rectangular RNA origami nanostructure was designed to contain double-stranded RNA motifs and possess high structural stability. Using in vitro assays, RNA origami was shown to stimulate the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling pathway, which has been reported to activate antigen presenting cells (APCs), natural killer (NK) cells, cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T-cells, and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. To explore RNA origami as an adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy, intraperitoneal administration of a murine colon cancer cell line (CT26) was used as a model system to mimic peritoneal metastasis (PM), in which RNA origami was investigated for its activities in mitigating PM tumor microenvironment and improving anti-tumor immunity. Given the poor outcome of the patients with PM and urgent need for new interventions, this study aims to translate the adjuvant activities of RNA origami demonstrated in vitro into potent anti-cancer immunotherapeutics. Here, it was shown that multiple intraperitoneal injections of RNA origami could inhibit tumor growth, leading to a significant delay and/or regression of metastatic tumor growth in the peritoneum. Furthermore, tumor-free mice, after being treated with RNA origami, were also resistant to a second challenge of tumor cells, indicating the development of the adaptive anti-tumor immunity. This immunity is dependent on T-cells since nude mice succumbed to tumor growth with or without RNA origami treatment. Thus, RNA-origami can function as an adjuvant to activate the innate immunity and subsequently the adaptive anti-tumor immunity, leading to tumor regression. Conceivably, RNA origami could be explored as an immunotherapeutic agent to improve the disease outcome of patients with peritoneal metastasis and peritoneal carcinogenesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018