Matching Items (3)

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Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from protein diffusion during expression has limited the feature density of these arrays.
Methods: In this work, we developed the Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (M-NAPPA), which significantly increases the number of displayed proteins by multiplexing as many as five different gene plasmids within a printed spot.
Results: Even when proteins of different sizes were displayed within the same feature, they were readily detected using protein-specific antibodies. Protein-protein interactions and serological antibody assays using human viral proteome microarrays demonstrated that comparable hits were detected by M-NAPPA and non-multiplexed NAPPA arrays. An ultra-high density proteome microarray displaying > 16k proteins on a single microscope slide was produced by combining M-NAPPA with a photolithography-based silicon nano-well platform. Finally, four new tuberculosis-related antigens in guinea pigs vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were identified with M-NAPPA and validated with ELISA.
Conclusion: All data demonstrate that multiplexing features on a protein microarray offer a cost-effective fabrication approach and have the potential to facilitate high throughput translational research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-20

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Monitoring complex supply chains

Description

The complexity of supply chains (SC) has grown rapidly in recent years, resulting in an increased difficulty to evaluate and visualize performance. Consequently, analytical approaches to evaluate SC performance in

The complexity of supply chains (SC) has grown rapidly in recent years, resulting in an increased difficulty to evaluate and visualize performance. Consequently, analytical approaches to evaluate SC performance in near real time relative to targets and plans are important to detect and react to deviations in order to prevent major disruptions.

Manufacturing anomalies, inaccurate forecasts, and other problems can lead to SC disruptions. Traditional monitoring methods are not sufficient in this respect, because com- plex SCs feature changes in manufacturing tasks (dynamic complexity) and carry a large number of stock keeping units (detail complexity). Problems are easily confounded with normal system variations.

Motivated by these real challenges faced by modern SC, new surveillance solutions are proposed to detect system deviations that could lead to disruptions in a complex SC. To address supply-side deviations, the fitness of different statistics that can be extracted from the enterprise resource planning system is evaluated. A monitoring strategy is first proposed for SCs featuring high levels of dynamic complexity. This presents an opportunity for monitoring methods to be applied in a new, rich domain of SC management. Then a monitoring strategy, called Heat Map Contrasts (HMC), which converts monitoring into a series of classification problems, is used to monitor SCs with both high levels of dynamic and detail complexities. Data from a semiconductor SC simulator are used to compare the methods with other alternatives under various failure cases, and the results illustrate the viability of our methods.

To address demand-side deviations, a new method of quantifying forecast uncer- tainties using the progression of forecast updates is presented. It is illustrated that a rich amount of information is available in rolling horizon forecasts. Two proactive indicators of future forecast errors are extracted from the forecast stream. This quantitative method re- quires no knowledge of the forecasting model itself and has shown promising results when applied to two datasets consisting of real forecast updates.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Exploring Pentagonal Geometries for Discovering Novel Two-Dimensional Materials

Description

Single-layer pentagonal materials have received limited attention compared with their counterparts with hexagonal structures. They are two-dimensional (2D) materials with pentagonal structures, that exhibit novel electronic, optical, or magnetic properties.

Single-layer pentagonal materials have received limited attention compared with their counterparts with hexagonal structures. They are two-dimensional (2D) materials with pentagonal structures, that exhibit novel electronic, optical, or magnetic properties. There are 15 types of pentagonal tessellations which allow plenty of options for constructing 2D pentagonal lattices. Few of them have been explored theoretically or experimentally. Studying this new type of 2D materials with density functional theory (DFT) will inspire the discovery of new 2D materials and open up applications of these materials in electronic and magnetic devices.In this dissertation, DFT is applied to discover novel 2D materials with pentagonal structures. Firstly, I examine the possibility of forming a 2D nanosheet with the vertices of type 15 pentagons occupied by boron, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, gallium, germanium or tin atoms. I obtain different rearranged structures such as a single-layer gallium sheet with triangular patterns. Then the exploration expands to other 14 types of pentagons, leading to the discoveries of carbon nanosheets with Cairo tessellation (type 2/4 pentagons) and other patterns. The resulting 2D structures exhibit diverse electrical properties. Then I reveal the hidden Cairo tessellations in the pyrite structures and discover a family of planar 2D materials (such as PtP2), with a chemical formula of AB2 and space group pa ̄3. The combination of DFT and geometries opens up a novel route for the discovery of new 2D materials. Following this path, a series of 2D pentagonal materials such as 2D CoS2 are revealed with promising electronic and magnetic applications. Specifically, the DFT calculations show that CoS2 is an antiferromagnetic semiconductor with a band gap of 2.24 eV, and a N ́eel temperature of about 20 K. In order to enhance the superexchange interactions between the ions in this binary compound, I explore the ternary 2D pentagonal material CoAsS, that lacks the inversion symmetry. I find out CoAsS exhibits a higher Curie temperature of 95 K and a sizable piezoelectricity (d11=-3.52 pm/V). In addition to CoAsS, 34 ternary 2D pentagonal materials are discovered, among which I focus on FeAsS, that is a semiconductor showing strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy and sizable Berry curvature. Its magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy is 440 μeV/Fe ion, higher than many other 2D magnets that have been found.
Overall, this work not only provides insights into the structure-property relationship of 2D pentagonal materials and opens up a new route of studying 2D materials by combining geometry and computational materials science, but also shows the potential applications of 2D pentagonal materials in electronic and magnetic devices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020