Matching Items (45)

137575-Thumbnail Image.png

Electroporation of HeLa Cells with Propidium Iodide using ""Anodisc"" Nanopore Inorganic Membrane-Buffered MEAs

Description

The use of microelectrode arrays (MEA) to electroporate cells is now a reliable way of transfecting RNA interfering substances with high viability and efficiency. However, as the 50-200 micron electrodes

The use of microelectrode arrays (MEA) to electroporate cells is now a reliable way of transfecting RNA interfering substances with high viability and efficiency. However, as the 50-200 micron electrodes are coated with many cells, there are differences in both viability and efficiency between the outside and inside of the electrode. This is due to the field created by the electrode, which has higher intensities toward the outside and lower intensities toward the middle. In order to get the electric field to spread in a more even manner, an "Anodisc" inorganic membrane seeded with cells was placed on the MEA to act as a buffer to the electric fields. One hundred percent transfection efficiency on live cells was found on one sample, though there were problems encountered along the experimental process that introduced error into the results, some of which included the inability for cells to grow to high levels of confluency on the Anodisc as well as the inverted imaging technique used on the opaque disc.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137218-Thumbnail Image.png

Observing effects of drug modulation on electrophysiological response of Aplysia neurons

Description

The effect of three different drug modulators on the electrophysiological response of Aplysia neurons was observed through the use of extracellular and intracellular recordings. Extracellular recordings captured the effects of

The effect of three different drug modulators on the electrophysiological response of Aplysia neurons was observed through the use of extracellular and intracellular recordings. Extracellular recordings captured the effects of magnesium chloride and glutamate at a variety of concentrations for each. Intracellular recordings displayed the effects of magnesium chloride, glutamate, and GABA for two concentrations each. For extracellular recordings, the average firing rate, average peak-to-peak voltage, average SNR, and sorted units were considered. For intracellular recordings, average firing rate, average peak voltage, and average resting potential were considered. Significance of data could not be determined using statistical analysis due to having a sample size of 1 for every experiment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

135402-Thumbnail Image.png

Analysis of Brain Activity in Elite Golfers

Description

It is unknown which regions of the brain are most or least active for golfers during a peak performance state (Flow State or "The Zone") on the putting green. To

It is unknown which regions of the brain are most or least active for golfers during a peak performance state (Flow State or "The Zone") on the putting green. To address this issue, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were taken on 10 elite golfers while they performed a putting drill consisting of hitting nine putts spaced uniformly around a hole each five feet away. Data was collected at three time periods, before, during and after the putt. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) measurements were also recorded on each subject. Three of the subjects performed a visualization of the same putting drill and their brain waves and GSR were recorded and then compared with their actual performance of the drill. EEG data in the Theta (4 \u2014 7 Hz) bandwidth and Alpha (7 \u2014 13 Hz) bandwidth in 11 different locations across the head were analyzed. Relative power spectrum was used to quantify the data. From the results, it was found that there is a higher magnitude of power in both the theta and alpha bandwidths for a missed putt in comparison to a made putt (p<0.05). It was also found that there is a higher average power in the right hemisphere for made putts. There was not a higher power in the occipital region of the brain nor was there a lower power level in the frontal cortical region during made putts. The hypothesis that there would be a difference between the means of the power level in performance compared to visualization techniques was also supported.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

Modeling Biological and Optical Tools Towards Achieving Deeper Levels of Brain Stimulation using OLEDs

Description

Optogenetics presents the ability to control membrane dynamics through the usage of transfected proteins (opsins) and light stimulation. However, as the field continues to grow, the original biological and stimulation

Optogenetics presents the ability to control membrane dynamics through the usage of transfected proteins (opsins) and light stimulation. However, as the field continues to grow, the original biological and stimulation tools used have become dated or limited in their uses. The usage of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) in optical stimulation offers greater resolution, finer control of pixel arrays, and the increased functionality of a flexible display at the cost of lower irradiance power density. This study was done to simulate methods using genetic and optical tools towards decreasing the threshold irradiance needed to initiate an action potential in a ChR2 expressing neuron. Simulations show that pulsatile stimulation can decrease threshold irradiances by increasing the overall duration of stimulus while keeping individual pulse durations below 5 ms. Furthermore, the redistribution of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to the apical dendrites and a change in wavelength to 625 nm both result in lower threshold irradiances. However, the model used has many discrepancies and has room for improvement in areas such as the light distribution model and ChR2 dynamics. The simulations run with this model however still present valuable insight and knowledge towards the usage of new stimulation methods and revisions on existing protocols.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

133535-Thumbnail Image.png

Optical Feedback Mechanism for Detecting Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks During Spinal Surgery

Description

For my honors thesis, I developed a proof of concept alpha prototype of a biomedical device for detection of cerebrospinal fluid leaks during spinal surgery. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks are a

For my honors thesis, I developed a proof of concept alpha prototype of a biomedical device for detection of cerebrospinal fluid leaks during spinal surgery. Cerebrospinal fluid leaks are a consequence of tears in the dura mater of the spinal cord and can result in potentially life-threatening conditions and are overall a large burden not only on the patient but upon the clinical teams managing the patient postoperatively. What I created was an optical sensor that I programmed to be sensitive to detecting green wavelength light. The device would ideally be attached to surgical drain tubing and used in conjunction with fluorescein (a green fluorescent dye) infused lumbar punctures into the spinal canal of patients. As the dye circulates through the spinal cord, any tears in the dura mater would cause the fluorescein to leak out with cerebrospinal fluid into the incision site. This fluid may then be collected by the surgical drain where the sensor may detect the fluorescein, triggering a buzzer response that would notify the patient or the surgeons of an ongoing leak that requires repair. The time I spent on my thesis involved sensor validation to ensure it could differentiate between colors, testing the sensor's color sensitivity by performing a fluorescein aliquot, and running proof of concept testing that could show the sensor can detect fluorescein drain tubing and provide an adequate response. The sensor was able to differentiate between varying concentrations of fluorescein in solution and provided exceptional results in its proof-of-concept testing. Next steps will be to re-run the sensor validation study with different dyes as well as consolidating the device's electrical hardware onto a single circuit board as development of beta and gamma prototypes move forward.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

133629-Thumbnail Image.png

Glare: NICU Environmental Consideration

Description

This study aimed to quantify glare induced into the NICU through phototherapy devices commonly used to treat neonatal jaundice. The blue light associated with the devices can cause a number

This study aimed to quantify glare induced into the NICU through phototherapy devices commonly used to treat neonatal jaundice. The blue light associated with the devices can cause a number of physiological affects including melatonin suppression, disturbances of one's circadian rhythm, and has the potential to lead to risk factors of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the long term. The study found that the phototherapy device tested emitted a sufficient amount of light to be considered 'disturbing' using the DeBoer scale. Due to this, phototherapy devices in the future should take into consideration the minimization of light emitted which is not directly treating the infant on the device to prevent potential physiological effects that nurses may experience.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

132606-Thumbnail Image.png

Piloerection Sensor: Insight into Autonomic Function

Description

Piloerection (known as goosebumps) is mediated by activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors within the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. The study of piloerection is important in multiple fields, from

Piloerection (known as goosebumps) is mediated by activation of alpha-adrenergic receptors within the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. The study of piloerection is important in multiple fields, from emotion studies to nervous system pathology. This makes piloerection particularly relevant to emotions research. Despite wide-ranging applications, current methods for measuring piloerection are laborious and qualitative. The goal of this study is to build a wearable piloerection sensor through the use of straight-line lasers and photoresistors. The study analyzed methods of detecting and measuring goosebumps, and applied the method of laser scattering as a detection method. This device was designed and tested against a population of seven Arizona State University students. Goosebumps were elicited through conditions of cold, and video clips meant to elicit emotions of awe and sadness. Piloerection was then quantified through two controls of self-identification and camera recording, as well as the new detection method. These were then compared together, and it was found that subjective methods of determining goosebumps did not correlate well with objective measurements, but that the two objective measurements correlated well with one another. This shows that the technique of laser scattering can be used to detect goosebumps and further developments on this new detection method will be made. Moreover, the presence of uncorrelated subjective measurements further shows the need for an objective measurement of piloerection, while also bringing into question other factors that may be confused with the feeling of piloerection, such as chills or shivers. This study further reaffirmed previous studies showing a positive correlation between intense emotions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132519-Thumbnail Image.png

MEMS Drug Delivery Using Pulsed Voltage Waveforms

Description

Abstract: The delivery of a drug or gene payload inside an individual neuron has been highly sought after and studied as a means of treating a large variety of

Abstract: The delivery of a drug or gene payload inside an individual neuron has been highly sought after and studied as a means of treating a large variety of neurological diseases and disorders such as cancer and Alzheimer’s. Current technology for these applications remains imperfect particularly with respect to matters of precision and cell viability. Thus, the use of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) based systems have become more prevalent in order to conduct these processes with higher precision and automation. Penetrating these specific cells while also maintaining their structural integrity during the process, remain as two major hurdles still being explored today. Electrical stimulation has been used to drive the delivery of a payload at the microscale but to do so with a voltage that keeps the neuron viable is imperative. In order to find a means for optimizing the voltage and ejection of the payload while maintaining cell viability, the goal of this project is to explore the use of pulsed waveforms for driving the delivery. In doing so, lower to moderate voltage amplitudes may potentially be used while also avoiding hydrolysis of the cell. This study was done by ejecting dye dextran from glass micropipettes with an agar and artificial seawater well using both DC and pulsed waveforms. Successful ejection of the payload was achieved and confirmed using fluorescent microscopy. While the methods used for this voltage based delivery require further optimization, the successful ejection utilizing pulsed voltages suggest that this may lead to an improved technique for MEMS based delivery of payloads into single cells in the future.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132307-Thumbnail Image.png

The Use of Brain Signals to Control a Robotic Car: A First Step

Description

In this study, the engineers from biomedical engineering and electrical engineering researched and analyzed the components, uses, and processes for the brain and the Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). They investigated the

In this study, the engineers from biomedical engineering and electrical engineering researched and analyzed the components, uses, and processes for the brain and the Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). They investigated the basics on the brain, the signals, and the overall uses of the devices. There have been many uses for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, including prosthetics for patients after nerve injuries, cursor movements on a computer, moving vehicles, and many more projects. There are studies currently in progress and that will be in progress in the future that extend the uses of BCIs. The researchers in this thesis focused more on the processes the scientists used to approach the given problem. Some worked with patients to better his or her life, while others worked with volunteers to gain more knowledge of the brain and/or the BCIs. This thesis includes many different approaches for many unique projects. The analysis includes the location of the signal, the processing of the signal, the filtering of the signal, the transmission of the signal, and the movement of the device based on the signal. The current BCIs are not ready to be in patient’s daily lives, but the researchers are trying to create and perfect them in order to help as many patients as possible. As a biomedical engineer, the researchers in this thesis can apply the knowledge from the articles to solving potential problems in the future and further specific studies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

132363-Thumbnail Image.png

A Literature Review of the Lack of Prenatal Healthcare in Third World Countries

Description

The dilemma of the lack of prenatal and neonatal healthcare has been prevalent among third world countries for many years. The lack of prenatal healthcare has been shown to have

The dilemma of the lack of prenatal and neonatal healthcare has been prevalent among third world countries for many years. The lack of prenatal healthcare has been shown to have direct links to spontaneous preterm births from which low-birth weight in babies can be a result. The World Health Organization has identified preterm birth as one of the biggest overseen burdens in developing countries.
This study seeks to answer the research questions: What are the major risk factors associated with the lack of prenatal and neonatal healthcare in developing countries? What are potential routes of intervention (ROI) to help these countries? The goal is to analyze the risk factors and determine if there are any ROIs available to minimize potential incidents or accidents associated with complications of preterm birth.
A few potential risk factors include: poverty, a mother’s lack of education, a lack of professional visitation during pregnancy, having a short cervix, and routine use of Ultrasound. This research paper has identified that keeping ultrasound diagnostics to a minimum, seeking professional help during pregnancy, incorporating corticosteroids for preterm births, implementing Kangaroo Mother Care, and Cervical Cerclage are interventions that can reduce preterm births and the associated complications that come with it. We believe that further research, regarding compliance of each of these interventions, would show reduction of preterm births and low birth weight in developing countries.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05