Objective: Isoforms of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene encodes different IGF-1 isoforms by alternative splicing, and which are known to play distinct roles in muscle growth and repair. These isoforms in humans exist as IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb and IGF-1Ec (the latter is also known as mechano-growth factor). We sought to determine whether mRNA expression of any of these isoforms is impaired in skeletal muscle of humans with obesity, and given that humans with obesity display reduced protein synthesis in muscle. Methods: We studied 10 subjects (3 females/7 males) with obesity (body mass index: 34 ± 1 kg/m2) and 14 subjects (6 females/8 males) that were lean (body mass index: 24 ± 1 kg/m2) and served as controls. The groups represented typical populations of individuals that differed (P < 0.05) in body fat (obese: 32 ± 2; lean: 22 ± 2) and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda insulin sensitivity index, obese: 5 ± 1; lean 11 ± 2). Total RNA was extracted from 20-30 mg of tissue from muscle biopsies performed after an overnight fast. Isolated RNA was used to perform cDNA synthesis. Real-time PCR was performed using predesigned TaqMan® gene expression assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc) for IGF-1Ea (assay ID: Hs01547657_m1), IGF-1Eb (assay ID: Hs00153126_m1) and IGF-1Ec (assay ID: Hs03986524_m1), as well as ACTB (assay ID: Hs01060665_g1), which was used to adjust the IGF-1 isoform mRNA expression. Responses for mRNA expression were calculated using the comparative CT method (2-ΔΔCT). Results: IGF-1Eb mRNA expression was lower in the subjects with obesity compared to the lean controls (0.67 ± 0.09 vs 1.00 ± 0.13; P < 0.05) but that of IGF-1Ea (0.99 ± 0.16 vs 1.00 ± 0.33) or IGF-1Ec (0.83 ± 0.14 vs 1.00 ± 0.21) were not different between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Among the IGF-1 mRNA isoforms, IGF-1Eb mRNA is uniquely decreased in humans with obesity. Lower IGF-1Eb mRNA expression in muscle of humans with obesity may explain the lower protein synthesis observed in these individuals. Furthermore, these findings may have direct implications for muscle growth and repair in humans with obesity.