Matching Items (11)

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The Effects of Vitamin B6 Supplementation on Mood States in College Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

Description

Oral contraceptives are one of the most frequently used forms of birth control among young women. However, research has shown that this type of medication can contribute to negative changes

Oral contraceptives are one of the most frequently used forms of birth control among young women. However, research has shown that this type of medication can contribute to negative changes in mood and diminished vitamin status. In particular, women taking oral contraceptives are at an increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency due to changes in enzyme activity with estrogen intake. Depressed mood is one of the known symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency as this vitamin acts as an essential cofactor in converting tryptophan to the neurotransmitter, serotonin. Lack of adequate levels of vitamin B6 therefore contribute to decreased production of serotonin and subsequent changes in mood, including symptoms of depression. With vitamin B6 being the most common nutrient deficiency, and the ever increasing prevalence of depression in the United States, especially among young adults, it is crucial that researchers investigate ways to mitigate both of these undesirable side effects. Current research on the topic fails to directly connect supplementation of vitamin B6 to positive changes in mood in oral contraceptive users.

This 12-week long double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial examined the effects of daily supplementation of vitamin B6 as 100 mg of pyridoxine hydrochloride, on mood states in 8 healthy college women (18-25 y) that use combined oral contraceptives. Vitamin status was assessed via plasma pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP). Plasma PLP levels significantly increased by >193% (p=0.003) with daily supplementation of 100 mg B6 over a four week period. Mood changes with supplementation were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Although a small improvement in the POMS depression sub score was observed after 4 weeks of vitamin B6 supplementation (14.7%), the changes were insignificant (p>0.05). Furthermore, total mood disturbance scores did not significantly change with either the placebo or supplement periods. While mood states were not improved, a significant decrease in the presence of depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory was observed after vitamin B6 supplementation, compared to placebo (p=0.047). The results of this study necessitate further investigation into the use of B6 supplementation as a means of reducing negative mood changes in oral contraceptive users.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Potential therapeutic benefits of flaxseeds in the treatment of type 2 diabetes symptoms

Description

Background: Despite the reported improvements in glucose regulation associated with flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) few clinical trials have been conducted in diabetic participants. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ground flaxseed

Background: Despite the reported improvements in glucose regulation associated with flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) few clinical trials have been conducted in diabetic participants. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ground flaxseed consumption at attenuating hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress as compared to a control in adults with non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: In a randomized parallel arm controlled efficacy trial, participants were asked to consume either 28 g/d ground flaxseed or the fiber-matched control (9 g/d ground psyllium husk) for 8 weeks. The study included 17 adults (9 male, 8 females; 46±14 y; BMI: 31.4±5.7 kg/m2) with a diagnosis of T2D ≥ 6 months. Main outcomes measured included: glycemic control (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, and HOMA-IR), lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, total triglycerides, and calculated VLDL-C), markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (TNF-alpha, TBARS, and NOx), and dietary intake (energy, total fat, total fiber, sodium). Absolute net change for measured variables (week 8 values minus baseline values) were compared using Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests, significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: There were no significant changes between groups from baseline to week 8 in any outcome measure of nutrient intake, body composition, glucose control, or lipid concentrations. There was a modest decrease in TNF-alpha in the flaxseed group as compared to the control (p = 0.06) as well as a mild decrease in TBARS in the flaxseed as compared to the control group (p = 0.083), though neither were significant. Conclusions: The current study did not detect a measurable association between 28 g/d flaxseed consumption for 8 weeks in T2D participants and improvements in glycemic control or lipid profiles. There was a modest, albeit insignificant, decrease in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the flaxseed group as compared to the control, which warrants further study.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Vitamin C supplementation and physical activity levels in young men

Description

Among its many roles in the body, ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor in carnitine and catecholamine synthesis, metabolites involved in fat oxidation and mood regulation, respectively. Given that

Among its many roles in the body, ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor in carnitine and catecholamine synthesis, metabolites involved in fat oxidation and mood regulation, respectively. Given that fat oxidation and mood affect one's feelings of vigor, I hypothesized that those with lower levels of plasma ascorbic acid would be less likely to exercise at high levels than individuals with adequate or high levels of vitamin C. To test this, I conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A group of healthy, non-smoking males between the ages of 18 and 40 were put on a vitamin C-restricted diet for two weeks and then randomized to a control group that received placebo capsules for six weeks or an intervention group that received 500 mg of vitamin C daily for six weeks. The men were restricted from eating foods high in vitamin C, instructed to wear a pedometer daily and to record their step counts, and to take a pill daily (either the placebo or vitamin C supplement). Unexpectedly, the subjects receiving the intervention had lower step counts than the control group; the control group, rather than the vitamin C group, significantly (p=0.017) increased their steps at week 8 compared to week 2. However, I also estimated daily Metabolic Equivalent Tasks (METs), and subjects receiving the placebo had lower MET outputs than subjects receiving vitamin C at the end of the trial, in spite of having higher step counts. This means the intensity of their activity was higher, based on METs expenditure. Additionally, depression scores (POMS-D) as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire were significantly higher (p=0.041) among subjects receiving the placebo at the end of the study. These latter results are consistent with my expectations that subjects with higher levels of plasma vitamin C would have improved mood and higher energy output than subjects with low levels of vitamin C.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Almond consumption during a walking intervention in relation to heart rate recovery

Description

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel two-arm trial was to examine the effect that an intervention of combining daily almond consumption (2.5 ounces) with a walking program would have

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this randomized parallel two-arm trial was to examine the effect that an intervention of combining daily almond consumption (2.5 ounces) with a walking program would have on heart rate recovery and resting heart rate when compared to the control group that consumed a placebo (cookie butter) in men and postmenopausal women, aged 20-69, in Phoenix, Arizona.

Design: 12 men and women from Phoenix, Arizona completed an 8-week walking study (step goal: 10,000 steps per day). Subjects were healthy yet sedentary, non-smokers, free from gluten or nut allergies, who had controlled blood pressure. At week 5, participants were randomized into one of two groups: ALM (2.5 oz of almonds daily for last 3 weeks of trial) or CON (4 tbsp of cookie butter daily for last 3 weeks of trial). Body weight, BMI, and percent body fat were measured using a stadiometer and Tanita at the screening visit. Resting heart rate, heart rate recovery, and anthropometric measurements were taken at weeks 0, 5, and 8.

Results: 8 weeks of walking 10,000 steps per day, with or without 3 weeks of almond consumption did not significantly improve heart rate recovery (p=0.818) or resting heart rate (0.968).

Conclusions: Almond consumption in combination with a walking intervention does not significantly improve heart rate recovery or resting heart rate.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Selenium supplementation and cardiovascular outcome markers in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, controlled trial

Description

Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on

Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on CVD outcomes and antioxidant status in HD patients. Design A randomized controlled intervention trial conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants/setting The study included 27 maintenance HD patients (61.1+17.5y, 14M, 13F) receiving HD in the greater Phoenix, AZ area. Intervention Patients received one of three treatments daily: 2 Brazil nuts, (5g, 181µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine [predicted]), 1 tablet of selenium (200µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine), or control (3 gummy bears). Main outcome measures Antioxidant status outcome measures included total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, and RBC and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). CVD outcomes measures included brain natriuretic peptide; plasma cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides; blood pressure, and thoracic cavity fluid accumulation. Statistical analyses performed Repeated measures ANOVA analyzed changes over time and between groups at months 0 and 2 and months 0 and 3. Results Independent analysis showed the Brazil nuts provided 11µg of selenium/day and the pill provided 266µg of selenium/day. Consequently, the Brazil nut group was combined with the placebo group. 21 patients completed 2 months of the study and 17 patients completed the study in its entirety. Data was analyzed for months 0, 1 and 2. No significant differences were noted for antioxidant status outcome measures with the exception of plasma GSH-Px. Patients receiving the selenium pill had a significant increase in plasma GSH-Px compared to the placebo group (6.0+11 and -4.0+7.6, respectively, p=0.023 for change between month 0 and month 2). No significant differences were seen in total antioxidant capacity or for CVD outcome measures over time or between groups. Conclusions These data indicate that selenium supplementation increased plasma GSH-Px concentration in HD patients; however, oxidative stress was not altered by selenium supplementation. The low vitamin C status of HD patients warrants further research, specifically in conjunction with selenium supplementation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Assessing cardiovascular disease risk factors among overweight and obese Mexican-American adults

Description

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established,

Mexican Americans have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association of hyperglycemia with traditional CVD risk factors in this population has been established, but there is limited data regarding other non-traditional CVD risk factors. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate CVD risk among Mexican Americans by measuring concentrations of lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cholesterol in low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Eighty overweight/obese Mexican-American adults participating in the Maricopa Insulin Resistance Initiative were randomly selected from each of the following four groups (n = 20 per group): nomolipidemic
ormoglycemic controls (NC), dyslipidemic
ormoglycemic (DN), dyslipidemic/prediabetic (DPD) and dyslipidemic/diabetic (DD). Total cholesterol (TC) was 30% higher among DD than in NC participants (p<0.0001). The DPD group had 27% and 12% higher LDL-C concentrations than the NC and DN groups, respectively. Similarly, LDL-C was 29% and 13% higher in DD than in NC and DN participants (p=0.013). An increasing trend was observed in %10-year CVD risk with increasing degree of hyperglycemia (p<0.0001). The NC group had less cholesterol in sdLDL particles than dyslipidemic groups, regardless of glycemic status (p<0.0001). When hyperglycemia was part of the phenotype (DPD and DD), there was a greater proportion of total and HDL-C in sHDL particles in dyslipidemic individuals than in NC (p=0.023; p<0.0001; respectively). Percent 10-year CVD risk was positively correlated with triglyceride (TG) (r=0.384, p<0.0001), TC (r=0.340, p<0.05), cholesterol in sdLDL(r=0.247; p<0.05), and TC to HDL-C ratio (r=0.404, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with HDL-C in intermediate and large HDL(r=-0.38, p=0.001; r=0.34, p=0.002, respectively). The TC/HDL-C was positively correlated with cholesterol in sdLDL particles (r=0.698, p<0.0001) and HDL-C in sHDL particles (r=0.602, p<0.0001), and negatively correlated with cholesterol in small (r=-0.35, p=0.002), intermediate (r=-0.91, p<0.0001) and large (r=-0.84, p<0.0001) HDL particles, and HDL-C in the large HDL particles (r=-0.562, p<0.0001). No significant association was found between %10-year CVD risk and hsCRP. Collectively, these results corroborate that dyslipidemic Mexican-American adults have higher CVD risk than normolipidemic individuals. Hyperglycemia may further affect CVD risk by modulating cholesterol in LDL and HDL subfractions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The relation of farmers' market nutrition program coupon use with accessibility and WIC CVV redemption rates at farmers' markets

Description

ABSTRACT Fruit and vegetable intake is not uniform across levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and researchers have identified low SES as a risk factor for poor intake of fruits and

ABSTRACT Fruit and vegetable intake is not uniform across levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and researchers have identified low SES as a risk factor for poor intake of fruits and vegetables. In an effort to eliminate public health disparities and increase fruit and vegetable intake, the Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) program implemented additional food assistance programs, with a specific emphasis on fresh fruits and vegetables. The Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) provides pre-existing WIC clients with coupons to purchase fresh, locally grown produce at farmers' markets. In addition, Congress also approved the WIC Cash Value Voucher (CVV) program, which provides WIC participants with vouchers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at farmers' markets or grocery stores. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the relation of FMNP coupon use with accessibility and WIC CVV redemption rates at farmers' markets. Furthermore, this thesis addressed whether WIC shoppers redeemed a higher percentage of their WIC CVV value at farmers' markets or grocery stores. WIC CVV and FMNP issuance and redemption data were analyzed to establish overall redemption rates and total perecent of WIC CVV value redeemed. Accessibility was assessed using the Geographic Information System, which allowed me to calculate the distance that WIC participants would have to travel to redeem their FMNP coupons at FMNP-approved farmers' markets. The results showed that less than 1% of WIC shoppers redeem their WIC CVVs at farmers'markets in Arizona. However, the redemption of WIC CVV was significantly higher during the months when shoppers had the option of using both WIC CVV and FMNP coupons at farmers' markets. Furthermore, the percent of total CVV value redeemed at farmers' markets was 99%, significantly higher than grocery stores (93.5%). Average FMNP coupon redemption rates for 2008-2010 was 43.3%, well below the national average of 59%. However, my spatial analysis revealed that there was no significant association between the distance traveled to farmers' markets and FMNP redemption rates. This indicates that the distance traveled to farmers' markets is not a major barrier to redemption of FMNP coupons in Arizona.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Assessing the relationship between cobalamin deficiency and methylation capacity in a vegetarian population

Description

According to a 2016 census, eight million adults conform to a vegetarian diet within the United States, and about 50% of these adults follow a vegan diet. The census determined

According to a 2016 census, eight million adults conform to a vegetarian diet within the United States, and about 50% of these adults follow a vegan diet. The census determined that plant-based diets are quickly growing in popularity particularly in young adults between the ages of 18 to 34 years. Many Americans are aware of the health benefits of a plant-based diet, however, the dietary risks associated with these diets are not well emphasized. Health concerns such as vitamin deficiencies and altered metabolism are heightened in vegetarian populations.

One Particular nutrient that is commonly lacking in the vegetarian diet is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is found mainly in animal-derived food sources such as meat, poultry, fish, dairy, and eggs. Although some vegetarians, called lacto-ovo vegetarians, consume dairy and eggs, vegans do not consume any animal products at all. Vitamin B12 deficiency can have devastating consequences on the human body due to its role as a methylation cofactor. Metabolism, DNA replication, and cancer formation all involve methylation processes.

This cross-sectional, differential study aimed to further understand the relationship between vegetarianism, vitamin B12 status, and methylation capacity in healthy adults. A group of 34 healthy adults (18 vegetarians and 16 omnivores) was recruited to analyze serum B12, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, serum total folate, and transcobalamin II status. It was hypothesized that (1) vegetarians would have a lower vitamin B12 status, and thus, a lower methylation capacity than omnivores and that (2) low vitamin B12 status would be correlated with low methylation capacity.

The data show that vegetarians did not have significantly lower vitamin B12 methylation capacity status than omnivores. Nor was vitamin B12 status correlated with methylation capacity. However, the data revealed that diet quality had a positive influence on folate status. There was also a statistical trend (p=0.08) for homocysteine reduction in participants consuming high-quality diets. The data herein suggest that methylation capacity may be impacted by the quality of diet rather than the type of diet.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Effects of postmeal walking on postprandial glucose control and oxidative stress

Description

Background: Postprandial hyperglycemia can increase levels of oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for complications associated with type 2 diabetes.

Purpose: To evaluate the acute effects of a 15-min

Background: Postprandial hyperglycemia can increase levels of oxidative stress and is an independent risk factor for complications associated with type 2 diabetes.

Purpose: To evaluate the acute effects of a 15-min postmeal walk on glucose control and markers of oxidative stress following a high-carbohydrate meal.

Methods: Ten obese subjects (55.0 ± 10.0 yrs) with impaired fasting glucose (107.1 ± 9.0 mg/dL) participated in this repeated measures trial. Subjects arrived at the laboratory following an overnight fast and underwent one of three conditions: 1) Test meal with no walking or fiber (CON), 2) Test meal with 10g fiber and no walking (FIB), 3) Test meal with no fiber followed by a 15-min treadmill walk at preferred walking speed (WALK). Blood samples were taken over four hours and assayed for glucose, insulin, thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), catalase, uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare mean differences for all outcome variables.

Results: The 2hr and 4hr incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for glucose was lower in both FIB (2hr: -93.59 mmol∙120 min∙L-1, p = 0.006; 4hr: -92.59 mmol∙240 min∙L-1; p = 0.041) and WALK (2hr: -77.21 mmol∙120 min∙L-1, p = 0.002; 4hr: -102.94 mmol∙240 min∙L-1; p = 0.005) conditions respectively, compared with CON. There were no differences in 2hr or 4hr iAUC for glucose between FIB and WALK (2hr: p = 0.493; 4hr: p = 0.783). The 2hr iAUC for insulin was significantly lower in both FIB (-37.15 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.021) and WALK (-66.35 μU ∙h/mL; p < 0.001) conditions, compared with CON, and was significantly lower in the WALK (-29.2 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.049) condition, compared with FIB. The 4hr iAUC for insulin in the WALK condition was significantly lower than both CON (-104.51 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.001) and FIB (-77.12 μU ∙h/mL; p = 0.006) conditions. Markers of oxidative stress were not significantly different between conditions.

Conclusion: A moderate 15-minute postmeal walk is an effective strategy to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia. However, it is unclear if this attenuation could lead to improvements in postprandial oxidative stress.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Validating a laser for measuring supine and standing heights against current measures in adults

Description

The stadiometer is the gold standard human height measure, but recent studies have begun to question whether laser technology is a better tool to measure height. The purpose of this

The stadiometer is the gold standard human height measure, but recent studies have begun to question whether laser technology is a better tool to measure height. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the laser device has inter-rater reliability, how the laser-device measures supine height in comparison to standard methods, and if the laser device will be consistent in measuring human height shorter, as seen in previous studies. Two investigators measured a total of 80 adults independently. Measurements included knee height, arm span, demi span, supine height by laser, standing height by laser and standing height by stadiometer. There was a strong inter-rater reliability for the laser height measurement: excluding one outlier r=0.998. Supine height measures done with a laser were strongly correlated with arm span, but mean values were closest between supine height and knee height (171.3cm and 171.2cm). The laser measured standing height 0.5cm shorter, on average, than the stadiometer. It is concluded that the laser device is a reliable, validated tool to measure human height, standing or supine.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016