Matching Items (26)

Simplifying Functional Assays for Partitioning of Nanoparticles in Immiscible Phases

Description

Conventional functional assays (FAs), which are used to describe the behaviors and assess the impacts of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), have extensive human factor related errors (i.e. extraction process errors due

Conventional functional assays (FAs), which are used to describe the behaviors and assess the impacts of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), have extensive human factor related errors (i.e. extraction process errors due to human laboratory skills), and consume considerable amounts of laboratory material. Consequently, there is a need and opportunity to improve conventional FAs by minimizing the potential for human factor related errors, reducing the usage of ENMs and reagents, and increase experimental reproducibility. The goal of this study was to simplify the conventional FAs and evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the simplified FAs. The underlying hypothesis implies that simplified FAs could quickly quantify the partitioning of nanoparticles between immiscible phases with minimum human factor related errors, low usage of ENMs, and high experimental reproducibility. Three different FAs were studied for this project: octanol-water assay, distribution to sediment assay, and cloud point extraction (CPE) assay. Three widely applied ENMs were selected: silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with citrate, magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) capped with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) dispersed in an organic solution. Removal efficiency was the selected parameter used to describe the distribution of ENMs. Based on the variability and the t-tests on the removal efficiencies of conventional and simplified FAs, it is conclusive that the conventional octanol-water FAs on Fe3O4, the sediment FAs on Fe3O4, and the CPE FAs on MWCNTs and Fe3O4 can be simplified. The conventional octanol-water on AgNPs and the sediment FAs on AgNPs and MWCNTs cannot be simplified. It is inconclusive that the conventional octanol-water FAs on MWCNTs and the CPE FAs on AgNPs can be simplified, due to the uncertain causes and consistency of the differences on the removal efficiencies.

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  • 2017-05

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Enhancing American Resilience: Testing An Alternative Evaluation Method For Governmental Contingency Planning

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As the frequency of US-based disasters increases, so does the need for effective governmental contingency planning and improvement. The current, external evaluation method presents several opportunities for improvement, including cost,

As the frequency of US-based disasters increases, so does the need for effective governmental contingency planning and improvement. The current, external evaluation method presents several opportunities for improvement, including cost, efficacy of results, and turnaround time for results. Utilizing a tabletop exercise as it's model, this study designed a self-evaluation tool to test if the data provided by such a tool is similar to the data provided by an external evaluator. After testing it in a government-sanctioned tabletop exercise, the tool showed its ability to be utilized in an exercise and evaluate the participants, based off their perceived success in the exercise. The results of the study indicate a strong, positive correlation between the results of the participant and evaluator populations surveyed as well as statistical equality between the two groups.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Hexavalent chromium removal using ultraviolet photocatalytic reactor

Description

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove

Hexavalant chromium (Cr(VI)) poses an emerging concern in drinking water treatment with stricter regulations on the horizon. Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was investigated as an engineering scale option to remove hexavalent chromium from drinking or industrial waters via a UV/titanium dioxide (TiO2) process. Using an integrated UV lamp/ceramic membrane system to recirculate TiO2, both hexavalent and total chromium levels were reduced through photocatalytic processes without additional chemicals. Cr(VI) removal increased as a function of higher energy input and TiO2 dosage, achieving above 90% removal for a 1g/L dose of TiO2. Surface analysis of effluent TiO2 confirmed the presence of chromium species.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Electrospun polymeric nanocomposites for aqueous inorganic and organic pollutant removal

Description

Electrospinning is a means of fabricating micron-scale diameter fiber networks with enmeshed nanomaterials. Polymeric nanocomposites for water treatment require the manipulation of fiber morphology to expose nanomaterial surface area while

Electrospinning is a means of fabricating micron-scale diameter fiber networks with enmeshed nanomaterials. Polymeric nanocomposites for water treatment require the manipulation of fiber morphology to expose nanomaterial surface area while anchoring the nanomaterials and maintaining fiber integrity; that is the overarching goal of this dissertation. The first investigation studied the effect of metal oxide nanomaterial loadings on electrospinning process parameters such as critical voltage, viscosity, fiber diameter, and nanomaterial distribution. Increases in nanomaterial loading below 5% (w/v) were not found to affect critical voltage or fiber diameter. Nanomaterial dispersion was conserved throughout the process. Arsenic adsorption tests determined that the fibers were non-porous. Next, the morphologies of fibers made with carbonaceous materials and the effect of final fiber assembly on adsorption kinetics of a model organic contaminant (phenanthrene, PNT) was investigated. Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), C60 fullerenes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and graphene platelets were added to PS and electrospun. SPAC maintained its internal pore structure and created porous fibers which had 30% greater PNT sorption than PS alone and a sevenfold increase in surface area. Carbon-based nanomaterial-PS fibers were thicker but less capacious than neat polystyrene electrospun fibers. The surface areas of the carbonaceous nanomaterial-polystyrene composites decreased compared to neat PS, and PNT adsorption experiments yielded decreased capacity for two out of three carbonaceous nanomaterials. Finally, the morphology and arsenic adsorption capacity of a porous TiO2-PS porous fiber was investigated. Porous fiber was made using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a porogen. PVP, PS, and TiO2 were co-spun and the PVP was subsequently eliminated, leaving behind a porous fiber morphology which increased the surface area of the fiber sevenfold and exposed the nanoscale TiO2 enmeshed inside the PS. TiO2-PS fibers had comparable arsenic adsorption performance to non-embedded TiO2 despite containing less TiO2 mass. The use of a sacrificial polymer as a porogen facilitates the creation of a fiber morphology which provides access points between the target pollutant in an aqueous matrix and the sorptive nanomaterials enmeshed inside the fiber while anchoring the nanomaterials, thus preventing release.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Improving activated carbon performance in point of use and municipal processes

Description

Specific inorganic and organic pollutants in water (As(V), Cr(VI), THMs, and hardness) cause health concerns or aesthetic problems. The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel approaches to improve

Specific inorganic and organic pollutants in water (As(V), Cr(VI), THMs, and hardness) cause health concerns or aesthetic problems. The goal of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel approaches to improve the performance of point of use and municipal activated carbon processes to provide safe and reliable water to the public at distributed centralized locations.

Template Assisted Crystallization system would adjust saturation index (SI) value of TAC treated water to zero when SI value of influent water was in the range at 0.08~0.3. However, the reduction in SI when SI values were higher (e.g. 0.7~1.3) was similar to the reduction at lower SI values which could be due to limitations in kinetics or mass transfer with the template on TAC media.

Pre-chlorination prior to municipal-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment was evaluated to control THM formation in distribution systems. Pre-chlorination decreased UVA, shift the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) molecular weight distribution and pre-formed trihalomethanes (THM). GAC treatment of pre-chlorinated water achieved lower THM formation in distribution systems.

To add functionality in POU systems to remove As(V) and Cr(VI), activated carbon was nano-tized to fabricate nano-enabled carbon block (CB) by (1) impregnating iron or titanium metal oxides chemically or (2) attaching titanium based P25 through electrostatic attraction force. Nanoparticle loadings of 5 to 10 wt % with respect to activated carbon enables reduction of As(V) or Cr(VI) from levels of common occurrence to below regulatory levels across carbon block designs. Minimal impacts on As(V) and Cr(VI) sorption were observed up to a nanoparticle pre-treatment temperature of 200 C, which is the temperature for CB production. Through controlling pH at 4.5 during mixing of nanoparticles with pH IEP=6 and activated carbon with pH IEP=3, electrostatic attachment of nanoparticles to activated carbon could be achieved prior to fabricating carbon block. A mini carbon block test device was designed, fabricated, and validated to mimic performances of full-scale carbon block using less volumes of test water. As(V) removal tests showed Fe impregnated CB achieved the highest As(V) removal while P25 attached CB had the lowest among three nanoparticles loaded CBs.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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TiO2 nanomaterials: human exposure and environmental release

Description

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial use is becoming more prevalent as is the likelihood of human exposure and environmental release. The goal of this thesis is to develop analytical techniques to

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial use is becoming more prevalent as is the likelihood of human exposure and environmental release. The goal of this thesis is to develop analytical techniques to quantify the level of TiO2 in complex matrices to support environmental, health, and safety research of TiO2 nanomaterials. A pharmacokinetic model showed that the inhalation of TiO2 nanomaterials caused the highest amount to be absorbed and distributed throughout the body. Smaller nanomaterials (< 5nm) accumulated in the kidneys before clearance. Nanoparticles of 25 nm diameter accumulated in the liver and spleen and were cleared from the body slower than smaller nanomaterials. A digestion method using nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and hydrogen peroxide was found to digest organic materials and TiO2 with a recovery of >80%. The samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the method detection limit was 600 ng of Ti. An intratracheal instillation study of TiO2 nanomaterials in rats found anatase TiO2 nanoparticles in the caudal lung lobe of rats 1 day post instillation at a concentration of 1.2 ug/mg dry tissue, the highest deposition rate of any TiO2 nanomaterial. For all TiO2 nanomaterial morphologies the concentrations in the caudal lobes were significantly higher than those in the cranial lobes. In a study of TiO2 concentration in food products, white colored foods or foods with a hard outer shell had higher concentrations of TiO2. Hostess Powdered Donettes were found to have the highest Ti mass per serving with 200 mg Ti. As much as 3.8% of the total TiO2 mass was able to pass through a 0.45 um indicating that some of the TiO2 is likely nanosized. In a study of TiO2 concentrations in personal care products and paints, the concentration of TiO2 was as high as 117 ug/mg in Benjamin Moore white paint and 70 ug/mg in a Neutrogena sunscreen. Greater than 6% of Ti in one sunscreen was able to pass through a 0.45 um filter. The nanosized TiO2 in food products and personal care products may release as much as 16 mg of nanosized TiO2 per individual per day to wastewater.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Immobilization of T4 on modified silica particles

Description

Bacteriophage provide high specificity to bacteria; receiving interest in various applications and have been used as target recognition tools in designing bioactive surfaces. Several current immobilization strategies to detect and

Bacteriophage provide high specificity to bacteria; receiving interest in various applications and have been used as target recognition tools in designing bioactive surfaces. Several current immobilization strategies to detect and capture bacteriophage require non-deliverable bioactive substrates or modifying the chemistry of the phage, procedures that are labor intensive and can damage the integrity of the virus. The aim of this research was to develop the framework to physisorb and chemisorb T4 coliphage on varied sized functionalized silica particles while retaining its infectivity. First, silica surface modification, silanization, altered pristine silica colloids to positively, amine coated silica. The phages remain infective to their host bacteria while adsorbed on the surface of the silica particles. It is reported that the number of infective phage bound to the silica is enhanced by the immobilization method. It was determined that covalent attachment yielded 106 PFU/ml while electrostatic attachment resulted in 105 PFU/ml.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Comparative analysis of adsorptive media treatment for arsenic at SRP groundwater wells

Description

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element that poses a health risk when continually consumed at levels exceeding the Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ppb.

Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring element that poses a health risk when continually consumed at levels exceeding the Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 ppb. With the Arizona Department of Water Resources considering reliance on other sources of water other than just solely surface water, groundwater proves a reliable, supplemental source. The Salt River Project (SRP) wants to effectively treat their noncompliance groundwater sources to meet EPA compliance. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) of two SRP controlled groundwater wells along the Eastern Canal and Consolidated Canal were designed to assist SRP in selection and future design of full-scale packed bed adsorbent media. Main concerns for column choice is effectiveness, design space at groundwater wells, and simplicity. Two adsorbent media types were tested for effective treatment of As to below the MCL: a synthetic iron oxide, Bayoxide E33, and a strong base anion exchange resin, SBG-1. Both media have high affinity toward As and prove effective at treating As from these groundwater sources. Bayoxide E33 RSSCT performance indicated that As treatment lasted to near 60,000 bed volumes (BV) in both water sources and still showed As adsorption extending past this operation ranging from several months to a year. SBG-1 RSSCT performance indicated As, treatment lasted to 500 BV, with the added benefit of being regenerated. At 5%, 13%, and 25% brine regeneration concentrations, regeneration showed that 5% brine is effective, yet would complicate overall design and footprint. Bayoxide E33 was selected as the best adsorbent media for SRP use in full-scale columns at groundwater wells due to its simplistic design and high efficiency.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Metal oxide nanoparticles in electrospun polymers and their fate in aqueous waste streams

Description

Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly present in our environment. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), defined as objects that measure less than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension, are being integrated into commercial

Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly present in our environment. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), defined as objects that measure less than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension, are being integrated into commercial products because of their small size, increased surface area, and quantum effects. These special properties have made ENPs antimicrobial agents in clothing and plastics, among other applications in industries such as pharmaceuticals, renewable energy, and prosthetics. This thesis incorporates investigations into both application of nanoparticles into polymers as well as implications of nanoparticle release into the environment. First, the integration of ENPs into polymer fibers via electrospinning was explored. Electrospinning uses an external electric field applied to a polymer solution to produce continuous fibers with large surface area and small volume, a quality which makes the fibers ideal for water and air purification purposes. Indium oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were embedded in polyvinylpyrrolidone and polystyrene. Viscosity, critical voltage, and diameter of electrospun fibers were analyzed in order to determine the effects of nanoparticle integration into the polymers. Critical voltage and viscosity of solution increased at 5 wt% ENP concentration. Fiber morphology was not found to change significantly as a direct effect of ENP addition, but as an effect of increased viscosity and surface tension. These results indicate the possibility for seamless integration of ENPs into electrospun polymers. Implications of ENP release were investigated using phase distribution functional assays of nanoscale silver and silver sulfide, as well as photolysis experiments of nanoscale titanium dioxide to quantify hydroxyl radical production. Functional assays are a means of screening the relevant importance of multiple processes in the environmental fate and transport of ENPs. Four functional assays – water-soil, water-octanol, water-wastewater sludge and water-surfactant – were used to compare concentrations of silver sulfide ENPs (Ag2S-NP) and silver ENPs (AgNP) capped by four different coatings. The functional assays resulted in reproducible experiments which clearly showed variations between nanoparticle phase distributions; the findings may be a product of the effects of the different coatings of the ENPs used. In addition to phase distribution experiments, the production of hydroxyl radical (HO•) by nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2) under simulated solar irradiation was investigated. Hydroxyl radical are a short-lived, highly reactive species produced by solar radiation in aquatic environments that affect ecosystem function and degrades pollutants. HO• is produced by photolysis of TiO2 and nitrate (NO3-); these two species were used in photolysis experiments to compare the relative loads of hydroxyl radical which nanoscale TiO2 may add upon release to natural waters. Para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) was used as a probe. Measured rates of pCBA oxidation in the presence of various concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles and NO3- were utilized to calculate pseudo first order rate constants. Results indicate that, on a mass concentration basis in water, TiO2 produces hydroxyl radical steady state concentrations at 1.3 times more than the equivalent amount of NO3-; however, TiO2 concentrations are generally less than one order of magnitude lower than concentrations of NO3-. This has implications for natural waterways as the amount of nanoscale TiO2 released from consumer products into natural waterways increases in proportion to its use.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Photocatalysis for reductive transformation of nitrate and chromate in drinking water

Description

Contamination of drinking water supplies from oxo-anion pollutants necessitates treatment prior to potable use. This dissertation aims to inform and improve light delivery (emission spectra, radiant intensity, reactor configuration) in

Contamination of drinking water supplies from oxo-anion pollutants necessitates treatment prior to potable use. This dissertation aims to inform and improve light delivery (emission spectra, radiant intensity, reactor configuration) in order to enhance the photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and nitrate, two common oxo-anions in drinking water, and photocatalytic oxidation of two model organic pollutants (methylene blue, (MB) and para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)). By varying the photon fluence dose, two metrics (contaminant quantum yield (Φ), and electrical energy per order (EEO)) were used to assess photocatalytic reactor performance. A detailed literature review and experimental results demonstrated how different irradiance sources with variable intensity and emission spectra synergistically enhanced contaminant removal by a coupled photolytic/photocatalytic reaction mechanism. Cr(VI) was photocatalytically reduced on TiO2 and formed Cr(OH)3(s) in a large-scale slurry reactor, but Cr(III) was then photolyzed and reformed Cr(VI). UV light also led to photo-aggregation of TiO2 which improved its recovery by the ceramic membrane within the reactor. For nitrate reduction, light source emission spectra and fluence dose delineate the preferred pathways as intermediates were reduced via wavelength-dependent mechanisms. HONO was identified as a key nitrate reduction intermediate, which was reduced photocatalytically (UV wavelengths) and/or readily photolyzed at 365nm, to yield nitrogen gases. Photocatalytic nitrate reduction efficiency was higher for discrete wavelength irradiation than polychromatic irradiation. Light delivery through aqueous media to the catalyst surface limits efficiency of slurry-based photocatalysts because absorption and scattering of light in nanomaterial slurries decreases effective photon transmittance and minimizes photolytic reactions. The use of optical fibers coupled to light emitting diodes (OF-LED) with immobilized catalyst demonstrated higher performance compared to slurry systems. OF-LED increased Φ for MB degradation by increasing direct photon delivery to the photocatalyst. Design of OF-LED reactors using bundled optical fibers demonstrated photocatalytic pCBA removal with high Φ and reduced EEO due to increased surface area and catalytic sites compared to single OF/LED couples. This work advances light delivery as well as the suspension and attachment of nanoparticles in photocatalytic water treatment for selective transformation of oxo-anions and organic compounds to innocuous species.

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Date Created
  • 2017