Matching Items (27)

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Maximum Entropy Surrogation in Multiple Channel Signal Detection

Description

Multiple-channel detection is considered in the context of a sensor network where data can be exchanged directly between sensor nodes that share a common edge in the network graph. Optimal

Multiple-channel detection is considered in the context of a sensor network where data can be exchanged directly between sensor nodes that share a common edge in the network graph. Optimal statistical tests used for signal source detection with multiple noisy sensors, such as the Generalized Coherence (GC) estimate, use pairwise measurements from every pair of sensors in the network and are thus only applicable when the network graph is completely connected, or when data are accumulated at a common fusion center. This thesis presents and exploits a new method that uses maximum-entropy techniques to estimate measurements between pairs of sensors that are not in direct communication, thereby enabling the use of the GC estimate in incompletely connected sensor networks. The research in this thesis culminates in a main conjecture supported by statistical tests regarding the topology of the incomplete network graphs.

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  • 2014-05

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Visual Surround Sound and its Applications

Description

The world of a hearing impaired person is much different than that of somebody capable of discerning different frequencies and magnitudes of sound waves via their ears. This is especially

The world of a hearing impaired person is much different than that of somebody capable of discerning different frequencies and magnitudes of sound waves via their ears. This is especially true when hearing impaired people play video games. In most video games, surround sound is fed through some sort of digital output to headphones or speakers. Based on this information, the gamer can discern where a particular stimulus is coming from and whether or not that is a threat to their wellbeing within the virtual world. People with reliable hearing have a distinct advantage over hearing impaired people in the fact that they can gather information not just from what is in front of them, but from every angle relative to the way they're facing. The purpose of this project was to find a way to even the playing field, so that a person hard of hearing could also receive the sensory feedback that any other person would get while playing video games To do this, visual surround sound was created. This is a system that takes a surround sound input, and illuminates LEDs around the periphery of glasses based on the direction, frequency and amplitude of the audio wave. This provides the user with crucial information on the whereabouts of different elements within the game. In this paper, the research and development of Visual Surround Sound is discussed along with its viability in regards to a deaf person's ability to learn the technology, and decipher the visual cues.

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  • 2015-05

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Audio Waveform Sample SVD Compression and Impact on Performance

Description

Lossy compression is a form of compression that slightly degrades a signal in ways that are ideally not detectable to the human ear. This is opposite to lossless compression, in

Lossy compression is a form of compression that slightly degrades a signal in ways that are ideally not detectable to the human ear. This is opposite to lossless compression, in which the sample is not degraded at all. While lossless compression may seem like the best option, lossy compression, which is used in most audio and video, reduces transmission time and results in much smaller file sizes. However, this compression can affect quality if it goes too far. The more compression there is on a waveform, the more degradation there is, and once a file is lossy compressed, this process is not reversible. This project will observe the degradation of an audio signal after the application of Singular Value Decomposition compression, a lossy compression that eliminates singular values from a signal’s matrix.

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  • 2021-05

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On the ordering of communication channels

Description

This dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of instantaneous channel powers of fading channels as a general method to compare the performance of a communication system over two different channels, even when

This dissertation introduces stochastic ordering of instantaneous channel powers of fading channels as a general method to compare the performance of a communication system over two different channels, even when a closed-form expression for the metric may not be available. Such a comparison is with respect to a variety of performance metrics such as error rates, outage probability and ergodic capacity, which share common mathematical properties such as monotonicity, convexity or complete monotonicity. Complete monotonicity of a metric, such as the symbol error rate, in conjunction with the stochastic Laplace transform order between two fading channels implies the ordering of the two channels with respect to the metric. While it has been established previously that certain modulation schemes have convex symbol error rates, there is no study of the complete monotonicity of the same, which helps in establishing stronger channel ordering results. Toward this goal, the current research proves for the first time, that all 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional modulations have completely monotone symbol error rates. Furthermore, it is shown that the frequently used parametric fading distributions for modeling line of sight exhibit a monotonicity in the line of sight parameter with respect to the Laplace transform order. While the Laplace transform order can also be used to order fading distributions based on the ergodic capacity, there exist several distributions which are not Laplace transform ordered, although they have ordered ergodic capacities. To address this gap, a new stochastic order called the ergodic capacity order has been proposed herein, which can be used to compare channels based on the ergodic capacity. Using stochastic orders, average performance of systems involving multiple random variables are compared over two different channels. These systems include diversity combining schemes, relay networks, and signal detection over fading channels with non-Gaussian additive noise. This research also addresses the problem of unifying fading distributions. This unification is based on infinite divisibility, which subsumes almost all known fading distributions, and provides simplified expressions for performance metrics, in addition to enabling stochastic ordering.

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  • 2014

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Optimal power allocation and scheduling of real-time data for cognitive radios

Description

In this dissertation, I propose potential techniques to improve the quality-of-service (QoS) of real-time applications in cognitive radio (CR) systems. Unlike best-effort applications, real-time applications, such as audio and video,

In this dissertation, I propose potential techniques to improve the quality-of-service (QoS) of real-time applications in cognitive radio (CR) systems. Unlike best-effort applications, real-time applications, such as audio and video, have a QoS that need to be met. There are two different frameworks that are used to study the QoS in the literature, namely, the average-delay and the hard-deadline frameworks. In the former, the scheduling algorithm has to guarantee that the packet's average delay is below a prespecified threshold while the latter imposes a hard deadline on each packet in the system. In this dissertation, I present joint power allocation and scheduling algorithms for each framework and show their applications in CR systems which are known to have strict power limitations so as to protect the licensed users from interference.

A common aspect of the two frameworks is the packet service time. Thus, the effect of multiple channels on the service time is studied first. The problem is formulated as an optimal stopping rule problem where it is required to decide at which channel the SU should stop sensing and begin transmission. I provide a closed-form expression for this optimal stopping rule and the optimal transmission power of secondary user (SU).

The average-delay framework is then presented in a single CR channel system with a base station (BS) that schedules the SUs to minimize the average delay while protecting the primary users (PUs) from harmful interference. One of the contributions of the proposed algorithm is its suitability for heterogeneous-channels systems where users with statistically low channel quality suffer worse delay performances. The proposed algorithm guarantees the prespecified delay performance to each SU without violating the PU's interference constraint.

Finally, in the hard-deadline framework, I propose three algorithms that maximize the system's throughput while guaranteeing the required percentage of packets to be transmitted by their deadlines. The proposed algorithms work in heterogeneous systems where the BS is serving different types of users having real-time (RT) data and non-real-time (NRT) data. I show that two of the proposed algorithms have the low complexity where the power policies of both the RT and NRT users are in closed-form expressions and a low-complexity scheduler.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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RF Convergence of Radar and Communications: Metrics, Bounds, and Systems

Description

RF convergence of radar and communications users is rapidly becoming an issue for a multitude of stakeholders. To hedge against growing spectral congestion, research into cooperative radar and communications systems

RF convergence of radar and communications users is rapidly becoming an issue for a multitude of stakeholders. To hedge against growing spectral congestion, research into cooperative radar and communications systems has been identified as a critical necessity for the United States and other countries. Further, the joint sensing-communicating paradigm appears imminent in several technological domains. In the pursuit of co-designing radar and communications systems that work cooperatively and benefit from each other's existence, joint radar-communications metrics are defined and bounded as a measure of performance. Estimation rate is introduced, a novel measure of radar estimation information as a function of time. Complementary to communications data rate, the two systems can now be compared on the same scale. An information-centric approach has a number of advantages, defining precisely what is gained through radar illumination and serves as a measure of spectral efficiency. Bounding radar estimation rate and communications data rate jointly, systems can be designed as a joint optimization problem.

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  • 2017

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Vulnerability Analysis of False Data Injection Attacks on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition and Phasor Measurement Units

Description

The electric power system is monitored via an extensive network of sensors in tandem with data processing algorithms, i.e., an intelligent cyber layer, that enables continual observation and control of

The electric power system is monitored via an extensive network of sensors in tandem with data processing algorithms, i.e., an intelligent cyber layer, that enables continual observation and control of the physical system to ensure reliable operations. This data collection and processing system is vulnerable to cyber-attacks that impact the system operation status and lead to serious physical consequences, including systematic problems and failures.

This dissertation studies the physical consequences of unobservable false data injection (FDI) attacks wherein the attacker maliciously changes supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) or phasor measurement unit (PMU) measurements, on the electric power system. In this context, the dissertation is divided into three parts, in which the first two parts focus on FDI attacks on SCADA and the last part focuses on FDI attacks on PMUs.

The first part studies the physical consequences of FDI attacks on SCADA measurements designed with limited system information. The attacker is assumed to have perfect knowledge inside a sub-network of the entire system. Two classes of attacks with different assumptions on the attacker's knowledge outside of the sub-network are introduced. In particular, for the second class of attacks, the attacker is assumed to have no information outside of the attack sub-network, but can perform multiple linear regression to learn the relationship between the external network and the attack sub-network with historical data. To determine the worst possible consequences of both classes of attacks, a bi-level optimization problem wherein the first level models the attacker's goal and the second level models the system response is introduced.

The second part of the dissertation concentrates on analyzing the vulnerability of systems to FDI attacks from the perspective of the system. To this end, an off-line vulnerability analysis framework is proposed to identify the subsets of the test system that are more prone to FDI attacks.

The third part studies the vulnerability of PMUs to FDI attacks. Two classes of more sophisticated FDI attacks that capture the temporal correlation of PMU data are introduced. Such attacks are designed with a convex optimization problem and can always bypass both the bad data detector and the low-rank decomposition (LD) detector.

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  • 2017

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Channel Estimation in Half and Full Duplex Relays

Description

Both two-way relays (TWR) and full-duplex (FD) radios are spectrally efficient, and their integration shows great potential to further improve the spectral efficiency, which offers a solution to the fifth

Both two-way relays (TWR) and full-duplex (FD) radios are spectrally efficient, and their integration shows great potential to further improve the spectral efficiency, which offers a solution to the fifth generation wireless systems. High quality channel state information (CSI) are the key components for the implementation and the performance of the FD TWR system, making channel estimation in FD TWRs crucial.

The impact of channel estimation on spectral efficiency in half-duplex multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) TWR systems is investigated. The trade-off between training and data energy is proposed. In the case that two sources are symmetric in power and number of antennas, a closed-form for the optimal ratio of data energy to total energy is derived. It can be shown that the achievable rate is a monotonically increasing function of the data length. The asymmetric case is discussed as well.

Efficient and accurate training schemes for FD TWRs are essential for profiting from the inherent spectrally efficient structures of both FD and TWRs. A novel one-block training scheme with a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator is proposed to estimate the channels between the nodes and the residual self-interference (RSI) channel simultaneously. Baseline training schemes are also considered to compare with the one-block scheme. The Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs) of the training schemes are derived and analyzed by using the asymptotic properties of Toeplitz matrices. The benefit of estimating the RSI channel is shown analytically in terms of Fisher information.

To obtain fundamental and analytic results of how the RSI affects the spectral efficiency, one-way FD relay systems are studied. Optimal training design and ML channel estimation are proposed to estimate the RSI channel. The CRBs are derived and analyzed in closed-form so that the optimal training sequence can be found via minimizing the CRB. Extensions of the training scheme to frequency-selective channels and multiple relays are also presented.

Simultaneously sensing and transmission in an FD cognitive radio system with MIMO is considered. The trade-off between the transmission rate and the detection accuracy is characterized by the sum-rate of the primary and the secondary users. Different beamforming and combining schemes are proposed and compared.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Quantifying Information Leakage via Adversarial Loss Functions: Theory and Practice

Description

Modern digital applications have significantly increased the leakage of private and sensitive personal data. While worst-case measures of leakage such as Differential Privacy (DP) provide the strongest guarantees, when utility

Modern digital applications have significantly increased the leakage of private and sensitive personal data. While worst-case measures of leakage such as Differential Privacy (DP) provide the strongest guarantees, when utility matters, average-case information-theoretic measures can be more relevant. However, most such information-theoretic measures do not have clear operational meanings. This dissertation addresses this challenge.

This work introduces a tunable leakage measure called maximal $\alpha$-leakage which quantifies the maximal gain of an adversary in inferring any function of a data set. The inferential capability of the adversary is modeled by a class of loss functions, namely, $\alpha$-loss. The choice of $\alpha$ determines specific adversarial actions ranging from refining a belief for $\alpha =1$ to guessing the best posterior for $\alpha = \infty$, and for the two specific values maximal $\alpha$-leakage simplifies to mutual information and maximal leakage, respectively. Maximal $\alpha$-leakage is proved to have a composition property and be robust to side information.

There is a fundamental disjoint between theoretical measures of information leakages and their applications in practice. This issue is addressed in the second part of this dissertation by proposing a data-driven framework for learning Censored and Fair Universal Representations (CFUR) of data. This framework is formulated as a constrained minimax optimization of the expected $\alpha$-loss where the constraint ensures a measure of the usefulness of the representation. The performance of the CFUR framework with $\alpha=1$ is evaluated on publicly accessible data sets; it is shown that multiple sensitive features can be effectively censored to achieve group fairness via demographic parity while ensuring accuracy for several \textit{a priori} unknown downstream tasks.

Finally, focusing on worst-case measures, novel information-theoretic tools are used to refine the existing relationship between two such measures, $(\epsilon,\delta)$-DP and R\'enyi-DP. Applying these tools to the moments accountant framework, one can track the privacy guarantee achieved by adding Gaussian noise to Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) algorithms. Relative to state-of-the-art, for the same privacy budget, this method allows about 100 more SGD rounds for training deep learning models.

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  • 2020

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Unobservable False Data Injection Attacks on Power Systems

Description

Reliable operation of modern power systems is ensured by an intelligent cyber layer that monitors and controls the physical system. The data collection and transmission is achieved by the supervisory

Reliable operation of modern power systems is ensured by an intelligent cyber layer that monitors and controls the physical system. The data collection and transmission is achieved by the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, and data processing is performed by the energy management system (EMS). In the recent decades, the development of phasor measurement units (PMUs) enables wide area real-time monitoring and control. However, both SCADA-based and PMU-based cyber layers are prone to cyber attacks that can impact system operation and lead to severe physical consequences.

This dissertation studies false data injection (FDI) attacks that are unobservable to bad data detectors (BDD). Prior work has shown that an attacker-defender bi-level linear program (ADBLP) can be used to determine the worst-case consequences of FDI attacks aiming to maximize the physical power flow on a target line. However, the results were only demonstrated on small systems assuming that they are operated with DC optimal power flow (OPF). This dissertation is divided into four parts to thoroughly understand the consequences of these attacks as well as develop countermeasures.

The first part focuses on evaluating the vulnerability of large-scale power systems to FDI attacks. The solution technique introduced in prior work to solve the ADBLP is intractable on large-scale systems due to the large number of binary variables. Four new computationally efficient algorithms are presented to solve this problem.

The second part studies vulnerability of N-1 reliable power systems operated by state-of-the-art EMSs commonly used in practice, specifically real-time contingency analysis (RTCA), and security-constrained economic dispatch (SCED). An ADBLP is formulated with detailed assumptions on attacker's knowledge and system operations.

The third part considers FDI attacks on PMU measurements that have strong temporal correlations due to high data rate. It is shown that predictive filters can detect suddenly injected attacks, but not gradually ramping attacks.

The last part proposes a machine learning-based attack detection framework consists of a support vector regression (SVR) load predictor that predicts loads by exploiting both spatial and temporal correlations, and a subsequent support vector machine (SVM) attack detector to determine the existence of attacks.

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Date Created
  • 2020