Matching Items (71)

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Development of Radiation Hardened High Voltage Super-Junction Power MOSFET

Description

In recent years, the Silicon Super-Junction (SJ) power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), has garnered significant interest from spacecraft designers. This is due to their high breakdown voltage and low

In recent years, the Silicon Super-Junction (SJ) power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), has garnered significant interest from spacecraft designers. This is due to their high breakdown voltage and low specific on-state resistance characteristics. Most of the previous research work on power MOSFETS for space applications concentrated on improving the radiation tolerance of low to medium voltage (~ 300V) power MOSFETs. Therefore, understanding and improving the reliability of high voltage SJMOS for the harsh space radiation environment is an important endeavor.In this work, a 600V commercially available silicon planar gate SJMOS is used to study the SJ technology’s tolerance against total ionizing dose (TID) and destructive single event effects (SEE), such as, single event burnout (SEB) and single event gate rupture (SEGR). A technology computer aided design (TCAD) software tool is used to design the SJMOS and simulate its electrical characteristics.
Electrical characterization of SJMOS devices showed substantial decrease in threshold voltage and increase in leakage current due to TID. Therefore, as a solution to improve the TID tolerance, metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) capacitors with different oxide
itride thickness combinations were fabricated and irradiated using a Co-60 gamma-source. Electrical characterization showed all samples with oxide
itride stack gate insulators exhibited significantly higher tolerance to irradiation when compared to metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.
Heavy ion testing of the SJMOS showed the device failed due to SEB and SEGR at 10% of maximum rated bias values. In this work, a 600V SJMOS structure is designed that is tolerant to both SEB and SEGR. In a SJMOS with planar gate, reducing the neck width improves the tolerance to SEGR but significantly changes the device electrical characteristics. The trench gate SJ device design is shown to overcome this problem. A buffer layer and larger P+-plug are added to the trench gate SJ power transistor to improve SEB tolerance. Using TCAD simulations, the proposed trench gate structure and the tested planar gate SJMOS are compared. The simulation results showed that the SEB and SEGR hardness in the proposed structure has improved by a factor of 10 and passes at the device’s maximum rated bias value with improved electrical performance.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Radiation detection and imaging: neutrons and electric fields

Description

The work presented in this manuscript has the overarching theme of radiation. The two forms of radiation of interest are neutrons, i.e. nuclear, and electric fields. The ability

The work presented in this manuscript has the overarching theme of radiation. The two forms of radiation of interest are neutrons, i.e. nuclear, and electric fields. The ability to detect such forms of radiation have significant security implications that could also be extended to very practical industrial applications. The goal is therefore to detect, and even image, such radiation sources.

The method to do so revolved around the concept of building large-area sensor arrays. By covering a large area, we can increase the probability of detection and gather more data to build a more complete and clearer view of the environment. Large-area circuitry can be achieved cost-effectively by leveraging the thin-film transistor process of the display industry. With production of displays increasing with the explosion of mobile devices and continued growth in sales of flat panel monitors and television, the cost to build a unit continues to decrease.

Using a thin-film process also allows for flexible electronics, which could be taken advantage of in-house at the Flexible Electronics and Display Center. Flexible electronics implies new form factors and applications that would not otherwise be possible with their single crystal counterparts. To be able to effectively use thin-film technology, novel ways of overcoming the drawbacks of the thin-film process, namely the lower performance scale.

The two deliverable devices that underwent development are a preamplifier used in an active pixel sensor for neutron detection and a passive electric field imaging array. This thesis will cover the theory and process behind realizing these devices.

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  • 2015

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Radiation transport analysis in chalcogenide-based devices and a neutron howitzer using MCNP

Description

As photons, electrons, and neutrons traverse a medium, they impart their energy in ways that are analytically difficult to describe. Monte Carlo methods provide valuable insight into understanding this behavior,

As photons, electrons, and neutrons traverse a medium, they impart their energy in ways that are analytically difficult to describe. Monte Carlo methods provide valuable insight into understanding this behavior, especially when the radiation source or environment is too complex to simplify. This research investigates simulating various radiation sources using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, characterizing their impact on various materials, and comparing the simulation results to general theory and measurements.

A total of five sources were of interest: two photon sources of different incident particle energies (3.83 eV and 1.25 MeV), two electron sources also of different energies (30 keV and 100 keV), and a californium-252 (Cf-252) spontaneous fission neutron source. Lateral and vertical programmable metallization cells (PMCs) were developed by other researchers for exposure to these photon and electron sources, so simplified PMC models were implemented in MCNP to estimate the doses and fluences. Dose rates measured around the neutron source and the predicted maximum activity of activation foils exposed to the neutrons were determined using MCNP and compared to experimental results obtained from gamma-ray spectroscopy.

The analytical fluence calculations for the photon and electron cases agreed with MCNP results, and differences are due to MCNP considering particle movements that hand calculations do not. Doses for the photon cases agreed between the analytical and simulated results, while the electron cases differed by a factor of up to 4.8. Physical dose rate measurements taken from the neutron source agreed with MCNP within the 10% tolerance of the measurement device. The activity results had a percent error of up to 50%, which suggests a need to further evaluate the spectroscopy setup.

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  • 2014

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Novel directional protection sheme for the FREEDM smart grid system

Description

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level

This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

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  • 2015

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Solving for the low-voltage/large-angle power-flow solutions by using the holomorphic embedding method

Description

For a (N+1)-bus power system, possibly 2N solutions exists. One of these solutions

is known as the high-voltage (HV) solution or operable solution. The rest of the solutions

are the low-voltage (LV),

For a (N+1)-bus power system, possibly 2N solutions exists. One of these solutions

is known as the high-voltage (HV) solution or operable solution. The rest of the solutions

are the low-voltage (LV), or large-angle, solutions.

In this report, a recently developed non-iterative algorithm for solving the power-

flow (PF) problem using the holomorphic embedding (HE) method is shown as

being capable of finding the HV solution, while avoiding converging to LV solutions

nearby which is a drawback to all other iterative solutions. The HE method provides a

novel non-iterative procedure to solve the PF problems by eliminating the

non-convergence and initial-estimate dependency issues appeared in the traditional

iterative methods. The detailed implementation of the HE method is discussed in the

report.

While published work focuses mainly on finding the HV PF solution, modified

holomorphically embedded formulations are proposed in this report to find the

LV/large-angle solutions of the PF problem. It is theoretically proven that the proposed

method is guaranteed to find a total number of 2N solutions to the PF problem

and if no solution exists, the algorithm is guaranteed to indicate such by the oscillations

in the maximal analytic continuation of the coefficients of the voltage power series

obtained.

After presenting the derivation of the LV/large-angle formulations for both PQ

and PV buses, numerical tests on the five-, seven- and 14-bus systems are conducted

to find all the solutions of the system of nonlinear PF equations for those systems using

the proposed HE method.

After completing the derivation to find all the PF solutions using the HE method, it

is shown that the proposed HE method can be used to find only the of interest PF solutions

(i.e. type-1 PF solutions with one positive real-part eigenvalue in the Jacobian

matrix), with a proper algorithm developed. The closet unstable equilibrium point

(UEP), one of the type-1 UEP’s, can be obtained by the proposed HE method with

limited dynamic models included.

The numerical performance as well as the robustness of the proposed HE method is

investigated and presented by implementing the algorithm on the problematic cases and

large-scale power system.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Radiation hardened clock design

Description

Clock generation and distribution are essential to CMOS microchips, providing synchronization to external devices and between internal sequential logic. Clocks in microprocessors are highly vulnerable to single event effects and

Clock generation and distribution are essential to CMOS microchips, providing synchronization to external devices and between internal sequential logic. Clocks in microprocessors are highly vulnerable to single event effects and designing reliable energy efficient clock networks for mission critical applications is a major challenge. This dissertation studies the basics of radiation hardening, essentials of clock design and impact of particle strikes on clocks in detail and presents design techniques for hardening complete clock systems in digital ICs.

Since the sequential elements play a key role in deciding the robustness of any clocking strategy, hardened-by-design implementations of triple-mode redundant (TMR) pulse clocked latches and physical design methodologies for using TMR master-slave flip-flops in application specific ICs (ASICs) are proposed. A novel temporal pulse clocked latch design for low power radiation hardened applications is also proposed. Techniques for designing custom RHBD clock distribution networks (clock spines) and ASIC clock trees for a radiation hardened microprocessor using standard CAD tools are presented. A framework for analyzing the vulnerabilities of clock trees in general, and study the parameters that contribute the most to the tree’s failure, including impact on controlled latches is provided. This is then used to design an integrated temporally redundant clock tree and pulse clocked flip-flop based clocking scheme that is robust to single event transients (SETs) and single event upsets (SEUs). Subsequently, designing robust clock delay lines for use in double data rate (DDRx) memory applications is studied in detail. Several modules of the proposed radiation hardened all-digital delay locked loop are designed and studied. Many of the circuits proposed in this entire body of work have been implemented and tested on a standard low-power 90-nm process.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Implementation of pilot protection system for large scale distribution system like the future renewable electric energy distribution management project

Description

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more

A robust, fast and accurate protection system based on pilot protection concept was developed previously and a few alterations in that algorithm were made to make it faster and more reliable and then was applied to smart distribution grids to verify the results for it. The new 10 sample window method was adapted into the pilot protection program and its performance for the test bed system operation was tabulated. Following that the system comparison between the hardware results for the same algorithm and the simulation results were compared. The development of the dual slope percentage differential method, its comparison with the 10 sample average window pilot protection system and the effects of CT saturation on the pilot protection system are also shown in this thesis. The implementation of the 10 sample average window pilot protection system is done to multiple distribution grids like Green Hub v4.3, IEEE 34, LSSS loop and modified LSSS loop. Case studies of these multi-terminal model are presented, and the results are also shown in this thesis. The result obtained shows that the new algorithm for the previously proposed protection system successfully identifies fault on the test bed and the results for both hardware and software simulations match and the response time is approximately less than quarter of a cycle which is fast as compared to the present commercial protection system and satisfies the FREEDM system requirement.

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  • 2014

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Modeling of solid state transformer for the FREEDM system demonstration

Description

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL)

The Solid State Transformer (SST) is an essential component in the FREEDM system. This research focuses on the modeling of the SST and the controller hardware in the loop (CHIL) implementation of the SST for the support of the FREEDM system demonstration. The energy based control strategy for a three-stage SST is analyzed and applied. A simplified average model of the three-stage SST that is suitable for simulation in real time digital simulator (RTDS) has been developed in this study. The model is also useful for general time-domain power system analysis and simulation. The proposed simplified av-erage model has been validated in MATLAB and PLECS. The accuracy of the model has been verified through comparison with the cycle-by-cycle average (CCA) model and de-tailed switching model. These models are also implemented in PSCAD, and a special strategy to implement the phase shift modulation has been proposed to enable the switching model simulation in PSCAD. The implementation of the CHIL test environment of the SST in RTDS is described in this report. The parameter setup of the model has been discussed in detail. One of the dif-ficulties is the choice of the damping factor, which is revealed in this paper. Also the grounding of the system has large impact on the RTDS simulation. Another problem is that the performance of the system is highly dependent on the switch parameters such as voltage and current ratings. Finally, the functionalities of the SST have been realized on the platform. The distributed energy storage interface power injection and reverse power flow have been validated. Some limitations are noticed and discussed through the simulation on RTDS.

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  • 2014

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Thermal performance of 69 kV underground cables

Description

Underground cables have been widely used in big cities. This is because underground cables offer the benefits of reducing visual impact and the disturbance caused by bad weather (wind, ice,

Underground cables have been widely used in big cities. This is because underground cables offer the benefits of reducing visual impact and the disturbance caused by bad weather (wind, ice, snow, and the lightning strikes). Additionally, when placing power lines underground, the maintenance costs can also be reduced as a result. The underground cable rating calculation is the most critical part of designing the cable construction and cable installation. In this thesis, three contributions regarding the cable ampacity study have been made. First, an analytical method for rating of underground cables has been presented. Second, this research also develops the steady state and transient ratings for Salt River Project (SRP) 69 kV underground system using the commercial software CYMCAP for several typical substations. Third, to find an alternative way to predict the cable ratings, three regression models have been built. The residual plot and mean square error for the three methods have been analyzed. The conclusion is dawn that the nonlinear regression model provides the sufficient accuracy of the cable rating prediction for SRP's typical installation.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Dynamic loading of substation distribution transformers: an application for use in a production grade environment

Description

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending the life of this critical and costly equipment for the purpose of maximizing profits. Optimal utilization of a transformer can be achieved through the use of dynamic loading. A benefit of dynamic loading is that it allows better utilization of the transformer capacity, thus increasing the flexibility and reliability of the power system. This document presents the progress on a software application which can estimate the maximum time-varying loading capability of transformers. This information can be used to load devices closer to their limits without exceeding the manufacturer specified operating limits. The maximally efficient dynamic loading of transformers requires a model that can accurately predict both top-oil temperatures (TOTs) and hottest-spot temperatures (HSTs). In the previous work, two kinds of thermal TOT and HST models have been studied and used in the application: the IEEE TOT/HST models and the ASU TOT/HST models. And, several metrics have been applied to evaluate the model acceptability and determine the most appropriate models for using in the dynamic loading calculations. In this work, an investigation to improve the existing transformer thermal models performance is presented. Some factors that may affect the model performance such as improper fan status and the error caused by the poor performance of IEEE models are discussed. Additional methods to determine the reliability of transformer thermal models using metrics such as time constant and the model parameters are also provided. A new production grade application for real-time dynamic loading operating purpose is introduced. This application is developed by using an existing planning application, TTeMP, as a start point, which is designed for the dispatchers and load specialists. To overcome the limitations of TTeMP, the new application can perform dynamic loading under emergency conditions, such as loss-of transformer loading. It also has the capability to determine the emergency rating of the transformers for a real-time estimation.

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Date Created
  • 2013