Matching Items (4)

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Expanding the Implicit Social Safety Net: Estimations of Labor Supply Responses to State-Level Earned Income Tax Credit Reform

Description

According to the Tax Policy Center, a joint project of the Brookings Institution and Urban Institute, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) will provide 26 million households with 60 billion

According to the Tax Policy Center, a joint project of the Brookings Institution and Urban Institute, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) will provide 26 million households with 60 billion dollars of reduced taxes and refunds in 2015 \u2014 resources that serve to lift millions of families above the federal poverty line. Responding to the popularity of EITC programs and recent discussion of its expansion for childless adults, I select three comparative case studies of state-level EITC reform from 2005 to 2013. Each state represents a different kind of policy reform: the creation of a supplemental credit in Connecticut, credit reduction in New Jersey, and finally credit expansion for childless adults in Maryland. For each case study, I use Current Population Survey panel data from the March Supplement to complete a differences-in-differences (DD) analysis of EITC policy changes. Specifically, I analyze effects of policy reform on total earned income, employment and usual hours worked. For comparison groups, I construct unique counterfactual populations of northeastern U.S. states, using people of color with less than a college degree as my treatment group for their increased sensitivity to EITC policy reform. I find no statistically significant effects of policy creation in Connecticut, significant decreases in employment and hours worked in New Jersey, and finally, significant increases in earnings and hours worked in Maryland. My work supports the findings of other empirical work, suggesting that awareness of new supplemental EITC programs is critical to their effectiveness while demonstrating that these types of programs can affect the labor supply and outcomes of eligible groups.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Young Adult’s Health Insurance, Employment, and Education: A Three-Essay Dissertation

Description

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA or ACA) Public Law No: 111-148, substantially changed health insurance access in the United States. One group that the law particularly affects

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA or ACA) Public Law No: 111-148, substantially changed health insurance access in the United States. One group that the law particularly affects is young adults, defined as individuals between the ages of 19 to 26. Specifically, the expansion of young adult dependent coverage was one of the first provisions that went into effect after the ACA’s enactment. This dissertation comprehensively studies the impact of the ACA’s dependent coverage provision on young adults. Across three empirical chapters, the dissertation examines outcomes related to health insurance coverage, labor market outcomes, and educational enrollment. Chapter 1, titled “Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Young Adults Insurance Coverage,” documents the changes in health insurance take-up for the young adults population, which has historically had the lowest rates of such coverage. Changes in coverage are also evaluated separately for sub-groups of young adults. Chapter 2, titled “Labor Market Outcomes for Young Adults,” evaluates whether the law altered employment decisions and earnings for this group. It also assess whether the ACA led to increased job mobility for young adults. Finally, Chapter 3, titled “Does having Dependent Coverage from the ACA impact Educational Enrollment,” evaluated changes in educational enrollment levels for young adults following the expansion of parental dependent coverage. The research conducted in this dissertation provides evidence of the ACA’s impact on health insurance coverage, employment, and education. It also provides support for the claim that the ACA covers insurance gaps that young adults might experience as they go through life transitions when they are likely to lose coverage.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Womens autonomy and utilization of prenatal services in Armenia and Azerbaijan: analysis of demographic and health surveys 2005-2006

Description

Social determinants of health present significant barriers to utilization of maternal health services in transitional countries. This dissertation study examined associations between household autonomy and utilization of prenatal services among

Social determinants of health present significant barriers to utilization of maternal health services in transitional countries. This dissertation study examined associations between household autonomy and utilization of prenatal services among women of reproductive age in Armenia and Azerbaijan. Using nationally representative survey data, this study explored if household autonomy of women positively influenced the timing of the first prenatal visit, the number of prenatal care visits, and the content of care during visits. Results showed that household autonomy was positively associated with the timing of the first visit for prenatal care and the number of prenatal care visits. The content of care was negatively associated with the autonomy of women. Findings also pointed to an endogenous influence of a woman's position in the household structure. Additionally, this study analyzed associations between women's reproductive history and utilization, and economic disparities in utilization of prenatal care. The findings demonstrated that a history of complications during pregnancy and stillbirths were positively associated with utilization of prenatal care. Economic disparities in utilization of care were identified. Future interventions to increase utilization of maternal health services should account for traditional household structures in transitional countries. Women from poor families should receive support from social assistance and the health sector in accessing services pertaining to their health and well-being.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Niche tourism within small island tourism economies: an analysis of SCUBA tourists In bermuda

Description

Developing new markets in tourism is vital for the prosperity of Small Island Tourism Economies like Bermuda (McElroy). Countries must continuously improve and reinvent themselves in order to maintain growth.

Developing new markets in tourism is vital for the prosperity of Small Island Tourism Economies like Bermuda (McElroy). Countries must continuously improve and reinvent themselves in order to maintain growth. SCUBA diving in Bermuda is a market that could be improved. Most SCUBA divers are of higher than average household income and can make an attractive tourist base. This thesis analyzes SCUBA tourists in Bermuda to ascertain their characteristics, economics impacts, and participation in island activities in order to help guide future endeavors involving SCUBA tourism in Bermuda and provide an outline of how to analyze other Niche markets. Comparisons are made between SCUBA and Non-SCUBA tourists (those who participated in Scuba against those that did not). The results show that spending, activities/events participated, and SCUBA tourists characteristics are not all significantly different from one another at the 5% level. Meaning that some variables were significant and some weren't , with in their respective groups. Within Trip Expenditures it was shown that, of the 9 variables tested, 3 were significant. In Activities, 8 of the 11 tested were significant, attractions there were 8 of the 18 variables that were significant and in Evening Entertainment, there was 2 out the 6 variables being significant at the 5% level.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012