Matching Items (14)

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Stress and music on students' mental health: evaluating music as a coping strategy for stress

Description

Stress is an arguably universal phenomenon that has maladaptive effects on individuals’ mental health (i.e., depression). Individuals traditionally deal with stress through various coping strategies that fall under three coping

Stress is an arguably universal phenomenon that has maladaptive effects on individuals’ mental health (i.e., depression). Individuals traditionally deal with stress through various coping strategies that fall under three coping styles: emotion-oriented coping, avoidance/disengagement coping, and problem-oriented coping. Furthermore, numerous studies have focused on the stress-reducing properties of music, but the literature lacks an examination of the use and effectiveness of music as a coping strategy. The current thesis examined the moderating role of music as a coping strategy in the link between stress and depression. Based on existing research, the author predicted that for participants who endorsed music coping as emotion-oriented or avoidance /disengagement-oriented, there would be an exacerbation of the stress-depression link. However, for participants who endorsed music coping as problem-oriented, there would be an attenuation of the stress-depression link. In an online survey-based study of 207 students attending Arizona State University, the author found that emotion-oriented music coping and avoidance/disengagement music coping exacerbated the relationship between stress and depression. The author, however, did not find support for the prediction that higher endorsement of problem-oriented music coping would buffer the effect of stress on depression. These results suggest that music coping may parallel alternative coping strategies in some respects but not others. Overall, the study findings support the further examination of music as a coping strategy in order to replicate emotion-oriented coping as the primary use of music.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Impulsivity and the experience of childhood trauma on the effect of psychological maladjustment

Description

Research in the area of childhood trauma has shown a substantial amount of psychological maladjustment following the experience of traumatic events in childhood. Trauma survivors are at risk for developing

Research in the area of childhood trauma has shown a substantial amount of psychological maladjustment following the experience of traumatic events in childhood. Trauma survivors are at risk for developing a multitude of adverse psychological outcomes as well as unsafe behaviors following the event of trauma. One unifying theme within these psychological sequelae is the nature of impulsive behaviors. Delay-discounting refers to the subjective decrease in value of a reward when its presentation is delayed. Delay-discounting is often used as an index of impulsive behavior. This study poses two primary questions: 1) Can childhood trauma predict rates of delay-discounting? 2) Could delay-discounting predict psychological maladjustment for individuals who have experienced childhood trauma? This study will seek to answer these questions using an online version of the Kirby et al., 1999 hypothetical delay-discounting method, as well as the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), to measure trait impulsivity. Measures of depression (BDI-II), life events (LEC), post-traumatic stress (PCL-C), and drug and alcohol abuse (DAST-20) will also be included. Participants included a sample of university students ages 18-52 (n=521, females = 386, males = 135) with a mean age of 25.19 years. Results indicated that childhood trauma was not a significant predictor of delay-discounting rate, nor was delay-discounting rate a significant predictor of psychological maladjustment. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Scientific Researchers: Are Religious Believers Seen as Being Less Scientific?

Description

This study investigated whether research by researchers affiliated with a religious academic institution would be seen as of less scientific merit than research done by researchers affiliated with a nonreligious

This study investigated whether research by researchers affiliated with a religious academic institution would be seen as of less scientific merit than research done by researchers affiliated with a nonreligious academic institution. Such a bias may exist given the different value systems underlying religion and science, the widespread perception of a conflict between religion and science, and research on differences in cognitive styles and stereotypes about religious versus nonreligious people. In this study, U.S. participants recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed an online survey, which included an abstract of an article describing scientific research with authors’ names and academic institutions, and questions on perceived scientific merit, religiosity, spirituality, religion as Quest, and perceived conflict between religion and science. There was a significant difference in the perceived merit of the researchers, with the group believing the researchers were affiliated with a religious academic institution rating the research as lower in scientific merit than the group believing the researchers were affiliated with a nonreligious academic institution. The perceived level of conflict between religion and science was found to moderate the relationship, such that higher levels of perceived conflict between religion and science showed a greater difference in scientific merit between groups.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The impact of individuals' racial identity and perpetrator's racial group membership on empathy for an outgroup victim

Description

The previous research literature was reviewed on how perpetrator's group membership and individuals' racial identity impact intergroup attitude and behavior, as well as factors contribute to intergroup bias on individuals'

The previous research literature was reviewed on how perpetrator's group membership and individuals' racial identity impact intergroup attitude and behavior, as well as factors contribute to intergroup bias on individuals' empathy level. This study was designed to extend the existing research on intergroup relations by exploring the effect of perpetrator's ingroup/outgroup membership and the strength of racial identity on people's empathy toward the outgroup victims. A web-based survey was disseminated and administrated at a southwest university. One hundred and six Caucasian American college students who completed the survey and met the criterion of eighteen years old or older were involved in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of two target stories and one distracter story, and reported their empathy level toward each story. And then the participants' strength of racial identity was measured.

Controlling for demographic variables, regression analyses revealed that, as expected, the interaction of the perpetrator's group membership and individuals' racial identity significantly predicted the level of empathy toward the outgroup victim. When the perpetrator was an ingroup member, people who highly identified with their group exhibited less empathy for the outgroup victim. However, perpetrator's membership and the strength of racial identity failed to predict individuals' outgroup empathy separately.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Attitudes toward menopause

Description

Menopause is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon that is influenced by women’s attitudes, the attitudes of their partners, families, and friends, and societal norms. Previous research has shown that attitudes can

Menopause is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon that is influenced by women’s attitudes, the attitudes of their partners, families, and friends, and societal norms. Previous research has shown that attitudes can be influenced by many factors, such as age and menopausal status. This study examined men’s and women’s attitudes toward several facets of menopause, including fertility, attractiveness, personal growth, emotional stability, and sexuality, using an Amazon Mechanical Turk sample of 194 females and 151 males. Results revealed that women and men differed significantly in their attitudes toward fertility, attractiveness, personal growth, and sexuality, with women having more positive attitudes on every dimension except sexuality. For females, age was a significant positive predictor for fertility, personal growth, and emotional stability; knowledge was a significant positive predictor for personal growth; and education was a significant positive predictor for emotional stability. For males, age was a significant positive predictor for fertility, and knowledge was a significant negative predictor for fertility. These results indicate that men typically have more negative attitudes toward menopause than do women, and that more potential predictors of menopause attitudes should be explored in future work to provide insight into the reasons for this difference.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Perceptions of officers who use force in police-civilian interactions

Description

Police officers in America interact with civilians on a daily basis as function of their job, and the way people perceive police officers can either help or hurt officers in

Police officers in America interact with civilians on a daily basis as function of their job, and the way people perceive police officers can either help or hurt officers in performance of their duties. I conducted an experiment to test whether people perceive a police officer’s use of force differently depending on the officer’s race and gender. First, when an officer uses force, I propose competing hypotheses that a female officer will be viewed as less favorable than a male officer; however, because female aggression is less expected, I also predict that they will be viewed as more favorable than male officers. Second, when an officer uses force, I predict that a Black officer will be viewed as more aggressive than a White Officer. Lastly, I predict that perceptions of the officer (i.e., perceived aggression and emotional reactivity) would mediate the relationship between officer gender and attitudes towards the officer. Using an experimental survey design with a video of a police-civilian interaction, I found support that female officers were viewed more favorably than male officers when force was used. I found no support that Black officers would be viewed as more aggressive than White officers. Lastly, I found partial support that perceptions of the officer mediated the relationship between officer gender and attitudes towards the officer.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Exploring the Link Between Sensitive Temperament and Depression: The Roles of Parenting Environment and Empathic Personal Distress

Description

This study investigated the relation between Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) temperament and depression, and whether such a relation might be further influenced by the indirect effects of parenting environment and

This study investigated the relation between Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) temperament and depression, and whether such a relation might be further influenced by the indirect effects of parenting environment and empathic personal distress. A moderated mediation model was proposed to explain the underlying relations among SPS, depression, parenting environment and empathic personal distress. That is, greater levels of SPS temperament might predict higher levels of empathic personal distress, which then leads to increasing likelihood of experiencing depression. Moreover, it was predicted that this mediation relation might be significantly stronger under a less positive parenting context. The present study recruited 661 participants from a U.S. university and implemented questionnaires in an online survey. There was a significant main effect of SPS temperament in predicting empathic personal distress and depression, such that the more sensitive individuals reported higher empathic personal distress and depression. There also was a significant main effect of parenting environment on depression, where more positive parenting was associated with less depression. Empathic personal distress was found to partially mediate the relation between SPS and depression. That is, the association between SPS and depression could be partially explained by empathic personal distress. However, parenting environment did not moderate the main effect of SPS temperament on depression, the main effect of SPS on empathic personal distress, or the mediation model.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Predictors of emotional adjustment and posttraumatic growth following bereavement in the United States and China

Description

Using an integrated perspective of the Grief Work Hypothesis and Posttraumatic Growth Theory, this study was designed to contribute to the sparse existing cross-cultural research by examining and comparing individuals'

Using an integrated perspective of the Grief Work Hypothesis and Posttraumatic Growth Theory, this study was designed to contribute to the sparse existing cross-cultural research by examining and comparing individuals' emotional adjustment and posttraumatic growth in the United States (US) and China. Another main goal was to unfold the predictive effects of different dimensions of locus of control, coping strategies and social support on the outcomes and further, to explore cultural differences in the underlying mechanisms. Web-based survey was disseminated and administered in the US and China. One thousand and seventy-eight participants completed the survey and met the criteria such that they were eighteen years old or older and experienced death of a loved one six to thirty-six months ago. As expected, US participants experienced higher levels of subjective well-being, lower levels of complicated grief and posttraumatic growth than Chinese participants. They also reported higher external yet lower internal locus of control, less frequent use of active and avoidance coping, and less informational support and negative social interactions than their Chinese counterparts. No difference in emotional support was evidenced between the two cultures. After controlling for demographic, loss-related information and the impact of post-bereavement life events, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that culture, external locus of control, avoidance coping and negative social interactions were unique predictors of complicated grief. Furthermore, the relation between external locus of control and complicated grief was weaker for US participants compared to that for Chinese participants. Culture, external and internal locus of control, active and avoidance coping, and negative social interactions significantly predicted individuals' subjective well-being after the loss. Additionally, culture, internal locus of control, active and avoidance coping, informational support, and negative social interactions were identified as unique predictors of posttraumatic growth. Specifically, an interaction effect of avoidance coping x culture emerged such that avoidance coping significantly predicted posttraumatic growth only for US participants. This study extracted the underlying mechanisms of predicting individuals' emotional adjustment and personal growth following bereavement. The influence of culture was also highlighted. Application of existing theories to the Chinese culture and clinical implications of the current study were discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Social support and problem-solving coping as moderators of the relation between stress and life satisfaction

Description

Numerous psychosocial and health factors contribute to perceived stress, social support, and problem-solving coping relating to overall well-being and life satisfaction in older adults. The effect of social support

Numerous psychosocial and health factors contribute to perceived stress, social support, and problem-solving coping relating to overall well-being and life satisfaction in older adults. The effect of social support and problem-solving coping, however, remains largely untested as potential moderators. The present study was conducted to test whether social support and problem- solving coping would moderate the relation between perceived stress and life satisfaction in older adults. First, I anticipated that stress will be negatively related to life satisfaction at low levels of social support, while at high social support; stress will be unrelated to life satisfaction. Second, I expected that with low problem- solving coping, stress will be negatively related to life satisfaction, whereas, at levels of high problem- solving coping, stress will be unrelated to life satisfaction. Using an experimental survey and interview design with hierarchical regression analyses, I found no support that social support would moderate the relation between stress and life satisfaction. I found support that problem-solving coping moderated the relation between stress and life satisfaction. For individuals who engage in higher levels of problem- solving coping, higher levels of stress predicted lower levels of life satisfaction. On the other hand, at lower levels of problem-solving coping, more stress predicted lower levels of life satisfaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Power in Motion: Response Dynamics of Social Power, Goal-Oriented Motor Movement, and Sexual Perception

Description

Research on the psychology of social power has shown how experiences of power tend to promote goal-oriented behavior and sexual perception in individuals. These experiences need not be generated through

Research on the psychology of social power has shown how experiences of power tend to promote goal-oriented behavior and sexual perception in individuals. These experiences need not be generated through real-life power dynamics, but can be primed experimentally in the lab. A recent study has explored how power affects even lower level goal-oriented motor movement, showing how increased power facilitates the initiation of goal-oriented motor actions (Maner et al., 2010). However, this research did not explore how these goal-oriented motor movements promoted by power dynamically evolve over time, or can be influenced by sexual perceptual processes. Using an experimental paradigm known as computer mouse-tracking, we designed an experimental task to asses how participants’ – primed with either a High or Low sense of power – motor movements and sexual perceptual processes co-evolved and influenced one another during decision-making. We analyzed four distinct mouse-tracking variables, including traditional reaction time measures and novel measures indexing real-time decision-making processes. Several hypotheses are proposed and discussed. No significant findings emerged, however general trends showed promising signs for future iterations of the study. The study limitations and proposed future directions for studying these phenomena are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016