Matching Items (27)

Mitigating Urban Sprawl Effects: A Collaborative Tree and Shade Intervention in Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Description

Communities in Phoenix are confronted with numerous challenges that adversely affect human health and safety, with disproportionate impacts on low-income communities. While some challenges are being addressed at the city

Communities in Phoenix are confronted with numerous challenges that adversely affect human health and safety, with disproportionate impacts on low-income communities. While some challenges are being addressed at the city level, new alliances at the neighbourhood level are initiating community development programmes and projects. This article reports on an intervention study carried out in collaboration with community representatives, city staff, and non-profit organisations to mitigate adverse effects of urban sprawl in the Sky Harbour Neighbourhood in Phoenix. Participatory research was conducted to design and test a tree and shade intervention. Challenges associated with navigating community desires and broader principles of sustainable development are discussed. The study offers a replicable and adaptable intervention research design aimed at empowering communities to meet urban challenges.

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  • 2014-05-01

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Women and Bicycling: Exploring the Connections Between an Improved Infrastructure and the Perception of Safety Among Women Cyclists in Tempe

Description

This paper explores women and bicycling, with the focus of looking at how to get more women onto the bicycle in Tempe, Arizona. The main areas of interest for this

This paper explores women and bicycling, with the focus of looking at how to get more women onto the bicycle in Tempe, Arizona. The main areas of interest for this study are improvements to bicycling infrastructure and an increase in the safety and the perception of safety of women cyclists in the Tempe area. In order to explore this topic, an online survey of 75 Arizona State students was conducted. From the results women were primarily concerned with their safety due to the condition of the overall infrastructure and the lack of bicycle related improvements. Research such as this that examines women and cycling is significant due to the current underrepresentation of women in the cycling community and has the potential to improve safety and increase bicycle ridership.

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  • 2014-12

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Cycling Education and Infrastructure: Building a Bicycle Friendly ASU

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This paper explores bicycle amenities at two Bicycle Friendly Universities (BFU), as ranked by the League of American Bicyclists. The reviewed universities, Northern Arizona University (NAU) and University of Arizona

This paper explores bicycle amenities at two Bicycle Friendly Universities (BFU), as ranked by the League of American Bicyclists. The reviewed universities, Northern Arizona University (NAU) and University of Arizona (UA), are compared to Arizona State University (ASU) to determine its current level of bicycle friendliness. Research gathered from studies and reports from the three campuses is utilized to compile a list of bicycle facilities and infrastructure that are not currently offered at any of the three universities, as well as to create a set of priorities that Arizona State University can use to implement more programs and facilities before submitting their application to become a Bicycle Friendly University. This paper suggests improvements for Arizona State University involving the campus co-op, a website demonstrating the impact of alternative transportation on the campus community, bike-in events, temporary bike valet at events, organized and faculty-led rides, a bike mentorship program, formal incentive programs for employees and students, way-finding signage and designated bike routes, secure bike parking facilities, and educational courses.

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  • 2014-05

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Exploring Rainwater Harvesting Feasibility: Comparing Perceptions, Acceptance & Applications in Phoenix, Arizona, and the Thar Desert, India

Description

Freshwater is an essential component of life for most organisms on earth. "Civilization itself is built on a foundation of water (Fagan, 2011)," as people often congregate near water sources,

Freshwater is an essential component of life for most organisms on earth. "Civilization itself is built on a foundation of water (Fagan, 2011)," as people often congregate near water sources, and find innovative solutions to exploit these resources for food production and domestic needs. Rising demand for water due to altered lifestyles and population increase pose further stress on water availability. Alterations and pollution of freshwater ecosystems can dramatically compromise ecological services that many species, among them humans, depend on. Arid places are specifically vulnerable in regards to water, characterized by very low levels of precipitation, as well as many dry months, which are often followed by a short time of severe storms. Considering the interconnectedness of social and ecological systems in regards to freshwater services is crucial in order to sustainably manage freshwater resources and avoid ecological crises that in turn are likely to lead to social crises around the globe (Berkes et. al., 2003).

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  • 2012-12

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Community Collective Action: A Case Study Documentary on Phoenix's Sky Harbor Neighborhood Association

Description

This project aims to provide a contextualized history of the Sky Harbor Neighborhood Association‟s community collective action efforts. The Sky Harbor Neighborhood (SHN) of East Phoenix is bounded on the

This project aims to provide a contextualized history of the Sky Harbor Neighborhood Association‟s community collective action efforts. The Sky Harbor Neighborhood (SHN) of East Phoenix is bounded on the West by 24th St., on the East by 32nd St., on the North by Roosevelt St., and the South by Washington Street. SHN is a majority Latino, low-income, working class community (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010) that faces a variety of challenges including low walkability due to inadequate pedestrian infrastructure, low tree coverage, and crime. East Van Buren St., which has a reputation for being one of Phoenix‟s red-light districts, splits the neighborhood in two. In addition, the SHN lacks some key amenities such as grocery stores and is partly considered a food desert by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Economic Research Service, 2012).

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  • 2012-12

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PUBLIC SPACES AND THEIR EFFECT ON SOCIAL COHESION: INOVATIVE OPTIONS FOR LOW-INCOME AND LIMITED SPACE COMMUNITIES

Description

Social relationships are the single most factor that create joy in human lives. And yet, the ways we are building our cities and structuring our lives reduces our chances of

Social relationships are the single most factor that create joy in human lives. And yet, the ways we are building our cities and structuring our lives reduces our chances of interaction and increases isolation. Creating more public spaces may be a possible solution to this problem of declining social cohesion. Public spaces have been shown to improve rates of social cohesion and social interaction. They have also been show to have positive effects on physical health, local economies, the natural environment, reducing crime rates and psychological health. Creating public spaces in areas that are low-income or have limited amounts of space can be very challenging. This paper profiles options of community created spaces, space public spaces and temporary public spaces. All of which are options for low-income and limited space communities. The paper concludes with the summery of an active project to create a public space in such a community through a joint-use agreement.

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  • 2014-05

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An Evaluation of Bicycle Friendly Rating Schemes for Cities and the Implications for Tempe, AZ

Description

City planners often use bicycle friendly rating schemes as tools to guide them in their efforts to establish a bicycle community. However, the criteria and methodologies used vary from program

City planners often use bicycle friendly rating schemes as tools to guide them in their efforts to establish a bicycle community. However, the criteria and methodologies used vary from program to program and often do not encapsulate all of the necessary elements that comprise true bicycle friendliness. This report documents the important elements, strategies, and best practices that well-established Dutch, Danish, and German bike friendly cities exhibit to create a baseline standard for bicycle friendliness. Not all rating programs' criteria and methodologies align perfectly within this understanding of bicycle friendliness. City planners should use these programs as tools while keeping their limitations in consideration. The City of Tempe currently uses the League of American Bicyclists Bicycle Friendly Community program and BikeScore.com. By understanding the limitations associated with these programs, Tempe should move forward in their pursuit of bicycle friendliness by using multiple rating programs simultaneously and by looking at top-rated cities' strategies to enhance their infrastructure, network, urban form, and biking culture.

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  • 2014-05

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Discovering pathways to sustainability: small communities in transition

Description

Driven by concern over environmental, economic and social problems, small, place based communities are engaging in processes of transition to become more sustainable. These communities may be viewed as innovative

Driven by concern over environmental, economic and social problems, small, place based communities are engaging in processes of transition to become more sustainable. These communities may be viewed as innovative front runners of a transition to a more sustainable society in general, each one, an experiment in social transformation. These experiments present learning opportunities to build robust theories of community transition and to create specific, actionable knowledge to improve, replicate, and accelerate transitions in real communities. Yet to date, there is very little empirical research into the community transition phenomenon. This thesis empirically develops an analytical framework and method for the purpose of researching community transition processes, the ultimate goal of which is to arrive at a practice of evidence based transitions. A multiple case study approach was used to investigate three community transitions while simultaneously developing the framework and method in an iterative fashion. The case studies selected were Ashton Hayes, a small English village, BedZED, an urban housing complex in London, and Forres, a small Scottish town. Each community was visited and data collected by interview and document analysis. The research design brings together elements of process tracing, transformative planning and governance, sustainability assessment, transition path analysis and transition management within a multiple case study envelope. While some preliminary insights are gained into community transitions based on the three cases the main contribution of this thesis is in the creation of the research framework and method. The general framework and method developed has potential for standardizing and synthesizing research of community transition processes leading to both theoretical and practical knowledge that allows sustainability transition to be approached with confidence and not just hope.

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  • 2011

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Problems of transportation planning during winter storms in Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington: a comparative study

Description

Winter storms decrease the safety of roadways as it brings ice and snow to the roads and increases accidents, delays, and travel time. Not only are personal vehicles affected, but

Winter storms decrease the safety of roadways as it brings ice and snow to the roads and increases accidents, delays, and travel time. Not only are personal vehicles affected, but public transportation, commercial transportation, and emergency vehicles are affected as well. Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington, both suffer from mild, but sometimes extreme, storms that affect the entire city. Taking a closer look at the number of crashes reported by the City of Portland and the City of Seattle, it is seen that there is an increase in percent of crashes with reported road conditions of snow and ice. Both cities appear to have nearly the same reported crash percentages. Recommendations in combating the issue of increased accidents and the disruption of the city itself include looking into communication between the climate research institution and city planners that could help with planning for better mitigation during storms, a street or gas tax, although an impact study is important to keep in mind to make sure no part of the population is at risk; and engineering revolutions such as Solar Roadways that could benefit all cities.

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  • 2015

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Measuring the success of a transportation project: Loop 202 (Red Mountain Freeway) case study

Description

Measuring the success of a transportation project as it is envisioned in the Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) and is detailed in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not part of

Measuring the success of a transportation project as it is envisioned in the Regional Transportation Plan (RTP) and is detailed in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not part of any current planning process, for a post construction analysis may have political consequences for the project participants, would incur additional costs, and may be difficult to define in terms of scope. With local, state and federal budgets shrinking, funding sources are demanding that the performance of a project be evaluated and project stakeholders be held accountable. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) developed a framework that allows transportation agencies to customize their reporting so that a project's performance can be measured. In the case of the Red Mountain Freeway, the selected performance measure allows for comparing the population forecasts, the traffic volumes, and the project costs defined in the final EIS to actual population growth, actual average annual daily traffic (ADT), and actual project costs obtained from census data, the City of Mesa, and contractor bids, respectively. The results show that population projections for both Maricopa County and the City of Mesa are within less than half a percent of the actual annual population growth. The traffic analysis proved more difficult due to inconsistencies within the EIS documents, variations in the local arterials used to produce traffic volume, and in the projection time-spans. The comparison for the total increase in traffic volume generated a difference of 11.34 percent and 89.30 percent. An adjusted traffic volume equal to all local arterials and US 60 resulted in a difference of 40 percent between the projected and actual ADT values. As for the project cost comparison, not only were the costs within the individual documents inconsistent, but they were underestimated by as much as 75 percent. Evaluating the goals as described in an EIS document using the performance measure guidelines provided by the TRB may provide the tool that can help promote conflict resolution for political issues that arise, streamline the planning process, and measure the performance of the transportation system, so that lessons learned can be applied to future projects.

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  • 2012