Matching Items (35)

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The Effects of Education on Economic Growth: An Empirical Study

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In this paper, I attempt to measure the impact of education levels on a country’s productivity, measured by its Gross Domestic Product. I find that educational attainment is significantly correlated

In this paper, I attempt to measure the impact of education levels on a country’s productivity, measured by its Gross Domestic Product. I find that educational attainment is significantly correlated with economic growth. Previous research on this topic has shown similar results and concluded the importance of education on improving the GDP levels in a country.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Arizona's Golf Industry Beats Par

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This thesis project provides a thorough cost-benefit analysis of the golf industry in Arizona. We begin by examining the economic, environmental, and social costs that the industry requires. One of

This thesis project provides a thorough cost-benefit analysis of the golf industry in Arizona. We begin by examining the economic, environmental, and social costs that the industry requires. One of the largest costs of the industry is water consumption. Golf courses in Arizona are currently finding ways to reduce water consumption through various methods, such as turf reduction and increasing the usage of drip irrigation. However, even at current levels of consumption, golf only consumes 1.9% of water in Arizona, compared to the 69% consumed by agriculture. Of the water consumed by the golf industry, 26.3% is wastewater, otherwise known as effluent water. Since the population in Arizona is projected to grow significantly over the next decade, the amount of effluent water produced will also increase. Due to this, we recommend that the golf industry move towards using as much effluent water as possible to conserve clean water sources. Additionally, we examine land allocation and agricultural tradeoffs to the state. Most golf courses are built in urban areas that would not be suitable for agriculture. The same land could be used to build a public park, but this would not provide as many economic benefits to the state. Many courses also act as floodplains which protect the communities surrounding them from flooding. These floodplains have proven to be crucial to protect from occasional flash floods by diverting the excess water away from homes. We also discuss golf's primary social cost in terms of its perception as being a sport played exclusively by privileged and wealthy people. This is proven to be false due to many non-profit organizations centered around the game, as well as municipal courses that provide affordable options for all citizens who want to play. We provide an in-depth analysis of the benefits that the industry provides to the state and its citizens primarily through business and tax revenue, employment, and property values. Including multiplier effects, the golf industry contributed 42,000 full- and part-time jobs, $3.9 billion in sales, $1.5 billion in labor income, and $2.1 billion value added in 2014. An estimated $72 million in state and local taxes were generated from golf facilities alone, without including taxes from indirectly impacted businesses. This tax revenue provides a great benefit to the public sector and increases Arizona's GDP. Also, much of this economic contribution is from the golf tourism industry, which brings new revenue into the state that would otherwise not exist. Golf courses also increase the surrounding real estate prices anywhere from 4.8% to 28%, providing a positive externality to community members in addition to scenic views. Finally, we provide a case study of the Waste Management Phoenix Open (WMO) to illustrate the impact of Arizona's single largest golf event each year. In 2017, the event brought an estimated $389 million into Arizona's economy in one week alone. Also, it regularly hosts massive crowds with a record-breaking 719,179 people attending the event in 2018. The WMO has also taken a "Zero Waste Challenge" to promote eco-friendly and sustainable practices by diverting all of the waste and materials produced by the tournament from landfills. The WMO has been dubbed both the "Greatest Show On Grass" and the "Greenest Show On Grass" due to the entertainment value provided as well as its effort to improve the environment.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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An Economic Analysis: Firearm Deaths in the United States From 1981-2014

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This paper analyzes the relationship between fatal shootings and several types of legislation. The purpose of this analysis is to determine which gun laws have been more effective at minimizing

This paper analyzes the relationship between fatal shootings and several types of legislation. The purpose of this analysis is to determine which gun laws have been more effective at minimizing gun deaths. The following types of firearm legislation were analyzed in the final regression: open carry, concealed carry with a permit, concealed carry without a permit and bans on assault weapons. Through the analysis of these gun laws, the final regression results concluded that gun laws that allow citizens to conceal their weapons, such as concealed carry with or without permit, as well as assault weapon bans typically decrease the amount of firearm deaths, whereas open carrying of firearms typically increases the amount of firearm deaths.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Capping the Competition: An Analysis of the NBA's Player Salary Cap

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The NBA operates under a unique system with both forms of the salary cap. The league has a team salary cap that sets a limit that teams can spend on

The NBA operates under a unique system with both forms of the salary cap. The league has a team salary cap that sets a limit that teams can spend on their entire roster. The NBA has a soft cap and a luxury tax system, meaning if teams spend over a determined amount, they are taxed for the salaries in excess. The league also has a player salary cap. The 1999 NBA collective bargaining agreement first introduced the individual player salary cap in the league. This cap sets a limit on what the best players can earn, otherwise known as the maximum contract. In an economic system with a soft team cap, the introduction of the player salary cap has important implications. The stated outcome of such a salary cap is to improve competitive balance and better distribute star players throughout the league. This study evaluated the 1990-2015 regular seasons to measure the impact of the player salary cap on competitive balance, the distribution of team payrolls, and the dispersion of star players. In accordance with the Rottenberg's invariance hypothesis, the player salary cap has hurt the players and benefited the owners by redistributing income from one party to the other, without impacting the distribution of talent in the league. The rule change has not affected competitive balance, while team payrolls have converged and star players have become more dispersed throughout the league. These changes hurt the league overall, preventing the maximization of revenues. Despite this inefficiency, the chance of the league moving to eliminate the player salary cap is low.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Gender Pay Gap Magnified in Professional Sports

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Early in the development of American's interest in athletics there has been a conditioning of the mind toward promoting and rewarding male athletes, while ignoring and undercutting female athletes. There

Early in the development of American's interest in athletics there has been a conditioning of the mind toward promoting and rewarding male athletes, while ignoring and undercutting female athletes. There is substantial evidence of the existence of monetary and promotional time given to male athletes and very little support given to their female counterparts. The gender pay gap in professional sports is a culmination of gender discrimination within the entire sports realm. It appears to start at the high school level, continue on into the collegiate sector, and is finally magnified in the professional arena. In high school, male sport's programs are given preference to game and practice times, locations, as well as promotions. In college, male athletic programs are advertised and highlighted as being the premier events to go to. This is also seen in college bookstores with the dominating male event merchandise for sale. In the professional arena, the astronomical value of male athletes' salaries, which go into the multi-millions, makes the gender pay gap glaring. These discrepancies between men and women at each level of sport are in part caused by the underlying informal systems or societal norms and values currently present and encouraged in American culture and communities. These informal systems are often countered by formal systems, such as Title IX. Change cannot truly take place until the two systems are aligned. Thankfully, society today seems to be headed in a more equitable direction; therefore, promoting hope and promise for a more equal future between male and female athletes and their programs.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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An Analysis of the Motivations Behind Third Party Voting

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In this work we analyze just what makes the topic of third party voting so intriguing to voters and why it is different than voting for one of the major

In this work we analyze just what makes the topic of third party voting so intriguing to voters and why it is different than voting for one of the major parties in American politics. First, we will discuss briefly the history of politics in America and what makes it exciting. Next, we will outline some of the works by other political and economic professionals such as Hotelling, Lichtman and Rietz. Finally, using the framework described beforehand this paper will analyze the different stances that voters, candidates, and others involved in the political process of voting have regarding the topic of third party voting.

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  • 2017-05

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Market Analysis of Major League Soccer in Arizona

Description

Phoenix, Arizona is the sixth largest city in the United States. However, the city has never had a MLS team. In 1996, Major League Soccer was founded with ten clubs.

Phoenix, Arizona is the sixth largest city in the United States. However, the city has never had a MLS team. In 1996, Major League Soccer was founded with ten clubs. Now the league plans to expand from twenty-four to twenty-eight. With multiple teams joining the league, why shouldn't Phoenix be the next market to expand the MLS? This project will analyze if the Phoenix market could host a profitable team. There have been a handful of lower division professional soccer teams in Arizona, but none of them have been sustainable, let alone make it to the MLS. Why is that? What are the steps to create an MLS Franchise? Through researching the factors behind soccer's increased popularity in United States and the history of professional soccer in Arizona perform a market analysis of Arizona's soccer fan base, ownership group, and MLS stadium potential.

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  • 2017-05

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Are Professional Baseball Players Who are Promoted into the Major Leagues Better than Players Who Were Demoted into the Minor Leagues: A Logit Analysis

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Today, statistical analysis can be used for a variety of different reasons. In sports, more particularly baseball, there is an increasing necessity to have better up to date analysis of

Today, statistical analysis can be used for a variety of different reasons. In sports, more particularly baseball, there is an increasing necessity to have better up to date analysis of players and their performance as they attempt to make it to the Major League. Athletes are constantly moving around within one or more organizations. Since they are moving around so often, clubs spend an ample amount of time determining whether or not it is for their benefit and betterment of the organization as a whole. The objective of this thesis is to utilize previous baseball statistics in StataSE to determine performance levels of players who played at the major league level. From these, regression-based performance models will be used to predict whether or not Major League Baseball organizations effectively and efficiently move players around from their farm systems to the big leagues. From this, teams will be able to see whether or not they in fact make the right decisions during the season. Several tasks were accomplished to achieve this outcome: 1. First, data was obtained from the Baseball-Reference statistics database and sorted in google sheets in order for me to perform analysis anywhere. 2. Next, all 1,354 players that entered the major leagues in the year 2016, were assessed as to whether or not they started in a given league and stayed, got promoted from the minor leagues to the majors, or demoted from the majors to the minor leagues. 3. Based off of prior baseball knowledge and offensive performance quantifications only, players' abilities were evaluated and only those who were called up or sent down were included in the overall analysis. 4. The statistical analysis software application, StataSE, was used to create a further analyze if any of the four major regression assumptions were violated. It was determined that logistic regression models would produce better results than that of a standard, linear OLS model. After testing multiple models, and slightly refining my hypothesis, the adjustments made developed a more accurate analysis of whether organizations were making an efficient move sending a player down to promote another player up. After producing the model, I decided to investigate at what level a player was deemed to be no longer able to perform at a Major League Baseball level.

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  • 2017-05

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Analytics of the Prospect Draft in Major League Baseball

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Our research encompassed the prospect draft in baseball and looked at what type of player teams drafted to maximize value. We wanted to know which position returned the best value

Our research encompassed the prospect draft in baseball and looked at what type of player teams drafted to maximize value. We wanted to know which position returned the best value to the team that drafted them, and which level is safer to draft players from, college or high school. We decided to look at draft data from 2006-2010 for the first ten rounds of players selected. Because there is only a monetary cap on players drafted in the first ten rounds we restricted our data to these players. Once we set up the parameters we compiled a spreadsheet of these players with both their signing bonuses and their wins above replacement (WAR). This allowed us to see how much a team was spending per win at the major league level. After the data was compiled we made pivot tables and graphs to visually represent our data and better understand the numbers. We found that the worst position that MLB teams could draft would be high school second baseman. They returned the lowest WAR of any player that we looked at. In general though high school players were more costly to sign and had lower WARs than their college counterparts making them, on average, a worse pick value wise. The best position you could pick was college shortstops. They had the trifecta of the best signability of all players, along with one of the highest WARs and lowest signing bonuses. These were three of the main factors that you want with your draft pick and they ranked near the top in all three categories. This research can help give guidelines to Major League teams as they go to select players in the draft. While there are always going to be exceptions to trends, by following the enclosed research teams can minimize risk in the draft.

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  • 2017-05

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Relationship Between College Baseball Conferences and Average Offensive Production of Major League Baseball Players

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Beginning with the publication of Moneyball by Michael Lewis in 2003, the use of sabermetrics \u2014 the application of statistical analysis to baseball records - has exploded in major league

Beginning with the publication of Moneyball by Michael Lewis in 2003, the use of sabermetrics \u2014 the application of statistical analysis to baseball records - has exploded in major league front offices. Executives Billy Beane, Paul DePoedesta, and Theo Epstein are notable figures that have been successful in incorporating sabermetrics to their team's philosophy, resulting in playoff appearances and championship success. The competitive market of baseball, once dominated by the collusion of owners, now promotes innovative thought to analytically develop competitive advantages. The tiered economic payrolls of Major League Baseball (MLB) has created an environment in which large-market teams are capable of "buying" championships through the acquisition of the best available talent in free agency, and small-market teams are pushed to "build" championships through the drafting and systematic farming of high-school and college level players. The use of sabermetrics promotes both models of success \u2014 buying and building \u2014 by unbiasedly determining a player's productivity. The objective of this paper is to develop a regression-based predictive model that can be used by Majors League Baseball teams to forecast the MLB career average offensive performance of college baseball players from specific conferences. The development of this model required multiple tasks: I. Data was obtained from The Baseball Cube, a baseball records database providing both College and MLB data. II. Modifications to the data were applied to adjust for year-to-year formatting, a missing variable for seasons played, the presence of missing values, and to correct league identifiers. III. Evaluation of multiple offensive productivity models capable of handling the obtained dataset and regression forecasting technique. IV. SAS software was used to create the regression models and analyze the residuals for any irregularities or normality violations. The results of this paper find that there is a relationship between Division 1 collegiate baseball conferences and average career offensive productivity in Major Leagues Baseball, with the SEC having the most accurate reflection of performance.

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  • 2017-05