Matching Items (29)

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Comparative Policy Analysis of Maternal Mental Health in Bangladesh and Nepal

Description

Maternal health and mental health have recently become globally recognized as critical areas of focus. The continued research into the relationship between maternal health and mental health—in particular, how they

Maternal health and mental health have recently become globally recognized as critical areas of focus. The continued research into the relationship between maternal health and mental health—in particular, how they are affected by public policy and infrastructure—is vital to the improvement of general health outcomes. An investigation of literature, current health landscape and indicators, gray literature, and the current policy landscape in an exemplar country (Australia), Bangladesh and Nepal was done. Bangladesh and Nepal were chosen due to the recent amounts of change seen in each country’s maternal health status. Both Bangladesh and Nepal are severely lacking in official mental health services, facilities, and personnel. The analysis revealed flaws and disparities in each country’s current policy landscape. Despite these disparities it should be recognized that policies and programs are being implemented – just in a very piecemeal manner, and not entirely by each country’s respective government. Integration of maternal health services and mental health services is recommended to improve functionality of already existing services. The addition of minimal but necessary components to health systems is recommended.

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  • 2015-05

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Sociocultural perspectives on antibiotic consumption and resistance

Description

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is

In 2015, the World Health Organization cited antibiotic resistance as one of the greatest current challenges to global public health. A major driver of the evolution of antibiotic resistance is the overuse and misuse of these drugs. While antibiotic stewardship, education campaigns, and health policy attempt to limit drug use globally, public understanding of antibiotic resistance and its consequences are lacking. The goal of this study is to analyze the social and cultural influences of antibiotic knowledge and usage behavior. Over a three-month period, I interviewed 211 laypersons in Guatemala, Spain, the Netherlands, India, South Africa, and New Zealand to understand their ideas, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antibiotics and compared results across countries. While an overall consensus across countries does exist, I found significant differences between low and high income countries as well as between low and high antibiotic consumption countries. Additionally, I found that having increased public health knowledge is related to lower antibiotic "risky" behavior. These results help contextualize national data on antibiotic consumption and resistance by illustrating relationships between access, beliefs, and consumption patterns within populations. The results also inform the development of community and culture specific educational campaigns regarding antibiotic resistance.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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A Closer Look at the Global Partnership: Re-Evaluating Sustainable Development Goal 17

Description

In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind.

In an increasingly interconnected world, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are the United Nations’ framework for ensuring we continue to transform our world for the better, leaving no population behind. This study examines how the terminology of Sustainable Development Goal 17 for global partnership affects its implementation, focusing on “building capacity”—a widely referenced target in the development arena—and the involvement of the private sector. Key informant interviews with experts in the fields of conflict of interest, ethics, and development revealed a wide variety of (often conflicting) notions about partnership, frameworks for capacity development, and the interactions between public and private actors. A literature review of key policy documents examined the terminology and implementation of multistakeholder partnerships, and analysis offered considerations for risks and suggestions in policy terminology. Results indicate a need for increased attention to the use of partnership terminology as a catch-all term to encompass development work, and makes several recommendations for changes to combat misuse of the partnership label. Finally, this study acknowledges that there is a continued need for research-based evidence for effectiveness of the partnership-based development approach.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Comparative Analysis of Infant Mortality Rates Across South Asia and Central Asia

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Approximately 15,000 children die every day due to preventable illnesses (World Health Organization, 2016, 2017). Most of these deaths have been concentrated in developing countries and specifically in Sub-Saharan Africa,

Approximately 15,000 children die every day due to preventable illnesses (World Health Organization, 2016, 2017). Most of these deaths have been concentrated in developing countries and specifically in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and to a lesser extent in Central Asia. Many studies have analyzed determinants of infant mortality rates across regions of South Asia. Despite neighboring South Asia, reasons for infant mortality in Central Asia do not seem to be as heavily researched. To investigate whether there are differences in the risk factors for infant mortality between South Asia and Central Asia, I analyzed data on 557,089 women and 1,272,916 children from Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 5 Central Asian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan) and 5 South Asian (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan) countries. Binary logistic regression predicted whether a child was alive based on a number of maternal and child characteristics, including maternal age, maternal education, maternal residence, place of delivery, wealth, open defecation, prenatal care, and vaccinations. There were similarities along with differences in child survival outcomes between Central Asia and South Asia. Maternal age, maternal education, and the DPT 3 vaccination appeared to have protective effects on child survival rates in both Central Asia and South Asia whereas delivery outside of the hospital and open defecation have negative effects on child survival outcomes. Tetanus, polio 1, and the BCG vaccinations appeared to have a more pronounced positive effect on child survival in Central Asia whereas measles and polio 3 appear to have a more pronounced positive effect in South Asia. Wealth also appeared to have a greater protective effect in South Asia as opposed to Central Asia. More research needs to be conducted to elaborate on reasons for why there are differences between Central Asia and South Asia.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Pimps, Prostitutes, and Providers: How Educating Healthcare Providers Impacts Beliefs, Knowledge, and Perceptions on Sex Trafficking

Description

Human trafficking is a widespread global health issue impacting communities both locally and globally. Despite its prevalence in our world, there is a lack of education amongst healthcare providers. Research

Human trafficking is a widespread global health issue impacting communities both locally and globally. Despite its prevalence in our world, there is a lack of education amongst healthcare providers. Research suggests that more than 80 percent of human trafficking victims encountered one or more healthcare professionals while being trafficked. Of these providers encountered, 60 percent were emergency department personnel (Lederer & Wetzel, 2014). Although emergency department personnel have a high rate in interaction with victims, less than 5 percent have received formal training regarding human trafficking (Lederer & Wetzel, 2014). It is my goal to better educate current and future healthcare professionals on human trafficking. Through education, more victims can be recognized and be offered the resources they deserve. In order to do this, I want to understand current perceptions, knowledge, and beliefs that healthcare personnel have, and how education affects these perceptions. To gain this information, I will distribute the same survey to healthcare professionals before and after receiving a formal training on human trafficking. Through this survey, I hope to better understand how education affects people’s perceptions, knowledge, and beliefs on human trafficking.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Exploring the Role of Student Religiosity in the Biology Classroom

Description

In response to a national call within STEM to increase diversity within the sciences, there has been a growth in science education research aimed at increasing participation of underrepresented groups

In response to a national call within STEM to increase diversity within the sciences, there has been a growth in science education research aimed at increasing participation of underrepresented groups in science, such as women and ethnic/racial minorities. However, an underexplored underrepresented group in science are religious students. Though 82% of the United States population is religiously affiliated, only 52% of scientists are religious (Pew, 2009). Even further, only 32% of biologists are religious, with 25% identifying as Christian (Pew, 2009; Ecklund, 2007). One reason as to why Christian individuals are underrepresented in biology is because faculty may express biases that affect students' ability to persist in the field of biology. In this study, we explored how revealing a Christian student's religious identity on science graduate application would impact faculty's perception of the student during the biology graduate application process. We found that faculty were significantly more likely to perceive the student who revealed their religious identity to be less competent, hirable, likeable, and faculty would be less likely to mentor the student. Our study informs upon possible reasons as to why there is an underrepresentation of Christians in science. This further suggests that bias against Christians must be addressed in order to avoid real-world, negative treatment of Christians in science.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Best Practices for Undergraduate Mental Health Support for Study Abroad

Description

This paper describes a mixed methods investigation of undergraduate mental health support practices at Arizona State University (ASU), as well as an outside look at peer and other leading institutions.

This paper describes a mixed methods investigation of undergraduate mental health support practices at Arizona State University (ASU), as well as an outside look at peer and other leading institutions. Methods employed in this study include: ASU undergraduate student survey to assess perception of resources provided by ASU and the likelihood to disclose physical and mental health conditions, key informant interviews to understand ASU mental health support from the perspective of those who implement support measures, participant observation of study abroad events that provide resources to prospective and pre-departure students, and a document review of the study abroad website from peer and other institutions. The target population of this study is undergraduate students who participate or plan to participate in study abroad programs across the United States. The sample population for the undergraduate student survey is undergraduate students at ASU, as well as sixteen institutions for the document review. Significant findings from the research include student concerns about financial and academic barriers to study abroad, as well as a greater likelihood to disclose physical health conditions rather than mental health conditions due to fear of stigma or of being a burden to program coordinators. Additionally, it was found that there is a separation between available resources and student awareness and use of these resources. ASU can work to remedy this disconnect by explicitly presenting easily accessible resource information on the website and in pre-departure materials, as well as addressing mental health awareness abroad in an inclusive manner towards all students in addition to those with pre-existing mental health conditions. Overall, more work should be done to fulfill the vision of comprehensive mental health support at ASU.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Self-Esteem, Dietary Habits, and Perception of Body Image Among the Homeless Population

Description

Since underserved individuals do not have a steady supply of food, this study explored whether their standards of what they view as healthy differs from individuals who can afford a

Since underserved individuals do not have a steady supply of food, this study explored whether their standards of what they view as healthy differs from individuals who can afford a basic living that includes food and shelter. Data collection from surveys provided information to see whether the struggles of obtaining food affects what is perceived as healthy, and whether there is a difference in dietary habits, perception of body image, and self-esteem. Homeless individuals displayed that they were more aware than non-homeless individuals that the food they were consuming was unhealthy. They were also less satisfied with their daily food diet, as most of them wished that they ate greater quantities of certain foods. Their daily food intake did confirm that they consumed more unhealthy food that lacked nutrition compared to non-homeless individuals. They also generally believed that thicker body images were healthier and more attractive compared to non-homeless people who thought that thinner body images were healthier and attractive. Homeless people also generally ranked lower on the body image scale than the image they thought was most desirable and healthy. This revealed a lack of satisfaction with their own current body. Additionally, the self-efficacy score displayed that homeless individuals generally scored lower for their self-esteem level compared to non-homeless people. This demonstrated that their daily struggles and lifestyle impacts their emotions and overall confidence.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Comparison of Widespread State Variation in Optometric Care

Description

Optometry is a field in the United States dedicated to analyzing the health of eyes and offering corrective lenses and/or treatments to improve a patient’s ocular health and vision. Since

Optometry is a field in the United States dedicated to analyzing the health of eyes and offering corrective lenses and/or treatments to improve a patient’s ocular health and vision. Since its origin in the U.S. in the late 19th century, the field of optometry has been met with strong opposition from the medical community, ophthalmologists in particular. This ongoing feud between optometrists and ophthalmologists, medical doctors who also specialize in eye health and perform eye surgeries, continues today as ophthalmologists push back against optometrists’ attempts to expand their scope of practice. With this expansion to include certain eye surgeries, it would save patients both time and money. This is just one factor impacting patients, with another being the widely varied state laws surrounding eye health. Procedures optometrists are able to perform is decided by state laws, which leads to vast discrepancies. Optometrists in one state can perform laser eye surgeries, while optometrists in a nearby state cannot even provide simple treatments for ocular diseases they diagnosis. In this study, three states were analyzed to showcase these variations in possible treatment and demonstrate both the positive and negative impacts they are having on patients. First was Massachusetts which has one of the best medical care systems in the U.S., but one of the worst vision care. As the only state to not allow optometrists to treat glaucoma and one of two states to not allow optometrists to prescribe medications for patients, these limitations have caused patients the inconvenience of having to then visit an ophthalmologist for treatment which adds additional costs and delay in treatment which can cause the conditions to possibly worsen. Second was Oklahoma which was the first U.S. state to allow optometrists to perform laser eye surgeries in 1998. This legislation expanded Oklahoma residents access to treatment as before patients would have to travel to other cities or counties to visit one of the few ophthalmologists in the state. Lastly was Maine which in 2015 passed legislation to allow optometrists to regain control of their field from vision insurance companies who can no longer dictate fees patients are charged if the insurance companies will not cover it. This study concluded that there needs to be a universal vision care system across the U.S. that includes expansion of practice for optometrists and allow them to be in control of their own field, not the state government or vision insurance companies.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Sexual Health Needs Assessment at ASU

Description

Arizona State University (ASU) has experienced an increase of sexually transmitted infections, has a reputation of a large population of students with sexually transmitted infections, and does not provide any

Arizona State University (ASU) has experienced an increase of sexually transmitted infections, has a reputation of a large population of students with sexually transmitted infections, and does not provide any form of required sexual health education to its students in order to reduce this health risk. This study conducted focus group research amongst ASU female students to determine their opinions, experience, and comfort level with sexual health education information as well as their opinion of an ASU mandated sexual health education module. The research showed a desire for more information on sexuality, psychology, hormones, anatomy, and sexually transmitted infections. The participants also expressed support for an ASU sexual health training module though there was debate as to whether or not to make the module mandatory.
The ASU student body is primarily young students who are making some of the first adult decisions of their lives and the majority have come from backgrounds lacking in sexual health education. The way to ensure the health and safety of these students is to give them the information they need to make educated decisions regarding their health and their relationships. This thesis concludes that ASU should mandate a sexual health education training module in the form of a semester long class, in-person or online, with small classes of 5-15 students each in order to improve the health of the ASU community.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05