Matching Items (26)

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WENO Simulations of the Fermi Bubbles Emitted by Our Galaxy

Description

In 2010, two gamma-ray /x-ray bubbles were detected in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. These bubbles extend symmetrically ≈ 30, 000 light years above and below the Galactic

In 2010, two gamma-ray /x-ray bubbles were detected in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. These bubbles extend symmetrically ≈ 30, 000 light years above and below the Galactic Center, with a width of ≈ 27, 000 light years. These bubbles emit gamma-rays at energies between 1 and 100 giga-electronvolts, have approximately uniform surface brightness, and are expanding at ≈ 30, 000 km/s. We believe that these Fermi Bubbles are the result of an astrophysical jet pulse that occurred millions of years ago. Utilizing high-performance computing and Euler’s Gas Dynamics Equations, we hope to find a realistic simulation that will tell us more about the age of these Fermi Bubbles and better understand the mechanism that powers the bubbles.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Modeling Surface Brightness of the HH 901 Jets in the Carina Nebula

Description

The purpose of this thesis is to accurately simulate the surface brightness in various spectral emission lines of the HH 901 jets in the Mystic Mountain Formation of the Carina

The purpose of this thesis is to accurately simulate the surface brightness in various spectral emission lines of the HH 901 jets in the Mystic Mountain Formation of the Carina Nebula. To accomplish this goal, we gathered relevant spectral emission line data for [Fe II] 12660 Å, Hα 6563 Å, and [S II] 6720 Å to compare with Hubble Space Telescope observations of the HH 901 jets presented in Reiter et al. (2016). We derived the emissivities for these lines from the spectral synthesis code Cloudy by Ferland et al. (2017). In addition, we used WENO simulations of density, temperature, and radiative cooling to model the jet. We found that the computed surface brightness values agreed with most of the observational surface brightness values. Thus, the 3D cylindrically symmetric simulations of surface brightness using the WENO code and Cloudy spectral emission models are accurate for jets like HH 901. After detailing these agreements, we discuss the next steps for the project, like adding an external ambient wind and performing the simulations in full 3D.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Comparison of MIMD and SIMT Parallel Iterative Solvers for Laplace's Equation

Description

A comparison of the performance of CUDA versus OpenMP for Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, and S.O.R. iterative methods for Laplace's Equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions is presented. Both the number of cores

A comparison of the performance of CUDA versus OpenMP for Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, and S.O.R. iterative methods for Laplace's Equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions is presented. Both the number of cores and the grid size were varied for the OpenMP program, while the grid size was varied for the CUDA program. CUDA outperforms the 8-core OpenMP program with the Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel schemes for all grid sizes, and is competitive with S.O.R for all grid sizes examined.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Numerical Simulation of the Surface Brightness of Astrophysical Jets

Description

The goal of this thesis is to extend the astrophysical jet model created by Dr.
Gardner and Dr. Jones to model the surface brightness of astrophysical jets. We attempt to

The goal of this thesis is to extend the astrophysical jet model created by Dr.
Gardner and Dr. Jones to model the surface brightness of astrophysical jets. We attempt to accomplish this goal by modeling the astrophysical jet HH30 in the spectral emission lines [SII] 6716Å, [OI] 6300Å, and [NII] 6583Å. In order to do so, we used the jet model to simulate the temperature and density of the jet to match observational data by Hartigan and Morse (2007). From these results, we derived the emissivities in these emission lines using Cloudy by Ferland et al. (2013). Then we used the emissivities to determine the surface brightness of the jet in these lines. We found that the simulated surface brightness agreed with the observational surface brightness and we conclude that the model could successfully be extended to model the surface brightness of a jet.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Numerical Simulation of the Carina Nebula Astrophysical Jets

Description

This project attempts to create an accurate numerical simulation of the eastern limb of the HH 901 jet in the Mystic Mountain formation located in the Carina Nebula. Using a

This project attempts to create an accurate numerical simulation of the eastern limb of the HH 901 jet in the Mystic Mountain formation located in the Carina Nebula. Using a 3rd order accurate WENO numerical scheme in space, and a 3rd order accurate RK method in time, the temperature, density, radiative cooling, length, and average jet velocity of this astrophysical phenomenon were simulated based on observations made by Hubble Space Telescope and the work of Reiter and Smith (2013) and (2014). The results of this simulation are displayed in three figures, one each for temperature, radiative cooling, and density, which show a jet displaying morphology consistent with that of the HH 901 eastern limb without adjustment for stellar wind. Also discussed are the effects of different jet speeds, initial conditions, and pulse parameters on the shape and behavior of the simulated jets, as well as continuing work to be done on the simulation to enhance its accuracy and usefulness.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Predicting Glioblastoma Growth Using a Poisson Process

Description

In this research we consider stochastic models of Glioblastoma Multiforme brain tumors. We first look at a model by K. Swanson et al., which describes the dynamics as random diffusion

In this research we consider stochastic models of Glioblastoma Multiforme brain tumors. We first look at a model by K. Swanson et al., which describes the dynamics as random diffusion plus deterministic logistic growth. We introduce a stochastic component in the logistic growth in the form of a random growth rate defined by a Poisson process. We show that this stochastic logistic growth model leads to a more accurate evaluation of the tumor growth compared its deterministic counterpart. We also discuss future plans to incorporate individual patient geometry, extend the model to three dimensions and to incorporate effects of different treatments into our model, in collaboration with a local hospital.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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WENO Simulations of AGN-jet Induced Star Formation

Description

This project discusses simulation results of star formation by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets using the WENO method. A typical AGN jet with velocity uj=0.3c, density ρj=10^(-2) H/cm3, and temperature

This project discusses simulation results of star formation by Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) jets using the WENO method. A typical AGN jet with velocity uj=0.3c, density ρj=10^(-2) H/cm3, and temperature Tj=10^(7) K was injected into a 425 light years square region. The jet passes through a stationary inhomogeneous ambient background of temperature Ta=5x10^4 K and density ρa= 2 H/cm^3 to test if AGN jets, by creating bow shocks propagating through the interstellar medium and molecular clouds, can form stars in the densest regions. According to the star formation criteria for gravitational collapse of Cen and Ostriker, the resulting simulations indicate the presence of star formation via AGN jets (1992). The parameters are tuned to match Centaurs A to identify star formation in this galaxy. The simulations will also be run in three dimensions in the future and for longer time intervals to gain a better understanding of the star formation process via AGN jets.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Mathematical Modeling of Novel Cancer Immunotherapies

Description

Immunotherapy has received great attention recently, as it has become a powerful tool in fighting certain types of cancer. Immunotherapeutic drugs strengthen the immune system's natural ability to identify and

Immunotherapy has received great attention recently, as it has become a powerful tool in fighting certain types of cancer. Immunotherapeutic drugs strengthen the immune system's natural ability to identify and eradicate cancer cells. This work focuses on immune checkpoint inhibitor and oncolytic virus therapies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors act as blocking mechanisms against the binding partner proteins, enabling T-cell activation and stimulation of the immune response. Oncolytic virus therapy utilizes genetically engineered viruses that kill cancer cells upon lysing. To elucidate the interactions between a growing tumor and the employed drugs, mathematical modeling has proven instrumental. This dissertation introduces and analyzes three different ordinary differential equation models to investigate tumor immunotherapy dynamics.

The first model considers a monotherapy employing the immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD-1. The dynamics both with and without anti-PD-1 are studied, and mathematical analysis is performed in the case when no anti-PD-1 is administrated. Simulations are carried out to explore the effects of continuous treatment versus intermittent treatment. The outcome of the simulations does not demonstrate elimination of the tumor, suggesting the need for a combination type of treatment.

An extension of the aforementioned model is deployed to investigate the pairing of an immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD-L1 with an immunostimulant NHS-muIL12. Additionally, a generic drug-free model is developed to explore the dynamics of both exponential and logistic tumor growth functions. Experimental data are used for model fitting and parameter estimation in the monotherapy cases. The model is utilized to predict the outcome of combination therapy, and reveals a synergistic effect: Compared to the monotherapy case, only one-third of the dosage can successfully control the tumor in the combination case.

Finally, the treatment impact of oncolytic virus therapy in a previously developed and fit model is explored. To determine if one can trust the predictive abilities of the model, a practical identifiability analysis is performed. Particularly, the profile likelihood curves demonstrate practical unidentifiability, when all parameters are simultaneously fit. This observation poses concerns about the predictive abilities of the model. Further investigation showed that if half of the model parameters can be measured through biological experimentation, practical identifiability is achieved.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Observing simulated images of the high redshift universe: the faint end luminosity function

Description

Numerical simulations are very helpful in understanding the physics of the formation of structure and galaxies. However, it is sometimes difficult to interpret model data with respect to observations, partly

Numerical simulations are very helpful in understanding the physics of the formation of structure and galaxies. However, it is sometimes difficult to interpret model data with respect to observations, partly due to the difficulties and background noise inherent to observation. The goal, here, is to attempt to bridge this gap between simulation and observation by rendering the model output in image format which is then processed by tools commonly used in observational astronomy. Images are synthesized in various filters by folding the output of cosmological simulations of gasdynamics with star-formation and dark matter with the Bruzual- Charlot stellar population synthesis models. A variation of the Virgo-Gadget numerical simulation code is used with the hybrid gas and stellar formation models of Springel and Hernquist (2003). Outputs taken at various redshifts are stacked to create a synthetic view of the simulated star clusters. Source Extractor (SExtractor) is used to find groupings of stellar populations which are considered as galaxies or galaxy building blocks and photometry used to estimate the rest frame luminosities and distribution functions. With further refinements, this is expected to provide support for missions such as JWST, as well as to probe what additional physics are needed to model the data. The results show good agreement in many respects with observed properties of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) over a wide range of high redshifts. In particular, the slope (alpha) when fitted to the standard Schechter function shows excellent agreement both in value and evolution with redshift, when compared with observation. Discrepancies of other properties with observation are seen to be a result of limitations of the simulation and additional feedback mechanisms which are needed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012