Matching Items (13)

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Gender Non-Normative Behaviors in the Predictors of Peer Victimization

Description

The main purpose of this thesis was to further explore factors that render particular children more susceptible to bullying and peer victimization. Race, age, and the activities that the children

The main purpose of this thesis was to further explore factors that render particular children more susceptible to bullying and peer victimization. Race, age, and the activities that the children participated in were considered potential predictors of bullying and victimization. Self- and peer-reported data were gathered on 437 first and third grade children (234 boys and 203 girls, M age = 7 years, 6 months), including the frequency of peer victimization and the extent of their engagement in gender-typed activities. Activities were identified as either masculine (e.g., watching sports on television, playing with tools) or feminine (e.g., playing house, cheerleading) according to which sex was mostly likely to engage in them. Mixed support was obtained for the hypothesis that boys are at greater risk for being targets of peer aggression. Specifically, while peer-reports of victimization supported this hypothesis, self-reports revealed no sex differences. Support was obtained for the hypotheses that engaging in cross gender-typed activities would be a stronger risk factor for peer victimization for boys than for girls.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Relations of Empathy to Anger, Gender, and Intrusive Maternal Parenting in Toddlers

Description

This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at

This longitudinal study examines the relations of anger, gender, and intrusive maternal parenting to empathy in toddlers. Participants (247 toddlers at the initial assessment) were assessed in a laboratory at approximately 18 (T1, N = 247), 30 (T2, N = 216), and 42 (T3, N = 192) months of age. Toddlers' observed anger was measured during a toy removal task and maternal intrusiveness was observed during free play between mother and toddler. Reported empathy was measured using questionnaires completed by mothers and fathers. At 18 months, a positive relation between observed anger and reported empathy was found for boys, but not for girls. At 30 months, maternal intrusiveness positively predicted empathy in boys, but it negatively predicted empathy in girls. These findings provide insight about sex differences in the development of empathy and concern for others in early childhood.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Relationship between Internalization of the Model Minority Myth and Critical Consciousness among Asian American College Students

Description

Objective: This study examined how the belief (internalization) in the model minority myth of achievement orientation and of unrestricted mobility relates to one’s social awareness of racial inequity and inequality

Objective: This study examined how the belief (internalization) in the model minority myth of achievement orientation and of unrestricted mobility relates to one’s social awareness of racial inequity and inequality in society (critical consciousness) amongst Asian American college students. Methods: Participants (N = 275, 67.7% female, M_age = 22.35) were recruited from Asian American ethnic studies classes, clubs and organizations and completed an online cross-sectional survey. Results: Results indicated that internalization of achievement orientation significantly correlated with levels of racial critical consciousness while unrestricted mobility did not. Conclusion: These findings extend research exploring the correlates of critical consciousness on internalization of racial stereotypes for Asian Americans.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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A Wok to Remember: a Culinary Exploration of Asian American Cuisine

Description

Asian Americans have a unique relationship with food. From the moment they landed on American soil, their history and experiences have been tied to food, and not entirely by their

Asian Americans have a unique relationship with food. From the moment they landed on American soil, their history and experiences have been tied to food, and not entirely by their own will. Now, the general American population enjoys foods from a multitude of ethnic groups, but in America’s early history, these foods were abhorred and used as justifications for legal discrimination, murders, massacres, and banishment. These struggles forced Asian Americans to work in the food industry (the only work they could do without as much backlash), further promoting the association of Asian Americans and food. While working in the food industry in order to find passage into America and to survive, many Asian dishes had to be assimilated to the palette of the general White American population and many dishes were made up and presented as authentically Asian. Some of these dishes have become iconic when thinking of classic American foods—chow mein, orange chicken, and more. For many non-Asian Americans, these popular dishes contribute to the pairing of Asian Americans with food and the food industry. But for Asian Americans, these dishes symbolize their struggles—leaving their homes and families behind, trying to live out the American dream, assimilating and changing their foods in just the right way in order to fit in, be accepted, and to survive. This project, in the form of a cookbook, examines the significance of food in the Chinese American, Japanese American, and Filipino American experiences in America while looking at the histories of those specific foods as well as histories of each group.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Chinese American adolescents' cultural frameworks for understanding parenting

Description

Parenting approaches that are firm yet warm (i.e., authoritative parenting) have been found to be robustly beneficial for mainstream White Americans youths, but do not demonstrate similarly consistent effects among

Parenting approaches that are firm yet warm (i.e., authoritative parenting) have been found to be robustly beneficial for mainstream White Americans youths, but do not demonstrate similarly consistent effects among Chinese Americans (CA) adolescents. Evidence suggests that CA adolescents interpret and experience parenting differently than their mainstream counterparts given differences in parenting values and child-rearing norms between traditional Chinese and mainstream American cultures. The current study tests the theory that prospective effects of parenting on psychological and academic functioning depends on adolescents' cultural frameworks for interpreting and understanding parenting. CA adolescents with values and expectations of parenting that are more consistent with mainstream American parenting norms were predicted to experience parenting similar to their White American counterparts (i.e., benefiting from a combination of parental strictness and warmth). In contrast, CA adolescents with parenting values and expectations more consistent with traditional Chinese parenting norms were predicted to experience parenting and its effects on academic and psychological outcomes differently than patterns documented in the mainstream literature. This study was conducted with a sample of Chinese American 9th graders (N = 500) from the Multicultural Family Adolescent Study. Latent Class Analysis (LCA), a person-centered approach to modeling CA adolescents' cultural frameworks for interpreting parenting, was employed using a combination of demographic variables (e.g., nativity, language use at home, mother's length of stay in the U.S.) and measures of parenting values and expectations (e.g., parental respect, ideal strictness & laxness). The study then examined whether prospective effects of parenting behaviors (strict control, warmth, and their interaction effect) on adolescent adjustment (internalizing and externalizing symptoms, substance use, and GPA) were moderated by latent class membership. The optimal LCA solution identified five distinct cultural frameworks for understanding parenting. Findings generally supported the idea that effects of parenting on CA adolescent adjustment depend on adolescents' cultural framework for parenting. The classic authoritative parenting effect (high strictness and warmth leads to positive outcomes) was found for the two most acculturated groups of adolescents. However, only one of these groups overtly endorsed mainstream American parenting values.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Familial Racial-ethnic Socialization of Multiracial Youth: A Qualitative Examination and Validation of the Multiracial Youth Socialization (MY-Soc) Scale

Description

Pew Research Center reported in 2015 that already one-in-seven infants born in the United States are Multiracial (Livingston, 2017). Therefore, the number of Multiracial families is growing, and there is

Pew Research Center reported in 2015 that already one-in-seven infants born in the United States are Multiracial (Livingston, 2017). Therefore, the number of Multiracial families is growing, and there is a need to understand how parents are engaging in racial-ethnic socialization, or the transmission of messages to Multiracial children about race, ethnicity, and culture (Atkin & Yoo, 2019; Hughes et al., 2006). I conducted a qualitative interview study with 20 Multiracial emerging adults to understand the types of racial-ethnic socialization messages Multiracial youth receive from their parents, and used these themes to inform the development and validation of the first measure of racial-ethnic socialization for Multiracial youth, the Multiracial Youth Socialization (MY-Soc) Scale.

Study 1 identified nine themes of racial-ethnic socialization content: cultural socialization, racial identity socialization, preparation for bias socialization, colorblind socialization, race conscious socialization, cultural diversity appreciation socialization, negative socialization, exposure to diversity socialization, and silent socialization. Study 2 utilized a sample of 902 Multiracial emerging adults to develop and validate the MY-Soc scale. Items were written to assess all of the themes identified in Study 1, with the exception of exposure to diversity socialization, and the survey was designed to collect responses regarding the socialization practices of two of the youths’ primary caregivers. The sample was split to run exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, finding support for a 62-item scale measuring all eight themes. The MY-Soc Scale was also supported by validity and reliability tests. The two studies advance the literature by increasing understanding of the racial-ethnic socialization experiences of Multiracial youth of diverse racial backgrounds. The MY-Soc Scale contributes an important tool for scholars and practitioners to learn which racial-ethnic socialization messages are promotive for Multiracial youth development in different contexts.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Development of the internalized racism scale for Asian Americans

Description

Internalized racism is a destructive, yet insidious psychological effect of racism. Although it has garnered increased attention in the research and clinical community due to its pervasive impact in racial

Internalized racism is a destructive, yet insidious psychological effect of racism. Although it has garnered increased attention in the research and clinical community due to its pervasive impact in racial minority individuals, empirical research on this topic has been limited. At the time of this study, no existing scale captures the key dimensions of internalized racism of Asian Americans. This study attempted to fill this gap by developing a self-report instrument that identified the key dimensions of this psychological construct. Seven hundred and fourteen Asian Americans participated in this study, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to investigate the factor structure of the scale. Results indicated that the Internalized Racism Scale for Asian Americans (IRSAA) has five factors, which are Endorsement of Negative Stereotypes, Sense of Inferiority, Denial or Minimization of Racism, Emasculation of Asian American Men, and Within-group Discrimination. This dissertation also examines and discusses the evidence of convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity for the IRSAA subscales.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Egalitarian socialization and subjective well-being in multiracial individuals: a moderated mediation analysis

Description

Scholarly interest in racial socialization is growing, but researchers' understanding of how and when racial socialization relates to subjective well-being is underdeveloped, particularly for multiracial populations. The present study investigated

Scholarly interest in racial socialization is growing, but researchers' understanding of how and when racial socialization relates to subjective well-being is underdeveloped, particularly for multiracial populations. The present study investigated the possibility that the relationship of racial socialization to subjective well-being is mediated by racial identification and that this mediation depends on physical racial ambiguity. Specifically, the proposed study used a moderated mediation model to examine whether the indirect relation of egalitarian socialization to subjective well-being through racial identification is conditional on physical racial ambiguity among 313 multiracial individuals. Results suggested egalitarian socialization was positively correlated with subjective well-being. The results provided no support for the moderated mediation hypothesis. The present study examined the complex interaction between racial socialization, racial identification, physical racial ambiguity, and subjective well-being among multiracial individuals. Despite receiving no support for the moderated mediation hypothesis, this research helped to further explicate a distinct pathway through which egalitarian socialization impacts well-being through racial identification for multiracial individuals independent of physical racial ambiguity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress among Asian American adolescents: moderating roles of family racial socialization and nativity status

Description

This dissertation used the risk and resilience framework to examine the associations between perceived racial discrimination, family racial socialization, nativity status, and psychological distress. Regression analyses were conducted to test

This dissertation used the risk and resilience framework to examine the associations between perceived racial discrimination, family racial socialization, nativity status, and psychological distress. Regression analyses were conducted to test the links between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress and the moderation on these associations by family racial socialization and nativity status. Results suggest, for U.S.-born adolescents, cultural socialization strengthened the relation between subtle racial discrimination and anxiety symptoms. In addition, promotion of mistrust buffered the relations of both subtle and blatant racial discrimination on depressive symptoms. For foreign-born adolescents, promotion of mistrust exacerbated the association between blatant racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Overall, the findings revealed the detrimental effects of perceived racial discrimination on the mental health of Asian American adolescents, how some family racial socialization strategies strengthen or weaken the relation between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress, and the different ways foreign-born and U.S-born adolescents may interpret racial discrimination and experience family racial socialization.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Ego-social identity profiles during emerging adulthood

Description

Identity theorists have emphasized the importance of integration across identity domains for psychosocial well-being. There remains little research, however, on associations across identity domains, group differences across identity profiles, and

Identity theorists have emphasized the importance of integration across identity domains for psychosocial well-being. There remains little research, however, on associations across identity domains, group differences across identity profiles, and the joint association of multiple identity domains with academic outcomes. This dissertation includes two studies that address these limitations in the identity literature. Study 1, examined the ego-social identity profiles that emerged from ethnic identity exploration and commitment, American identity exploration and commitment, and ego identity integration and confusion among an ethnically diverse sample of emerging adults using latent profile analysis (N = 8,717). Results suggested that an eight-profile solution was the best fit for the data. The profiles demonstrated differences in identity status and salience across identity domains. Significant ethnic, sex, nativity, and age differences were identified in ego-social identity membership. Study 2 focused on the ego-social identity profiles that emerged from the same identity domains among biethnic college students of Latino and European American heritage (N = 401) and how these profiles differed as a function of preferred ethnic label. The association of ego-social identity profile with academic achievement and the moderation by university ethnic composition were examined. Results indicated that a two-profile solution was the best fit to the data in which one profile included participants with general identity achievement across identity domains and one profile included individuals who were approaching the identity formation process in each domain. Ego-social identity profile membership did not differ based on preferred ethnic label. Individuals who had a more integrated identity across domains had higher college grades. University ethnic composition did not significantly moderate this association. Taken together, these two studies highlight the intricacies of identity formation that are overlooked when integration across identity domains is not considered.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012