Matching Items (6)

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Solar water disinfection

Description

Water quality is a severe problem throughout the world. Much available water is contaminated by pathogenic microbes. This project reviews the traditional process of solar water disinfection in bottles (SODIS),

Water quality is a severe problem throughout the world. Much available water is contaminated by pathogenic microbes. This project reviews the traditional process of solar water disinfection in bottles (SODIS), discusses experiments conducted with SODIS bottles modified to thermally enhance the process, analyzes experimental data for modified SODIS containers, and suggests ways that by which the traditional process can be improved. Traditional SODIS is currently used in many rural parts of developing countries to disinfect water. The process uses ultraviolet rays and thermal effects to inactivate microorganisms that tend to cause diarrheal disease. If a sufficiently high temperature is attained to reach a synergistic UV-thermal effect range, the process of SODIS is about three times faster. However, many factors can inhibit attainment of sufficient heating of water in SODIS bottles in practice. By modifying the bottles to enhance effectiveness of sunlight in increasing the temperature of the water, SODIS can be more effective. In this research, a series of experiments were conducted over a period of four months and15 days at Arizona State University Polytechnic campus in Mesa, Arizona, U.S.A. Four different types of inexpensive materials (black paint, white paint, foam insulation, and aluminized mylar) were used individually or in combination in seven different modified configurations to assess the potential of the modifications to increase the temperatures of water inside 2-liter PET bottles. Experiments were run in triplicate. Temperatures inside the bottles, along with yard temperature, were recorded over time. Graphs were plotted for each set of experiments. The results of these experiment show that several types of modifications increased water temperature during exposure to sunlight. Water in bottles with black paint and foam insulation on the back side attained the highest temperatures, approximately 8-10 degrees Celsius above temperatures attained in plain bottles. The results of these experiments show how several inexpensive, easily obtained materials can significantly enhance the SODIS process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Preliminary concepts for developing childhood education in emergency preparedness

Description

Being properly prepared is one of the keys to surviving an emergency or a disaster. In order to be prepared, people need appropriate education in preparedness, which includes elements of

Being properly prepared is one of the keys to surviving an emergency or a disaster. In order to be prepared, people need appropriate education in preparedness, which includes elements of prevention, and planning. There is a definite need to better prepare our nation's citizens in order for them to safely respond in times of a disaster. It also seems likely that the earlier concepts and skills are learned, the easier those concepts and skills would be to remember and the more proficient one would become in implementing them. Therefore, it seems appropriate to teach emergency preparedness concepts and skills early on in the educational process. This means that significant efforts need to be directed toward learning, what impediments currently exist, what is helpful, and how preparedness concepts and skills can be taught to our children. A survey was distributed to third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers, asking them questions about emergency preparedness lessons in the classroom. Results indicated that the majority of teachers would be willing to teach emergency preparedness if the curriculum met current academic standards and they were given adequate resources to teach this subject. This study provides ideas, concepts and motivation for teachers to use in a cross-curricular approach to teaching emergency preparedness in the classroom. This is accomplished by presenting examples of newly developed curriculum/lesson plans that meet state academic standards, based on the current Community Emergency Response Team program and on children's fiction literature for the appropriate age group. A list of literature that could be used in this development is also provided in this study.

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Date Created
  • 2011

Development of a monitoring and maintenance program for residential wells used for groundwater abstraction in Lagos State, Nigeria

Description

In rural and urban areas of Nigeria, dependence on groundwater is increasing since the population is growing and high quality, treated municipal water is scarce. Municipal drinking water is often

In rural and urban areas of Nigeria, dependence on groundwater is increasing since the population is growing and high quality, treated municipal water is scarce. Municipal drinking water is often compromised because of old and leaking distribution pipes. About 58% of the water consumed in Lagos State, Nigeria, comes from residential wells. However, a majority of residential wells are shallow wells that are constructed relatively close to septic tanks or pit latrines and are therefore subject to contamination. In certain parts of Africa, there is high potential of severe epidemic if water quality is not improved. With increasing reliance on groundwater, a need exists to monitor the quality of groundwater. This thesis develops a plan for a monitoring program for residential wells in Lagos State, Nigeria. The program focuses on ways by which owners can maintain reasonably good water quality, and on the role of government in implementing water quality requirements. In addition, this thesis describes a survey conducted in various areas of Lagos State to assess community awareness of the importance of groundwater quality and its impact on individuals and the community at large. The survey shows that 30% to 40% of the households have located their wells and septic tanks in the same general area. Various templates have been created to help the staff of a future monitoring program team to effectively gather information during site characterization. A "Questions and Answers" leaflet has been developed to educate citizens about the need for monitoring residential wells. 

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Created

Date Created
  • 2010

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Fabrication and evaluation of hematite modified granular activated carbon (GAC) media for arsenic removal from groundwater

Description

The goal of the study was twofold: (i) to investigate the synthesis of hematite-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) by hydrolysis of Fe (III) and (ii) to assess the effectiveness of

The goal of the study was twofold: (i) to investigate the synthesis of hematite-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) by hydrolysis of Fe (III) and (ii) to assess the effectiveness of the fabricated media in removal of arsenic from water. Fe-GAC was synthesized by hydrolysis of Fe(III) salts under two Fe (III) initial dosages (0.5M and 2M) and two hydrolysis periods (24 hrs and 72 hrs). The iron content of the fabricated Fe-GAC media ranged from 0.9% to 4.4% Fe/g of the dry media. Pseudo-equilibrium batch test data at pH = 7.7±0.2 in 1mM NaHCO3 buffered ultrapure water and challenge groundwater representative of the Arizona Mexico border region were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model. The findings suggested that the arsenic adsorption capacity of the metal (hydr)oxide modified GAC media is primarily controlled by the surface area of the media, while the metal content exhibited lesser effect. The adsorption capacity of the media in the model Mexican groundwater matrix was significantly lower for all adsorbent media. Continuous flow short bed adsorber tests (SBA) demonstrated that the adsorption capacity for arsenic in the challenge groundwater was reduced by a factor of 3 to 4 as a result of the mass transport effects. When compared on metal basis, the iron (hydr)oxide modified media performed comparably well as existing commercial media for treatment of arsenic. On dry mass basis, the fabricated media in this study removed less arsenic than their commercial counterparts because the metal content of the commercial media was significantly higher.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Novel biopolymer treatment for wind induced soil erosion

Description

It is estimated that wind induced soil transports more than 500 x 106 metric tons of fugitive dust annually. Soil erosion has negative effects on human health, the productivity of

It is estimated that wind induced soil transports more than 500 x 106 metric tons of fugitive dust annually. Soil erosion has negative effects on human health, the productivity of farms, and the quality of surface waters. A variety of different polymer stabilizers are available on the market for fugitive dust control. Most of these polymer stabilizers are expensive synthetic polymer products. Their adverse effects and expense usually limits their use. Biopolymers provide a potential alternative to synthetic polymers. They can provide dust abatement by encapsulating soil particles and creating a binding network throughout the treated area. This research into the effectiveness of biopolymers for fugitive dust control involved three phases. Phase I included proof of concept tests. Phase II included carrying out the tests in a wind tunnel. Phase III consisted of conducting the experiments in the field. Proof of concept tests showed that biopolymers have the potential to reduce soil erosion and fugitive dust transport. Wind tunnel tests on two candidate biopolymers, xanthan and chitosan, showed that there is a proportional relationship between biopolymer application rates and threshold wind velocities. The wind tunnel tests also showed that xanthan gum is more successful in the field than chitosan. The field tests showed that xanthan gum was effective at controlling soil erosion. However, the chitosan field data was inconsistent with the xanthan data and field data on bare soil.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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An analysis of the impacts and non-attainment risks of the revised sulfur dioxide national ambient air quality standard on the Toledo core based statistical area using the American Meteorological Society-Environmental Protection Agency regulatory model

Description

The Toledo Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) presents an interesting case study for the new sulfur dioxide (SO2) one hour standard. Since no SO2 monitor within 75 miles to estimate

The Toledo Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) presents an interesting case study for the new sulfur dioxide (SO2) one hour standard. Since no SO2 monitor within 75 miles to estimate the attainment status of the area, American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was used in this study to predict potential problems associated with the newly revised standard. The Toledo CBSA is home to two oil refineries, a glass making industry, several coal fired lime kilns, and a sulfuric acid regeneration plant, The CBSA 3 has coal fired power plants within a 30 mile radius of its center. Additionally, Toledo is a major Great Lakes shipping port visited by both lake and ocean going vessels. As a transportation hub, the area is also traversed by several rail lines which feed four rail switching yards. Impacts of older generation freighters, or "steamers", utilizing high sulfur "Bunker C" fuel oil in the area is also an issue. With the unique challenges presented by an SO2 one hour standard, this study attempted to estimate potential problem areas in advance of any monitoring data being gathered. Based on the publicly available data as inputs, it appears that a significant risk of non-attainment may exist in the Toledo CBSA. However, future on-the-books controls and currently proposed regulatory actions appear to drive the risk below significance by 2015. Any designation as non-attainment should be self-correcting and without need for controls other than those used in these models. The outcomes of this screening study are intended for use as a basis for assessments for other mid-sized, industrial areas without SO2 monitors. The results may also be utilized by industries and planning groups within the Toledo CBSA to address potential issues in advance of monitoring system deployment to lower the risk of attaining long term or perpetual non-attainment status.

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Date Created
  • 2011