Matching Items (11)

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Synthesis and Characterization of Laser Plasma that Produces Pseudocarbyne Using Laser Pulses

Description

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹ hybridized carbon allotropes have been created. The fabricated carbon chain is composed of sp¹ and sp³ hybridized bonds, but it also incorporates nanoparticles such as gold or possibly silver to stabilize the chain. The polyyne generated in this process is called pseudocarbyne due to its striking resemblance to the theoretical carbyne. The formation of these carbon chains is yet to be fully understood, but significant progress has been made in determining the temperature of the plasma in which the pseudocarbyne is formed. When a 532 nm pulsed laser with a pulsed energy of 250 mJ and pulse length of 10ns is used to ablate a gold target, a peak temperature of 13400 K is measured. When measured using Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the average temperature of the neutral carbon plasma over one second was 4590±172 K. This temperature strongly suggests that the current theoretical model used to describe the temperature at which pseudocarbyne generates is accurate.

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  • 2019-05

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Photoluminescence enhancement of Ge quantum dots by exploiting the localized surface plasmon of epitaxial Ag islands

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This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a nucleation and growth mechanism, and small islands form via precipitation of Ag contained in a planar layer between the big islands that is thicker than the Stranski-Krastanov layer existing at room-temperature.

The pseudodielectric functions of epitaxial Ag islands on Si(100) substrates were investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions obtained for Si with and without Ag islands clearly identifies a plasmon mode with its dipole moment perpendicular to the surface. This observation is confirmed using a simulation based on the thin island film (TIF) theory. Another mode parallel to the surface may be identified by comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions with the simulated ones from TIF theory. Additional results suggest that the LSP energy of Ag islands can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the infrared range by an amorphous Si (α-Si) cap layer.

Heterostructures were grown that incorporated Ge QDs, an epitaxial Si cap layer and Ag islands grown atop the Si cap layer. Optimum growth conditions for distinct Ge dot ensembles and Si cap layers were obtained. The density of Ag islands grown on the Si cap layer depends on its thickness. Factors contributing to this effect may include the average strain and Ge concentration on the surface of the Si cap layer.

The effects of the Ag LSP on the PL of Ge coherent domes were investigated for both α-Si capped and bare Ag islands. For samples with low-doped substrates, the LSPs reduce the Ge dot-related PL when the Si cap layer is below some critical thickness and have no effect on the PL when the Si cap layer is above the critical thickness. For samples grown on highly-doped wafers, the LSP of bare Ag islands enhanced the PL of Ge QDs by ~ 40%.

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  • 2015

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Optical characterization of III nitride semiconductors using cathodoluminescence techniques

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Group III-nitride semiconductors have attracted much attention for applications on high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) operating in the visible and ultra-violet spectral range using indium gallium

Group III-nitride semiconductors have attracted much attention for applications on high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) operating in the visible and ultra-violet spectral range using indium gallium nitride in the active layer. However, the device efficiency in the green to red range is limited by quantum-confined Stark effects resulting from the lattice mismatch between GaN and InGaN. In this dissertation, the optical and micro-structural properties of GaN-based light emitting structures have been analyzed and correlated by utilizing cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy techniques. In the first section, optimization of the design of GaN-based lasers diode structures is presented. The thermal strain present in the GaN underlayer grown on sapphire substrates causes a strain-induced wavelength shift. The insertion of an InGaN waveguide mitigates the mismatch strain at the interface between the InGaN quantum well and the GaN quantum barrier. The second section of the thesis presents a study of the characteristics of thick non-polar m-plane InGaN films and of LED structures containing InGaN quantum wells, which minimize polarization-related electric fields. It is found that in some cases the in-plane piezoelectric fields can still occur due to the existence of misfit dislocations which break the continuity of the film. In the final section, the optical and structural properties of InGaAlN quaternary alloys are analyzed and correlated. The composition of the components of the film is accurately determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy.

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  • 2011

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Investigation of light absorption and emission in Ge and GeSn films grown on Si substrates

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Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing Sn content, mainly due to the compositional dependence of the direct band gap E0. With only 2 % Sn, all of the telecommunication bands are covered by a single detector. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed from GeSn films with Sn content up to 4 %. The peak wavelength of the emission was found to shift to lower energies with increasing Sn content, corresponding to the decrease in the direct band gap E0 of the material. An additional peak in the spectrum was assigned to the indirect band gap. The separation between the direct and indirect peaks was found to decrease with increasing Sn concentration, as expected. Electroluminescence was also observed from Ge/Si and Ge0.98Sn0.02 photodiodes under forward bias, and the luminescence spectra were found to match well with the observed photoluminescence spectra. A theoretical expression was developed for the luminescence due to the direct band gap and fit to the data.

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  • 2011

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Growth of novel semiconducting nano and heterostructures

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This dissertation presents research findings on the three materials systems: lateral Si nanowires (SiNW), In2Se3/Bi2Se3 heterostructures and graphene. The first part of the thesis was focused on the growth and

This dissertation presents research findings on the three materials systems: lateral Si nanowires (SiNW), In2Se3/Bi2Se3 heterostructures and graphene. The first part of the thesis was focused on the growth and characterization of lateral SiNW. Lateral here refers to wires growing along the plane of substrate; vertical NW on the other hand grow out of the plane of substrate. It was found, using the Au-seeded vapor – liquid – solid technique, that epitaxial single-crystal SiNW can be grown laterally along Si(111) substrates that have been miscut toward [11− 2]. The ratio of lateral-to-vertical NW was found to increase as the miscut angle increased and as disilane pressure and substrate temperature decreased. Based on this observation, growth parameters were identified whereby all of the deposited Au seeds formed lateral NW. Furthermore, the nanofaceted substrate guided the growth via a mechanism that involved pinning of the trijunction at the liquid/solid interface of the growing nanowire.

Next, the growth of selenide heterostructures was explored. Specifically, molecular beam epitaxy was utilized to grow In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films on h-BN, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Si(111) substrates. Growth optimizations of In2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films were carried out by systematically varying the growth parameters. While the growth of these films was demonstrated on h-BN and HOPG surface, the majority of the effort was focused on growth on Si(111). Atomically flat terraces that extended laterally for several hundred nm, which were separated by single quintuple layer high steps characterized surface of the best In2Se3 films grown on Si(111). These In2Se3 films were suitable for subsequent high quality epitaxy of Bi2Se3 .

The last part of this dissertation was focused on a recently initiated and ongoing study of graphene growth on liquid metal surfaces. The initial part of the study comprised a successful modification of an existing growth system to accommodate graphene synthesis and process development for reproducible graphene growth. Graphene was grown on Cu, Au and AuCu alloys at varioua conditions. Preliminary results showed triangular features on the liquid part of the Cu metal surface. For Au, and AuCu alloys, hexagonal features were noticed both on the solid and liquid parts.

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  • 2014

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Precision measurement of the radiative decay mode of the free neutron

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The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment,

The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment, RDK I, reported the first detection of radiative decay photons from neutron beta decay with a branching ratio of (3.09 ± 0.32) × 10-3 in the energy range of 15 keV to 340 keV. This was achieved by prompt coincident detection of an electron and photon, in delayed coincidence with a proton. The photons were detected by using a single bar of bismuth germanate scintillating crystal coupled to an avalanche photodiode. This thesis deals with the follow-up experiment, RDK II, to measure the branching ratio at the level of approximately 1% and the energy spectrum at the level of a few percent. The most significant improvement of RDK II is the use of a photon detector with about an order of magnitude greater solid angle coverage than RDK I. In addition, the detectable energy range has been extended down to approximately 250 eV and up to the endpoint energy of 782 keV. This dissertation presents an overview of the apparatus, development of a new data analysis technique for radiative decay, and results for the ratio of electron-proton-photon coincident Repg to electron-proton coincident Rep events.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Characterization of strain in core-shell nanowires: a Raman spectroscopy study

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Raman scattering from Ge-Si core-shell nanowires is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model that makes it possible to extract quantitative strain information from the measured Raman spectra is presented

Raman scattering from Ge-Si core-shell nanowires is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model that makes it possible to extract quantitative strain information from the measured Raman spectra is presented for the first time. Geometrical and elastic simplifications are introduced to keep the model analytical, which facilitates comparison with experimental results. In particular, the nanowires are assumed to be cylindrical, and their elastic constants isotropic. The simple analytical model is subsequently validated by performing numerical calculations using realistic nanowire geometries and cubic, anisotropic elastic constants. The comparison confirms that the analytic model is an excellent approximation that greatly facilitates quantitative Raman work, with expected errors in the strain determination that do not exceed 10%. Experimental Raman spectra of a variety of core-shell nanowires are presented, and the strain in the nanowires is assessed using the models described above. It is found that all structures present a significant degree of strain relaxation relative to ideal, fully strained Ge-Si core-shell structures. The analytical models are modified to quantify this strain relaxation.

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  • 2011

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Characterization of electrostatic potential and trapped charge in semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography

Description

Off-axis electron holography (EH) has been used to characterize electrostatic potential, active dopant concentrations and charge distribution in semiconductor nanostructures, including ZnO nanowires (NWs) and thin films, ZnTe thin films,

Off-axis electron holography (EH) has been used to characterize electrostatic potential, active dopant concentrations and charge distribution in semiconductor nanostructures, including ZnO nanowires (NWs) and thin films, ZnTe thin films, Si NWs with axial p-n junctions, Si-Ge axial heterojunction NWs, and Ge/LixGe core/shell NW.

The mean inner potential (MIP) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of ZnO NWs have been measured to be 15.3V±0.2V and 55±3nm, respectively, for 200keV electrons. These values were then used to characterize the thickness of a ZnO nano-sheet and gave consistent values. The MIP and IMFP for ZnTe thin films were measured to be 13.7±0.6V and 46±2nm, respectively, for 200keV electrons. A thin film expected to have a p-n junction was studied, but no signal due to the junction was observed. The importance of dynamical effects was systematically studied using Bloch wave simulations.

The built-in potentials in Si NWs across the doped p-n junction and the Schottky junction due to Au catalyst were measured to be 1.0±0.3V and 0.5±0.3V, respectively. Simulations indicated that the dopant concentrations were ~1019cm-3 for donors and ~1017 cm-3 for acceptors. The effects of positively charged Au catalyst, a possible n+-n--p junction transition region and possible surface charge, were also systematically studied using simulations.

Si-Ge heterojunction NWs were studied. Dopant concentrations were extracted by atom probe tomography. The built-in potential offset was measured to be 0.4±0.2V, with the Ge side lower. Comparisons with simulations indicated that Ga present in the Si region was only partially activated. In situ EH biasing experiments combined with simulations indicated the B dopant in Ge was mostly activated but not the P dopant in Si. I-V characteristic curves were measured and explained using simulations.

The Ge/LixGe core/shell structure was studied during lithiation. The MIP for LixGe decreased with time due to increased Li content. A model was proposed to explain the lower measured Ge potential, and the trapped electron density in Ge core was calculated to be 3×1018 electrons/cm3. The Li amount during lithiation was also calculated using MIP and volume ratio, indicating that it was lower than the fully lithiated phase.

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  • 2015

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Structural and optical properties of wide bandgap nitride semiconductors using electron microscopy techniques

Description

ABSTRACT Group III-nitride semiconductor materials have been commercially used in fabrication of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) covering the spectral range from UV to visible and infrared, and

ABSTRACT Group III-nitride semiconductor materials have been commercially used in fabrication of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) covering the spectral range from UV to visible and infrared, and exhibit unique properties suitable for modern optoelectronic applications. Great advances have recently happened in the research and development in high-power and high-efficiency blue-green-white LEDs, blue LDs and other optoelectronic applications. However, there are still many unsolved challenges with these materials. In this dissertation, several issues concerning structural, electronic and optical properties of III-nitrides have been investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron holography (EH) and cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. First, a trend of indium chemical inhomogeneity has been found as the indium composition increases for the InGaN epitaxial layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Second, different mechanisms contributing to the strain relaxation have been studied for non-polar InGaN epitaxial layers grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) substrate. Third, various structural morphologies of non-polar InGaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing GaN substrate have been investigated. Fourth, the effect of the growth temperature on the performance of GaN lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers has been studied. Finally, the electronic and optical properties of GaN nanowires containing a AlN/GaN superlattice structure have been investigated showing relatively small internal electric field and superlattice- and defect-related emissions along the nanowires.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Determination of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography

Description

The research of this dissertation involved quantitative characterization of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography, as well as other electron microscopy techniques. The investigated

The research of this dissertation involved quantitative characterization of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography, as well as other electron microscopy techniques. The investigated nanostructures included Ge quantum dots, Ge/Si core/shell nanowires, and polytype heterostructures in ZnSe nanobelts. Hole densities were calculated for the first two systems, and the spontaneous polarization for wurtzite ZnSe was determined. Epitaxial Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in boron-doped silicon were studied. Reconstructed phase images showed extra phase shifts near the base of the QDs, which was attributed to hole accumulation in these regions. The resulting charge density was (0.03±0.003) holes
m3, which corresponded to about 30 holes localized to a pyramidal, 25-nm-wide Ge QD. This value was in reasonable agreement with the average number of holes confined to each Ge dot determined using a capacitance-voltage measurement. Hole accumulation in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires was observed and quantified using off-axis electron holography and other electron microscopy techniques. High-angle annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images and electron holograms were obtained from specific nanowires. The intensities of the former were utilized to calculate the projected thicknesses for both the Ge core and the Si shell. The excess phase shifts measured by electron holography across the nanowires indicated the presence of holes inside the Ge cores. The hole density in the core regions was calculated to be (0.4±0.2)
m3 based on a simplified coaxial cylindrical model. Homogeneous zincblende/wurtzite heterostructure junctions in ZnSe nanobelts were studied. The observed electrostatic fields and charge accumulation were attributed to spontaneous polarization present in the wurtzite regions since the contributions from piezoelectric polarization were shown to be insignificant based on geometric phase analysis. The spontaneous polarization for the wurtzite ZnSe was calculated to be psp = -(0.0029±0.00013) C/m2, whereas a first principles' calculation gave psp = -0.0063 C/m2. The atomic arrangements and polarity continuity at the zincblende/wurtzite interface were determined through aberration-corrected high-angle annular-dark-field imaging, which revealed no polarity reversal across the interface. Overall, the successful outcomes of these studies confirmed the capability of off-axis electron holography to provide quantitative electrostatic information for nanostructured materials.

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  • 2011