Matching Items (18)

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Algorithmic Prediction of Binding Sites of TNFα/TNFR2 and PD-1/PD-L1

Description

Predicting the binding sites of proteins has historically relied on the determination of protein structural data. However, the ability to utilize binding data obtained from a simple assay and computationally make the same predictions using only sequence information would be

Predicting the binding sites of proteins has historically relied on the determination of protein structural data. However, the ability to utilize binding data obtained from a simple assay and computationally make the same predictions using only sequence information would be more efficient, both in time and resources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an algorithm developed to predict regions of high-binding on proteins as it applies to determining the regions of interaction between binding partners. This approach was applied to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), its receptor TNFR2, programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and one of its ligand PD-L1. The algorithms applied accurately predicted the binding region between TNFα and TNFR2 in which the interacting residues are sequential on TNFα, however failed to predict discontinuous regions of binding as accurately. The interface of PD-1 and PD-L1 contained continuous residues interacting with each other, however this region was predicted to bind weaker than the regions on the external portions of the molecules. Limitations of this approach include use of a linear search window (resulting in inability to predict discontinuous binding residues), and the use of proteins with unnaturally exposed regions, in the case of PD-1 and PD-L1 (resulting in observed interactions which would not occur normally). However, this method was overall very effective in utilizing the available information to make accurate predictions. The use of the microarray to obtain binding information and a computer algorithm to analyze is a versatile tool capable of being adapted to refine accuracy.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Characterization of Therapeutic Monoclonals by Targeted Epitope

Description

Monoclonal antibody therapy focuses on engineering immune cells to target specific peptide sequences indicative of disease. An impediment in the continued advancement of this market is the lack of an efficient, inexpensive means of characterization that can be broadly applied

Monoclonal antibody therapy focuses on engineering immune cells to target specific peptide sequences indicative of disease. An impediment in the continued advancement of this market is the lack of an efficient, inexpensive means of characterization that can be broadly applied to any antibody while still providing high-density data. Many characterization methods address an antibody's affinity for its cognate sequence but overlook other important aspects of binding behavior such as off-target binding interactions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how the binding intensity between an antibody and a library of random-sequence peptides, otherwise known as an immunosignature, can be evaluated to determine antibody specificity and polyreactivity. A total of 24 commercially available monoclonal antibodies were assayed on 125K and 330K peptide microarrays and analyzed using a motif clustering program to predict candidate epitopes within each antigen sequence. The results support the further development of immunosignaturing as an antibody characterization tool that is relevant to both therapeutic and non-therapeutic antibodies.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Early Detection of MicroRNA Biomolecular Markers using CRISPR-Cas12a

Description

Extensive efforts have been made to develop efficient and low-cost methods for diagnostics to identify molecular biomarkers that are linked to a wide array of conditions, including cancer. A highly developed method includes utilizing the gene-editing enzyme CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1), which

Extensive efforts have been made to develop efficient and low-cost methods for diagnostics to identify molecular biomarkers that are linked to a wide array of conditions, including cancer. A highly developed method includes utilizing the gene-editing enzyme CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1), which demonstrates double-stranded DNase activity with RuvC catalytic domain with high sensitivity and specificity. This DNase activity is RNA-guided and requires a T-rich PAM site on the target sequence for functional cleavage. There have been recent efforts to utilize this DNase activity of Cas12a by combining it with isothermal amplification and analysis by lateral strip tests. This project examined CRISPR-based early detection of microRNA biomarkers. MicroRNA are short RNA molecules that have large roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. However, due the short length of microRNA and its single-stranded nature, it is challenging to use Cas12a for microRNA detection using existing methods. Thus, this project investigated the potential of two microRNA detection strategies for recognition by CRISPR-Cas12a. These methods were microRNA-splinted ligation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and MicroRNA-specific reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Gel imaging demonstrated effective amplification of ligated DNA through microRNA-splinted ligation with PCR/RPA. In addition, lateral strips tests showed effective cleavage of the target sequences by Cas12a. However, RT-PCR method demonstrated low amplification by PCR and inefficient poly(A) elongation. This project paves the way for the detection of an extensive range of microRNA biomarkers that are linked to an array of diseases. Future directions include analysis and modifications of RT-PCR method to improve experimental results, extending these detection methods to a larger range of microRNA sequences, and eventually utilizing them for detection in human samples.

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Date Created
2019-05

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A Simple Platform for the Rapid Development of Antimicrobials

Description

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development of new antimicrobials. The goal was to produce in as

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development of new antimicrobials. The goal was to produce in as little as one week thousands of doses of an intervention for a new pathogen. We tested the feasibility of a system based on antimicrobial synbodies. The system involves creating an array of 100 peptides that have been selected for broad capability to bind and/or kill viruses and bacteria. The peptides are pre-screened for low cell toxicity prior to large scale synthesis. Any pathogen is then assayed on the chip to find peptides that bind or kill it. Peptides are combined in pairs as synbodies and further screened for activity and toxicity. The lead synbody can be quickly produced in large scale, with completion of the entire process in one week.

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Date Created
2017-12-14

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Use of the Multiple Myeloma Immunosignature for the Synthesis of Synbody Therapeutic Treatment

Description

Currently, treatment for multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological cancer, is limited to post-symptomatic chemotherapy combined with other pharmaceuticals and steroids. Even so, the immuno-depressing cancer can continue to proliferate, leading to a median survival period of two to five years.

Currently, treatment for multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological cancer, is limited to post-symptomatic chemotherapy combined with other pharmaceuticals and steroids. Even so, the immuno-depressing cancer can continue to proliferate, leading to a median survival period of two to five years. B cells in the bone marrow are responsible for generating antigen-specific antibodies, but in MM the B cells express mutated, non-specific monoclonal antibodies. Therefore, it is hypothesized that antibody-based assay and therapy may be feasible for detecting and treating the disease. In this project, 330k peptide microarrays were used to ascertain the binding affinity of sera antibodies for MM patients with random sequence peptides; these results were then contrasted with normal donor assays to determine the "immunosignatures" for MM. From this data, high-binding peptides with target-specificity (high fluorescent intensity for one patient, low in all other patients and normal donors) were selected for two MM patients. These peptides were narrowed down to two lists of five (10 total peptides) to analyze in a synthetic antibody study. The rationale behind this originates from the idea that antibodies present specific binding sites on either of their branches, thus relating high binding peptides from the arrays to potential binding targets of the monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, these peptides may be synthesized on a synthetic antibody scaffold with the potential to induce targeted delivery of radioactive or chemotherapeutic molecular tags to only myelomic B cells. If successful, this would provide a novel alternative to current treatments that is less invasive, has fewer side effects, more specifically targets the cause of MM, and reliably diagnoses the cancer in the presymptomatic stage.

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Date Created
2016-05

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P. aeruginosa Biofilm Inhibition and Dispersion by Peptide and Synbody Treatment

Description

Bacteria with antibiotic resistance are becoming a growing concern as the number of infections they are causing continue to increase. Many potential solutions are being researched in order to combat these pathogens. One such microbe is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which causes

Bacteria with antibiotic resistance are becoming a growing concern as the number of infections they are causing continue to increase. Many potential solutions are being researched in order to combat these pathogens. One such microbe is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which causes acute and chronic human infections. It frequently colonizes the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and is deadly. For these reasons, P. aeruginosa has been heavily studied in order to determine a solution to antibiotic resistance. One possible solution is the development of synbodies, which have been developed at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. Synbodies are constructed from peptides that have antibacterial activity and were determined to have specificity for a target bacterium. These synbodies were tested in this study to determine whether or not some of them are able to inhibit P. aeruginosa growth. P. aeruginosa can also form multicellular communities called biofilms and these are known to cause approximately 65% of all human infections. After conducting minimum inhibitory assays, the efficacy of certain peptides and synbodies against biofilm inhibition was assessed. A recent study has shown that low concentrations of a specific peptide can cause biofilm disruption, where the biofilm structure breaks apart and the cells within it disperse into the supernatant. Taking into account this study and peptide data regarding biofilm inhibition from Dr. Aurélie Crabbé’s lab, screened peptides were tested against biofilm to see if dispersion would occur.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Analysis of Inhibition of Influenza Replication via Synthetic Antibodies

Description

The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located on

The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located on campus at Arizona State University has been developing synbodies as a possible Influenza therapeutic. Specifically, at CIM, we have attempted to design these initial synbodies to target the entire Influenza virus and preliminary data leads us to believe that these synbodies target Nucleoprotein (NP). Given that the synbody targets NP, the penetration of cells via synbody should also occur. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. The focus of my honors thesis is to explore how synthetic antibodies can potentially inhibit replication of the Influenza (H1N1) A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain so that a therapeutic can be developed. A high affinity synbody for Influenza can be utilized to test for inhibition of Influenza as shown by preliminary data. The 5-5-3819 synthetic antibody's internalization in live cells was visualized with Madin-Darby Kidney Cells under a Confocal Microscope. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. Expression of NP over 8 hours time was analyzed via Western Blot Analysis, which showed NP accumulation was retarded in synbody treated cells. The data obtained from my honors thesis and preliminary data provided suggest that the synthetic antibody penetrates live cells and targets NP. The results of my thesis presents valuable information that can be utilized by other researchers so that future experiments can be performed, eventually leading to the creation of a more effective therapeutic for influenza.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Determination of 5-5 Synbody Protein Target and Mechanism of Binding to Influenza Virus

Description

The influenza virus is the main cause of thousands of deaths each year in the United States, and far more hospitalizations. Immunization has helped in protecting people from this virus and there are a number of therapeutics which have proven

The influenza virus is the main cause of thousands of deaths each year in the United States, and far more hospitalizations. Immunization has helped in protecting people from this virus and there are a number of therapeutics which have proven effective in aiding people infected with the virus. However, these therapeutics are subject to various limitations including increased resistance, limited supply, and significant side effects. A new therapeutic is needed which addresses these problems and protects people from the influenza virus. Synbodies, synthetic antibodies, may provide a means to achieve this goal. Our group has produced a synbody, the 5-5 synbody, which has been shown to bind to and inhibit the influenza virus. The direct pull down and western blot techniques were utilized to investigate how the synbody bound to the influenza virus. Our research showed that the 5-5 synbody bound to the influenza nucleoprotein (NP) with a KD of 102.9 ± 74.48 nM. It also showed that the synbody bound strongly to influenza viral extract from two different strains of the virus, the Puerto Rico (H1N1) and Sydney (H3N2) strains. This research demonstrated that the 5-5 synbody binds with high affinity to NP, which is important because influenza NP is highly conserved between various strains of the virus and plays an important role in the replication of the viral genome. It also demonstrated that this binding is conserved between various strains of the virus, indicating that the 5-5 synbody potentially could bind many different influenza strains. This synbody may have potential as a therapeutic in the future if it is able to demonstrate similar binding in vivo.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Synbody Assisted MRSA Growth Inhibition

Description

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a major challenge to healthcare professionals. Treatment of MRSA is expensive, and otherwise avoidable deaths occur every year in the United States due to MRSA infections. Additionally, such infections lengthen patients’ stays in hospitals,

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a major challenge to healthcare professionals. Treatment of MRSA is expensive, and otherwise avoidable deaths occur every year in the United States due to MRSA infections. Additionally, such infections lengthen patients’ stays in hospitals, keeping them out of work and adversely affecting the economy. Beta lactam antibiotics used to be highly effective against S. aureus infections, but resistance mechanisms have rendered methicillin, oxacillin, and other beta lactam antibiotics ineffective against these infections. A promising avenue for MRSA treatment lies in the use of synthetic antibodies—molecules that bind with specificity to a given compound. Synbody 14 is an example of such a synbody, and has been designed with MRSA treatment in mind. Mouse model studies have even associated Syn14 treatment with reduced weight loss and morbidity in MRSA-infected mice. In this experiment, in vitro activity of Syn 14 and oxacillin was assessed. Early experiments measured Syn 14 and oxacillin’s effectiveness in inhibiting colony growth in growth media, mouse serum, and mouse blood. Syn14 and oxacillin had limited efficacy against USA300 strain MRSA, though interestingly it was noted that Syn14 outperformed oxacillin in mouse serum and whole mouse blood, indicating the benefits of its binding properties. A second experiment measured the impact that a mix of oxacillin and Syn 14 had on colony growth, as well as the effect of adding them simultaneously or one after the other. While use of either bactericidal alone did not show a major inhibitory effect on USA300 MRSA colony growth, their use in combination showed major decreases in colony growth. Moreover, it was found that unlike other combination therapies, Syn14 and oxacillin did not require simultaneous addition to MRSA cells to achieve inhibition of cell growth. They merely required that Syn14 be added first. This result suggests Syn14’s possible utility in therapeutic settings, as the time insensitivity of synergy removes a major hurdle to clinical use—the difficulty in ensuring that two drugs reach an affected area at the same time. Syn14 remains a promising antimicrobial agent, and further study should focus on its precise mechanism of action and suitability in clinical treatment of MRSA infections.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Evaluation of Norovirus Detection in Dilute Solutions

Description

In this project, biochemical characteristics of peptide binding agents, synthetic antibodies or synbodies, were examined with respect to the capture efficiency and specific binding ability to norovirus. Norovirus, although generally not a deadly pathogen, is the most common cause of

In this project, biochemical characteristics of peptide binding agents, synthetic antibodies or synbodies, were examined with respect to the capture efficiency and specific binding ability to norovirus. Norovirus, although generally not a deadly pathogen, is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis and outbreaks present a large social and financial burden to the healthcare and food service industries. With Dr. Diehnelt's laboratory group, a platform has been developed that enables us to rapidly construct peptide-based affinity ligands that can be characterized for binding to norovirus. The design needed to display clear results, be simple to operate, and be inexpensive to produce and use. Four synbodies, originally engineered with a specificity to the GII.4 Minerva genotype were tested with different virus strains varying in similarity to the GII.4 Minerva between 43% and 95.4%. Initial assays utilized norovirus-like particles to qualitatively compare the capture efficiency of the different synbodies without utilizing limited resources. To quantify the amount of actual virus captured by the synbodies, western blots with RT-PCR and RT-qPCR were utilized. The results indicated the synbodies were able to enrich the dilute solutions of the different noroviruses utilizing a magnetic bead pull-down assay. The capture efficiencies of the synbodies were comparable to currently utilized binding agents such as aptamers and porcine gastric mucine magnetic beads. This thesis presents data collected over nearly two years of research at the Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located at Arizona State University.

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Date Created
2016-05