Matching Items (177)

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Application of TMPP Labeling and Ammonia Gas Cleavage in MALDI-MS Analysis of Resin-bound Peptides

Description

One of the major challenges that were yet to be solved for solid phase peptide synthesis was the lack of an efficient peptide sequencing technique that was less hazardous, easier

One of the major challenges that were yet to be solved for solid phase peptide synthesis was the lack of an efficient peptide sequencing technique that was less hazardous, easier to perform , and was more cost-effective. Sequencing peptides were held important in the field of Chemistry and Biochemistry because it aided in drug discovery, finding ligands that bind to a specific target protein and finding alternative agents in transporting molecules to its desired location. Therefore, the overall purpose of this experiment was to develop a method of solid phase sequencing technique that was more environmental friendly, sequences at a faster rate, and was more cost-effective.

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  • 2014-05

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ESOPs and the Need towards Democratic Governance in the Workplace

Description

If democracy is the best way to rule why then is it limited only to the political sphere? This question is central to economic democracy which is the theory that

If democracy is the best way to rule why then is it limited only to the political sphere? This question is central to economic democracy which is the theory that economic activities should be governed by democratic principles. In America, ESOPs are used for a variety of reasons, and I believe that they can be used for the development of democratic firms. My thesis looks at current ESOPs to see if they are democratic, and suggests how they can be used to develop democratic firms.

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  • 2014-05

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Evaluating Social Factors Affecting Treatment of Acute Fibromyalgia Pain in the Emergency Department

Description

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to present to the emergency department for pain control or further diagnostic workup. However, oligoanalgesia (the undertreatment of pain) detrimentally affects an individual's treatment while in the emergency department. Furthermore, social factors known to influence pain management, such as race, age, or past medical history, affect the diagnostic treatment and evaluation of fibromyalgia patients. As such, ethical evaluation of case studies will indicate how emergency physicians can better manage pain treatment in the emergency department.

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  • 2014-05

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Characterization of a Lipid Coating on the Surface of Silk Produced by the Embiid Antipaluria urichi

Description

Insects of the order Embiidina spin sheets of very thin silk fibers from their forelimbs to build silken shelters on bark and in leaf litter in tropical climates. Their shelters

Insects of the order Embiidina spin sheets of very thin silk fibers from their forelimbs to build silken shelters on bark and in leaf litter in tropical climates. Their shelters are very stiff and hydrophobic to keep out predators and rain. In this study, the existence of an outer lipid coating on silk produced by the embiid Antipaluria urichi is shown using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR, and water drop contact angle analysis. Subsequently, the composition of the lipid layer is then characterized by 1H NMR and GC-MS.

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  • 2014-05

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Analysis of Inhibition of Influenza Replication via Synthetic Antibodies

Description

The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center

The influenza virus, also known as "the flu", is an infectious disease that has constantly affected the health of humanity. There is currently no known cure for Influenza. The Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located on campus at Arizona State University has been developing synbodies as a possible Influenza therapeutic. Specifically, at CIM, we have attempted to design these initial synbodies to target the entire Influenza virus and preliminary data leads us to believe that these synbodies target Nucleoprotein (NP). Given that the synbody targets NP, the penetration of cells via synbody should also occur. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. The focus of my honors thesis is to explore how synthetic antibodies can potentially inhibit replication of the Influenza (H1N1) A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain so that a therapeutic can be developed. A high affinity synbody for Influenza can be utilized to test for inhibition of Influenza as shown by preliminary data. The 5-5-3819 synthetic antibody's internalization in live cells was visualized with Madin-Darby Kidney Cells under a Confocal Microscope. Then by Western Blot analysis we evaluated for the diminution of NP level in treated cells versus untreated cells. Expression of NP over 8 hours time was analyzed via Western Blot Analysis, which showed NP accumulation was retarded in synbody treated cells. The data obtained from my honors thesis and preliminary data provided suggest that the synthetic antibody penetrates live cells and targets NP. The results of my thesis presents valuable information that can be utilized by other researchers so that future experiments can be performed, eventually leading to the creation of a more effective therapeutic for influenza.

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  • 2014-05

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Functional Switch in the Role of 5-HT1B Receptors as a Result of Cocaine Withdrawal in Mice

Description

Substance abuse disorders affect 15.3 million people worldwide. The field has primarily focused on dopaminergic drugs as treatments for substance use disorders. However, recent work has demonstrated the potential of

Substance abuse disorders affect 15.3 million people worldwide. The field has primarily focused on dopaminergic drugs as treatments for substance use disorders. However, recent work has demonstrated the potential of serotonergic compounds to treat substance abuse. Specifically, the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR), a Gi-coupled receptor located throughout the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, has been implicated in the incentive motivational and rewarding effects of cocaine. Our research suggests that the stimulation of 5-HT1BRs produces different effects at various time points in the addiction cycle. During maintenance of chronic cocaine administration, 5-HT1BR stimulation has a facilitative effect on the reinforcing properties of cocaine. However 5-HT1BR stimulation exhibits inhibitory effects on reinforcement during prolonged abstinence from cocaine. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of a switch in the functional role of 5-HT1BRs in the locomotor effects of cocaine at different time points of chronic cocaine administration in mice. We found that the 5-HT1BR agonist CP 94,253 increased locomotor activity in mice tested one day after the last chronic cocaine administration session regardless of whether the chronic treatment was cocaine or saline and regardless of challenge injection (i.e., cocaine or saline). Yet after abstinence, CP 94,253 induced a decrease in locomotor activity in mice challenged with saline and attenuated cocaine-induced locomotion relative to cocaine challenge after vehicle pretreatment. These findings suggest that a switch in the functional role of 5-HT1BR is observed at different stages of the addiction cycle and further suggest that clinical applications of drugs acting on 5-HT1BR should consider these effects.

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  • 2014-05

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Heart Rate Variability as a Moderator of the Relations Between Marital Support and Social and Emotional Functioning Among Female Fibromyalgia Patients

Description

Being able to self-regulate has been found to be an important part of a person’s physiological and psychological health. It allows someone to regulate their emotions well in trying to

Being able to self-regulate has been found to be an important part of a person’s physiological and psychological health. It allows someone to regulate their emotions well in trying to obtain a goal, or in realizing a goal is unobtainable and re-evaluating the situation to form an obtainable goal (Rasmussen, Wrosch, Scheier & Carver, 2006). Self-regulation can be measured in many ways, but a physiological measure of self-regulation is heart rate variability (HRV). HRV monitors the body’s response to emotional stressors through measuring how variable a person’s heartbeat is (Appelhans & Luecken, 2006). A second potential factor contributing to self-regulation is social closeness. Research has also shown that the more social closeness a person experiences, the better able they are to regulate their emotions (Kok & Fredrickson, 2010; Kok et al., 2013). Social closeness is assessed via self-reports. There is a difference between partners’ and self-reports, such that the partners tend to be more positive when asked about the participants through questionnaires (Vuorisalmi, Sarkeala, Hervonen & Jylhä, 2012). When examining the relationship between reports of spouses, research has shown that the husbands are worse at reliably reporting their wives’ behaviors, but are more reliable when reporting on personal situations between the couple than is the wife (Khawaja & Tewtel-Salem, 2004). To date we know that a higher HRV is associated with better self-regulation and that social closeness leads to better emotional regulation; however, we do not know if HRV and social closeness combine to predict better functionality or if it matters if the husbands or wives are filling out the self-reports on social closeness. This study investigated four hypotheses regarding the relations between HRV and social relations between partners and how the social or emotional functioning of female fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The first hypothesis is that when the FM patient feels disregard from her partner, she is more likely to exhibit a decline in her social functioning, and that this decline is less pronounced in high HRV. The second hypothesis is that if a FM patient feels disregarded by her partner, her emotional functioning will become inhibited; furthermore, that this relationship is moderated by her HRV. The third hypothesis is that when her partner feels he disregards her, her social functioning is impaired, and that this relationship is moderated by her HRV. The last hypothesis is that when her partner feels he disregards her, her emotional functioning declines, and that this relationship is moderated by HRV. The FM patient’s HRV was measured in a laboratory setting, and the partner disregard was measured by a partner survey that was administered to both the FM patient and her partner. Through the analysis of all of the results, none of the four hypotheses had significant results showing that none of them were supported by this experiment.

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  • 2014-05

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7-deaza-dG Promotes the Faithful Transcription of 4 Nucleotide TNA Polymers

Description

DNA is a natural genetic polymer capable of storing and preserving genetic information in biological systems. Due to its natural information storage capacity, recent scientific progress demonstrates that DNA has

DNA is a natural genetic polymer capable of storing and preserving genetic information in biological systems. Due to its natural information storage capacity, recent scientific progress demonstrates that DNA has the potential to exceed standard information storage technologies. However, DNA is limited in its information storage capacities due to its susceptibility to degradation in the presence of naturally occurring nucleases. Threose nucleic acid (TNA), an unnatural genetic polymer with a 3'->2'phosphodiester-linked threose sugar backbone, has promising potential to overcome this limitation. TNA is not a substrate for natural nucleases and thus shows a dramatic increase in stability compared to DNA. However, TNA transcription has a tendency to generate G:G mispairs and lead to a gradual loss of information within the template. It was hypothesized that the mutation occurs through a G:G Hoogsteen base pair that forms preferentially over the canonical G:C Watson-Crick base pair. Incorporation of 7-deaza-dG into a four letter template effectively eliminated G:G mispairings and improved the replication fidelity from 60% to 99.6% with only four errors in a thousand. These results have laid the groundwork for further research to increase the length of the TNA product synthesized and to test TNA's ability to store genetic information.

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  • 2014-05

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Sickle Cell Disease Education and Screening in Kenya

Description

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disease in Africa, and specifically in Kenya. The lack of available relevant disease education and screening mean that most don't understand the

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disease in Africa, and specifically in Kenya. The lack of available relevant disease education and screening mean that most don't understand the importance of getting testing and many children die before they can get prophylactic care. This project was designed to address the lack of knowledge with supplemental educational materials to be partnered with an engineering capstone project that provides a low cost diagnostic test.

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  • 2014-05

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A Hydrogen (1H) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Method for Amino Acid Analysis

Description

Amino acid analysis (AAA) of egg white lysozyme and bovine Achilles tendon collagen was performed using 1H solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The proteins were hydrolyzed in 6M HCL

Amino acid analysis (AAA) of egg white lysozyme and bovine Achilles tendon collagen was performed using 1H solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The proteins were hydrolyzed in 6M HCL with and without 0.02% phenol at 110\u00B0C for 24, 48, and 72 hours. For both proteins, 18 of 20 amino acids were characterized including hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine in collagen, using 1-dimensional (1D) and 2-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy experiments. Errors ranging from <1% to 8% were seen in treatments with and without phenol. Both proteins could be correctly identified within their own species using the online database search AACompIdent. The proposed approach is a simple analytical technique that does not require the use of column separation or amino acid derivatization prior to compositional analysis.

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  • 2014-05