Matching Items (108)

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A retrospective matched cohort study evaluating the effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes on nutritional status and survival in patients with advanced gastroesophageal malignancies undergoing systemic anti-cancer therapy

Description

Background
Many patients with cancer or other systemic illnesses can experience malnutrition. One way to mitigate malnutrition is by insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube (PEG tube). The

Background
Many patients with cancer or other systemic illnesses can experience malnutrition. One way to mitigate malnutrition is by insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube (PEG tube). The goal of this retrospective matched cohort study is to evaluate if PEG tube placement improved nutritional status and overall survival (OS) in advanced gastroesophageal (GE) cancer patients who are undergoing anti-neoplastic therapy.
Methods
GE cancer patients who were treated and evaluated by a nutritionist and had at least 2 nutritionist follow-up visits were identified. Patients with PEG tube were matched to patients that did not undergo PEG placement (non-PEG). Clinical characteristics, GE symptoms reported at nutrition follow-up visits, and OS were recorded.
Results
20 PEG and 18 non-PEG cases met criteria for further analyses. After correction for multiple testing, there were no OS differences between PEG and non-PEG, treatment naive and previously treated. However, PEG esophageal carcinoma has statistically significant inferior OS compared with non-PEG esophageal carcinoma. PEG placement did not significantly reduce the proportion of patients with weight loss between the initial nutrition assessment and 12-week follow-up.
Conclusions
In this small study, PEG placement had inferior OS outcome for GE esophageal carcinoma, no improvement in OS for other evaluated groups, and did not reduce weight loss between baseline and 12-week follow-up. Unless there is prospective randomized trial that can show superiority of PEG placement in this population, PEG placement in this group cannot be endorsed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-11-29

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Health and well-being benefits of spending time in forests: systematic review

Description

Background
Numerous studies have reported that spending time in nature is associated with the improvement of various health outcomes and well-being. This review evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of

Background
Numerous studies have reported that spending time in nature is associated with the improvement of various health outcomes and well-being. This review evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of a specific type of exposure to nature, forest therapy.
Method
A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and ProQuest databases and manual searches from inception up to December 2016. Key words: “Forest” or “Shinrin -Yoku” or “Forest bath” AND “Health” or “Wellbeing”. The methodological quality of each randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool.
Results
Six RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Participants’ ages ranged from 20 to 79 years. Sample size ranged from 18 to 99. Populations studied varied from young healthy university students to elderly people with chronic disease. Studies reported the positive impact of forest therapy on hypertension (n = 2), cardiac and pulmonary function (n = 1), immune function (n = 2), inflammation (n = 3), oxidative stress (n = 1), stress (n = 1), stress hormone (n = 1), anxiety (n = 1), depression (n = 2), and emotional response (n = 3). The quality of all studies included in this review had a high ROB.
Conclusion
Forest therapy may play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention. However, the lack of high-quality studies limits the strength of results, rendering the evidence insufficient to establish clinical practice guidelines for its use. More robust RCTs are warranted.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-10-18

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A systematic review of recruitment for older Chinese immigrants into clinical trials

Description

Purpose: To identify barriers and discuss strategies for recruitment of older Chinese immigrants into clinical research studies.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review

Purpose: To identify barriers and discuss strategies for recruitment of older Chinese immigrants into clinical research studies.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PubMed, WEB of Science, CINAHL Plus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from 2001 to 2014. Empirical studies with Chinese immigrants aged 60 or older were identified and analyzed. Numerical analysis, such as calculation of response rates as indexes for recruitment outcomes, was conducted. Content analyses for recruitment barriers were abstracted.
Results: Thirteen studies of 4753 subjects were analyzed. Response rates ranged from 39% to 99%. Recruitment barriers include younger old age (i.e., 60-70 years old), low health literacy, longer length of stay in the US, limited English speaking ability, low acculturation, time constraints, inadequate transportation, social stigma about diseases, and mistrust of researchers.
Discussion: Recruitment can be facilitated by overcoming the aforementioned barriers, which include the following strategies: 1) using convenience sampling methods, particularly personal referral; 2) using special techniques to recruit younger subgroup of Chinese elders, such as doing outreach on holidays or weekends; 3) communicating effectively using participants’ native language; 4) exercising cultural competency; 5) establishing relationships of trust with participants and community leaders; 6) answering misconceptions about clinical trials; 7) providing incentives for participation; and 8) proper selection of research and interview locations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Influence of parental perception of school safety and gender on children’s physical activity in Mexico: A cross sectional study

Description

Objective. This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children’s physical activity (PA) levels. Materials and methods. Parents of

Objective. This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children’s physical activity (PA) levels. Materials and methods. Parents of school aged Mexican children residing in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Puerto Vallarta, completed surveys about their children’s PA measures. The physical activity indicators were evaluated using linear and logistical regression models. Results. Analysis did not indicate that gender moderated the relationship between parental perception of safety and PA measures, but significant gender issues exist with girls participating less than boys in the three measures of PA in this study (p<0.001). Conclusion. Results suggest the need for additional interventions promoting physical activity in girls in Mexico.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-01

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Visual analogue scale (VAS) as a monitoring tool for daily changes in asthma symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study

Description

Background
Success in asthma management hinges on patients’ competency to detect and respond to ever-changing symptom severity. Thus, it is crucial to have reliable, simple, and sustainable methods of symptom

Background
Success in asthma management hinges on patients’ competency to detect and respond to ever-changing symptom severity. Thus, it is crucial to have reliable, simple, and sustainable methods of symptom monitoring that can be readily incorporated into daily life. Although visual analogue scale (VAS) has been considered as a simple symptom assessment method, its utility as a daily symptom monitoring tool in adolescents is unknown. This study was to determine the concurrent validity of VAS in capturing diurnal changes in symptoms and to examine the relationships between VAS and asthma control and pulmonary function.
Methods
Forty-two adolescents (12–17 years old) with asthma completed daily assessment of symptoms twice per day, morning and bedtime, for a week using VAS and 6-item symptom diary concurrently. Asthma control was measured at enrollment and 6 month later, and spirometry was conducted at enrollment. Pearson correlations, multilevel modeling and regression were conducted to assess the relationships between VAS and symptom diary, asthma control and FEV1.
Results
Morning and evening VAS was positively associated with symptom diary items of each corresponding time frame of the day (r = 0.41–0.58, p < 0.0001). Morning VAS was significantly predicted by morning diary data reflecting nocturnal wakening (β = 2.13, p = 0.033) and morning symptoms (β = 4.09, p = 0.002), accounting for 57% of the total variance of morning VAS. Similarly, changes in four evening diary items, particularly shortness of breath (β = 2.60, p = 0.028), significantly predicted changes in evening VAS, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Average VAS scores correlated with asthma control (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and FEV1 (r = −0.38, p = 0.029), and were predictive of asthma control 6 months later (β = 0.085, p = 0.006).
Conclusions
VAS is a valid tool capturing diurnal changes in symptoms reflected in a multi-item symptom diary. Moreover, VAS is a valid measure predicting concurrent and future asthma control. The findings suggest VAS can be a simple alternative to daily dairies for daily symptom monitoring, which can provide invaluable information about current and future asthma control without substantially increasing self-monitoring burdens for adolescent patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04-28

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Depression and anxiety one month after stroke

Description

Depression and anxiety after stroke negatively affect patient outcomes; however, health care professionals may overlook poststroke depression and anxiety while they focus on the physical disabilities of patients soon after

Depression and anxiety after stroke negatively affect patient outcomes; however, health care professionals may overlook poststroke depression and anxiety while they focus on the physical disabilities of patients soon after a stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety, or both concurrently at one month after stroke. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study in a sample of 231 hospitalized patients with ischemic stroke in Korea. Data were collected by interviews using a series of structured questionnaires in addition to clinical data retrieved from patients’ medical records. More than 70% were identified as depressed, 45.9% experienced anxiety, and 43.7% had concurrent depression and anxiety. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified anxiety as a predictor of depression; depression as a predictor of anxiety; and female sex, headaches, and swallowing difficulty as predictors of the comorbidity of depression and anxiety. Periodical screenings for poststroke depression and anxiety from an early stage in a hospital to years after stroke in a community are recommended to provide better chances for early identification of patients at risk because depression and anxiety may manifest at any stage of recovery. Special attention should be given to individuals with culture-bound somatic symptoms in addition to female patients and those who have difficulty swallowing among Korean stroke patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Assessing the physical activity environment in Mexican healthcare settings

Description

Objective. To assess the informational, educational and instrumental environments among Mexican healthcare settings for their potential to promote physical activity (PA).
Materials and methods. The Environmental Physical Activity Assessment

Objective. To assess the informational, educational and instrumental environments among Mexican healthcare settings for their potential to promote physical activity (PA).
Materials and methods. The Environmental Physical Activity Assessment Tool for Healthcare Settings (EPATHS) was developed to assess the PA environments of 40 clinics/hospitals representing the three Mexican healthcare systems in Guadalajara. The EPATHS assessed the presence and quality of PA enhancing features in the informational (e.g. signage),educational (e.g. pamphlets), and instrumental (e.g. stairs)environments of included clinics/hospitals.
Results. 28 (70%) clinics/hospitals had more than one floor with stairs; 60% of these had elevators. Nearly 90% of stairs were visible, accessible and clean compared to fewer than 30% of elevators. Outdoor spaces were observed in just over half (55%) of clinics/hospitals, and most (70%) were of good quality. Only 25% clinics/hospitals had educational PA materials.
Conclusions.The PA instrumental environment of Mexican healthcare settings is encouraging. The informational and educational environments could improve.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09

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Accelerated aging in adults with knee osteoarthritis pain: consideration for frequency, intensity, time, and total pain sites

Description

Introduction: Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) show increased morbidity and mortality. Telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, predicts increased morbidity and mortality. Telomeres shorten with persisting biological and psychosocial stress.

Introduction: Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) show increased morbidity and mortality. Telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, predicts increased morbidity and mortality. Telomeres shorten with persisting biological and psychosocial stress. Living with chronic OA pain is stressful. Previous research exploring telomere length in people with OA has produced inconsistent results. Considering pain severity may clarify the relationship between OA and telomeres.
Objectives: We hypothesized that individuals with high OA chronic pain severity would have shorter telomeres than those with no or low chronic pain severity.
Methods: One hundred thirty-six adults, ages 45 to 85 years old, with and without symptomatic knee OA were included in the analysis. Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length was measured, and demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Participants were categorized into 5 pain severity groups based on an additive index of frequency, intensity, time or duration, and total number of pain sites (FITT). Covariates included age, sex, race or ethnicity, study site, and knee pain status.
Results: The no or low chronic pain severity group had significantly longer telomeres compared with the high pain severity group, P50.025. A significant chronic pain severity dose response emerged for telomere length, P50.034. The FITT chronic pain severity index was highly correlated with the clinical and functional OA pain measures. However, individual clinical and functional measures were not associated with telomere length.
Conclusion: Results demonstrate accelerated cellular aging with high knee OA chronic pain severity and provide evidence for the potential utility of the FITT chronic pain severity index in capturing the biological burden of chronic pain.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04

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Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise

Description

Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects

Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210–2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210–2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210–2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410–0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-02-26

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Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

Description

Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association

Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-04-27