Matching Items (160)

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Size Matters: Assessing Optimum Soil Sample Size for Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure Analyses Using High Throughput Sequencing of rRNA Gene Amplicons

Description

We examined the effect of different soil sample sizes obtained from an agricultural field, under a single cropping system uniform in soil properties and aboveground crop responses, on bacterial and

We examined the effect of different soil sample sizes obtained from an agricultural field, under a single cropping system uniform in soil properties and aboveground crop responses, on bacterial and fungal community structure and microbial diversity indices. DNA extracted from soil sample sizes of 0.25, 1, 5, and 10 g using MoBIO kits and from 10 and 100 g sizes using a bead-beating method (SARDI) were used as templates for high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA gene amplicons for bacteria and fungi, respectively, on the Illumina MiSeq and Roche 454 platforms. Sample size significantly affected overall bacterial and fungal community structure, replicate dispersion and the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) retrieved. Richness, evenness and diversity were also significantly affected. The largest diversity estimates were always associated with the 10 g MoBIO extractions with a corresponding reduction in replicate dispersion. For the fungal data, smaller MoBIO extractions identified more unclassified Eukaryota incertae sedis and unclassified glomeromycota while the SARDI method retrieved more abundant OTUs containing unclassified Pleosporales and the fungal genera Alternaria and Cercophora. Overall, these findings indicate that a 10 g soil DNA extraction is most suitable for both soil bacterial and fungal communities for retrieving optimal diversity while still capturing rarer taxa in concert with decreasing replicate variation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-02

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Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

Description

Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas,

Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert in Arizona. A total of 370 individual mammals representing three genera and eight species were captured in 4,800 trap nights from winter 2011 to spring 2012. A multi-response permutation procedure was used to identify differences in small mammal community abundance and biomass by season and treatment. Rodent abundance, biomass, and richness were greater at AWS compared to control sites. Patterns of abundance and biomass were driven by the desert pocket mouse (Chaetodipus penicillatus) which was the most common capture and two times more numerous at AWS compared to controls. Vegetation characteristics, explored using principal components analysis, were similar between AWS and controls. Two species that prefer vegetation structure, Bailey’s pocket mouse (C. baileyi) and white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), had greater abundances and biomass near AWS and were associated with habitat having high cactus density. Although small mammals do not drink free-water, perhaps higher abundances of some species of desert rodents at AWS could be related to artificial structure associated with construction or other resources. Compared to the 30-year average of precipitation for the area, the period of our study occurred during a dry winter. During dry periods, perhaps AWS provide resources to rodents related to moisture.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-11-10

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The geography of hotspots of rarity-weighted richness of birds and their coverage by Natura 2000

Description

A major challenge for biogeographers and conservation planners is to identify where to best locate or distribute high-priority areas for conservation and to explore whether these areas are well represented

A major challenge for biogeographers and conservation planners is to identify where to best locate or distribute high-priority areas for conservation and to explore whether these areas are well represented by conservation actions such as protected areas (PAs). We aimed to identify high-priority areas for conservation, expressed as hotpots of rarity-weighted richness (HRR)–sites that efficiently represent species–for birds across EU countries, and to explore whether HRR are well represented by the Natura 2000 network. Natura 2000 is an evolving network of PAs that seeks to conserve biodiversity through the persistence of the most patrimonial species and habitats across Europe. This network includes Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and Special Areas of Conservation (SAC), where the latter regulated the designation of Special Protected Areas (SPA). Distribution maps for 416 bird species and complementarity-based approaches were used to map geographical patterns of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) and HRR for birds. We used species accumulation index to evaluate whether RWR was efficient surrogates to identify HRRs for birds. The results of our analysis support the proposition that prioritizing sites in order of RWR is a reliable way to identify sites that efficiently represent birds. HRRs were concentrated in the Mediterranean Basin and alpine and boreal biogeographical regions of northern Europe. The cells with high RWR values did not correspond to cells where Natura 2000 was present. We suggest that patterns of RWR could become a focus for conservation biogeography. Our analysis demonstrates that identifying HRR is a robust approach for prioritizing management actions, and reveals the need for more conservation actions, especially on HRR.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04-05

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NifH-Harboring Bacterial Community Composition across an Alaskan Permafrost Thaw Gradient

Description

Since nitrogen (N) is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N[subscript 2]-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples

Since nitrogen (N) is often limiting in permafrost soils, we investigated the N[subscript 2]-fixing genetic potential and the inferred taxa harboring those genes by sequencing nifH gene fragments in samples taken along a permafrost thaw gradient in an Alaskan boreal soil. Samples from minimally, moderately and extensively thawed sites were taken to a depth of 79 cm to encompass zones above and below the depth of the water table. NifH reads were translated with frameshift correction and 112,476 sequences were clustered at 5% amino acid dissimilarity resulting in 1,631 OTUs. Sample depth in relation to water table depth was correlated to differences in the NifH sequence classes with those most closely related to group I nifH-harboring Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria in higher abundance above water table depth while those related to group III nifH-harboring Delta Proteobacteria more abundant below. The most dominant below water table depth NifH sequences, comprising 1/3 of the total, were distantly related to Verrucomicrobia-Opitutaceae. Overall, these results suggest that permafrost thaw alters the class-level composition of N[subscript 2]-fixing communities in the thawed soil layers and that this distinction corresponds to the depth of the water table. These nifH data were also compared to nifH sequences obtained from a study at an Alaskan taiga site, and to those of other geographically distant, non-permafrost sites. The two Alaska sites were differentiated largely by changes in relative abundances of the same OTUs, whereas the non-Alaska sites were differentiated by the lack of many Alaskan OTUs, and the presence of unique halophilic, sulfate- and iron-reducing taxa in the Alaska sites.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-11-24

Building a Kallipolis: An Inquiry into the Search for Meaning in Barrett the Honors College through Writing

Description

This thesis will draw connections between Viktor Frankl’s psychological practices of Logotherapy and the pedagogical system put into place to support Arizona State University Barrett students on the Polytechnic campus

This thesis will draw connections between Viktor Frankl’s psychological practices of Logotherapy and the pedagogical system put into place to support Arizona State University Barrett students on the Polytechnic campus through the Writing Colloquium. On Poly, the Writing Colloquium is uniquely structured through its six functions (Teacher Assistants, Thesis Fests, Paper Mini Conferences, Tribunals, Flipped Thesis Workshops, and Service Projects) to provide support for the Human Event and upperclassman students with an emphasis on engagement with Barrett through all four years of undergraduate learning. Through the work in the Colloquium, both the students it serves and those within the program grow in their understanding of how written language adds meaning to their time in college and can provide purpose and direction for their life after graduation. This view connects back to the existentialist framework suggested by Frankl’s writings in Man’s Search for Meaning, where he discusses the sustaining and enabling power in writing during his time in German concentration camps in World War II and his experience as a psychoanalyst. In the analysis of these theories of life, meaning, and writing, I emphasize the exploration and connection of concepts through written language as a way to discover meaning and purpose in difficult circumstances. In order to do so, also included in my thesis is interviews of: the Barrett Poly Associate Dean; three Faculty members; two Honors Staff; and five ASU Barrett Poly Alumni. These interviews document the early years of Barrett’s presence on the Polytechnic campus and also how the Colloquium has grown over the years to support the expanding population of the honors college on the campus.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Immunological Responses to the White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen and their Potential Use as Control

Description

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal infection devastating bat populations throughout eastern North America. WNS is caused by a fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), that invades the skin of hibernating bats.

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal infection devastating bat populations throughout eastern North America. WNS is caused by a fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), that invades the skin of hibernating bats. While there are a number of treatments being researched, there is currently no effective treatment for WNS that is deployed in the field, except a few being tested on a limited scale. Bats have lowered immune function and response during hibernation, which may increase susceptibility to infection during the winter months. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a crucial component of the innate immune system and serve as barriers against infection. AMPs are constitutively expressed on skin and facilitate wound healing, stimulate other immune responses, and may also stay active on bat skin during hibernation. AMPs are expressed by all tissues, have direct killing abilities against microbes, and are a potential treatment for bats infected with Pd. In this investigation, the fungicidal activity of several readily available commercial AMPs were compared, and killing assay protocols previously investigated by Frasier and Lake were replicated to establish a control trial for use in future killing assays. Another aim of this investigation was to synthesize a bat-derived AMP for use in the killing assay. Sequences of bat-derived AMPs have been identified in bat skin samples obtained from a large geographic sampling of susceptible and resistant species. Contact was made with GenScript Inc., the company from which commercially available AMPs were purchased, to determine the characteristics of peptide sequences needed to synthesize an AMP for lab use. Based on recommendations from GenScript Inc., peptide sequences need to have a hydrophobicity of less than 50% and a sequence length of less than 50 amino acids. These criteria serve as a potential barrier because none of the known bat-derived sequences analyzed satisfy both of these requirements. The final aim of this study was to generate a conceptual model of the immune response molecules activated when bats are exposed to a fungal pathogen such as Pd. Overall, this work investigated sources of variability between trials of the killing assay, analyzed known bat-derived peptide sequences, and generated a conceptual model that will serve as a guideline for identification of immune response molecules on the skin of bats in future proteomics work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

The Acute Impact Of Yogic Ujjayi Pranayama Versus Aerobic Exercise On Cognitive Performance and Short Term Memory

Description

This is the study of Acute Impact of Ujjayi Yogic Pranayama vs Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Performance and Short Term Memory. The purpose of this research was to compare two

This is the study of Acute Impact of Ujjayi Yogic Pranayama vs Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Performance and Short Term Memory. The purpose of this research was to compare two forms of exercise and their effects on someone's cognitive performance and short term memory. The research was performed in an acute setting were both exercises was conducted in under 15 minutes of active participation. The research question was; will aerobic exercise or the Pranayama breathing exercise provide better results and demonstrate a more effective way to increase the cognitive performance and short term memory for a college student aged 18-30. This was accomplished by using an aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine and then participating in the breathing exercise for 10 minutes in both scenarios. This study had two scenarios. Each scenario had a preliminary cognitive performance and short-term memory, post-Ujjayi exercise had a cognitive performance and short-term memory and a post-aerobic exercise had a cognitive performance and short-term memory. There was an hour break between Ujjayi exercise and aerobic exercise in both scenarios to prevent any type of bias. Scenario 1 had these three settings but the students were not given a breakfast supplement. In Scenario 2 the students were given a break supplement and followed the same procedures as scenario 1. There were 25 students for scenario 1 and 25 students for scenario 2. The students were allowed to participate in scenario 1 and 2 but it had to be a week after their first participation. All participants were originally signed up for scenario 1 and they could come back to perform scenario 2 a week later. The first scenario was completing the tests in the absence of food. Scenario two was completing the tests after having been given a Clif Bar to consume. The results of both of these scenarios showed that for cognitive performance and short term memory aerobic exercise had a beneficial impact on their performance. However, students who had a breakfast performed better on the preliminary tests and scored better after the yogic Ujjayi Pranayama exercise on their cognitive performance and short term memory tests. There was also a negligible difference between the test results after the preliminary tests and yogic Ujjayi Pranayama. However, in scenario one the overall tests scores for preliminary and yogic Ujjayi Pranayama were less than those in scenario two. Students who recorded that they were more actively engaging in regular physical exercise 3-7 days a week also did worse in scenario 1, but when presented with scenario 2 they scored equal with those who did not perform regular exercise. The overall purpose for this research was to find out how to increase cognitive performance and short term memory ability in college age students 18-30 in a short amount of time. The results of this study will be impactful for the future studies that will be focused on when comparing aerobic exercise and yogic pranayama.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Government Subsidization, Public Assistance, and the Socioeconomics of Type-Two Diabetes

Description

Type-two diabetes represents a pathological state of insulin resistance due to systemic, complex interactions between numerous identified and linked metabolic genes. According to current medical literature, the genetic predisposition to

Type-two diabetes represents a pathological state of insulin resistance due to systemic, complex interactions between numerous identified and linked metabolic genes. According to current medical literature, the genetic predisposition to type-two diabetes, coupled with environmental risk-factors, such as poverty and poor dietary habits, further exacerbate the risk of developing the disease. My research investigated the hypothesis that government poverty programs are associated with the surge in type-two diabetes among people of low socioeconomic status. My research suggests that government subsidies for the Commodity Supplemental Food Program, Women Infants and Children, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, National School Lunch Program, and corn production influence individual dietary choices that lead to consumption of excessive amounts of refined sugars and fats and a surge in the prevalence of obesity, known risk-factors for developing type-two diabetes. These policies and programs may directly or indirectly promote and incentivize diets with excessive refined sugars and fats. As such, current programs paradoxically contradict current medical literature and direct individual choices that have increased the known risk-factors for developing type-two diabetes. Future efforts should reassess poverty and agricultural subsidy programs in relation to medical recommendations for diabetes prevention. The enormous societal and economic burden associated with type-two diabetes calls for further research to assess the efficacy of current public policy and the allocation of government funds.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Student Efficacy for Skill Mastery in Counseling Children: A Service Learning Model

Description

Literature surrounding counselor education supports a constructivist pedagogical perspective and experiential models of counselor training. The purpose of this study is to analyze the experiential component of a 15-week service-learning

Literature surrounding counselor education supports a constructivist pedagogical perspective and experiential models of counselor training. The purpose of this study is to analyze the experiential component of a 15-week service-learning play therapy course, in which six Master of Counseling graduate students simultaneously learned the therapeutic process of play therapy and practiced directive and non-directive skills with children at a local elementary school. At the end of the course, each student submitted a critical incident report describing one experience that occurred during the course that significantly impacted their skill development and mastery. A thematic analysis was conducted using these critical incident reports to assess the impact of the course on the counselors-in-training learning process and outcomes. Five themes were identified in this thematic analysis: use of therapeutic orientations, children's navigation of the counseling process, challenges of navigating new counseling experiences, acknowledgement of children's knowledge/ability to solve their own problems, and unpredictability of sessions. The findings of this study highlight the value of a child-centered therapeutic approach and the need for experiential learning opportunities specifically related to counseling children. Lastly, limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

The Rhetoric of Righteousness: Social Justice, Inclusivity and The Gospel

Description

This paper analyzes different rhetorics as expressed through a six-month period of qualitative research. Using the methodology of Participatory Critical Rhetoric, I conducted fieldwork while participating in advocacy programs as

This paper analyzes different rhetorics as expressed through a six-month period of qualitative research. Using the methodology of Participatory Critical Rhetoric, I conducted fieldwork while participating in advocacy programs as a volunteer at a church. Conducting interviews, taking photographs and writing field notes, I collected data studying the rhetoric expressed in situ. As a participant in the organization during the time of my fieldwork, I captured overt and covert rhetoric expressed from members, staff and outsiders of the organization. I noticed particular rhetoric expressed, specifically righteousness, inclusivity, social justice, and the Gospel. In my introduction, I discuss the broader context of our contentious American political state, which increases the relevancy of this project. I provide a small overview of the foundations for the methodology used to collect data and conduct research. Within the analysis portion, I dive into the rhetoric I analyzed in my time within the organization, providing specific examples of how these rhetoric play out in day-to-day discourses and activities of the organization. In my final thoughts section, I provide some reflexivity on the youth and future of the organization. I also explore what I learned from my participation and how inclusivity affected me as a participant in the organization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12