Matching Items (317)

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Spatial Release from Masking with a Moving Target

Description

In the visual domain, a stationary object that is difficult to detect usually becomes far more salient if it moves while the objects around it do not. This “pop out”

In the visual domain, a stationary object that is difficult to detect usually becomes far more salient if it moves while the objects around it do not. This “pop out” effect is important for parsing the visual world into figure/ground relationships that allow creatures to detect food, threats, etc. We tested for an auditory correlate to this visual effect by asking listeners to identify a single word, spoken by a female, embedded with two or four masking words spoken by males. Percentage correct scores were analyzed and compared between conditions where target and maskers were presented from the same position vs. when the target was presented from one position while maskers were presented from different positions. In some trials, the target word was moved across the speaker array using amplitude panning, while in other trials that target was played from a single, static position. Results showed a spatial release from masking for all conditions where the target and maskers were not located at the same position, but there was no statistically significant difference between identification performance when the target was moving vs. when it was stationary. These results suggest that, at least for short stimulus durations (0.75 s for the stimuli in this experiment), there is unlikely to be a “pop out” effect for moving target stimuli in the auditory domain as there is in the visual domain.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-20

Linnorm: improved statistical analysis for single cell RNA-seq expression data

Description

Linnorm is a novel normalization and transformation method for the analysis of single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. Linnorm is developed to remove technical noises and simultaneously preserve biological variations

Linnorm is a novel normalization and transformation method for the analysis of single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. Linnorm is developed to remove technical noises and simultaneously preserve biological variations in scRNA-seq data, such that existing statistical methods can be improved. Using real scRNA-seq data, we compared Linnorm with existing normalization methods, including NODES, SAMstrt, SCnorm, scran, DESeq and TMM. Linnorm shows advantages in speed, technical noise removal and preservation of cell heterogeneity, which can improve existing methods in the discovery of novel subtypes, pseudo-temporal ordering of cells, clustering analysis, etc. Linnorm also performs better than existing DEG analysis methods, including BASiCS, NODES, SAMstrt, Seurat and DESeq2, in false positive rate control and accuracy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-18

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An integrative method to decode regulatory logics in gene transcription

Description

Modeling of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) has been increasingly used to dissect the nature of gene regulation. Inference of regulatory relationships among transcription factors (TFs) and genes, especially among multiple

Modeling of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) has been increasingly used to dissect the nature of gene regulation. Inference of regulatory relationships among transcription factors (TFs) and genes, especially among multiple TFs, is still challenging. In this study, we introduced an integrative method, LogicTRN, to decode TF–TF interactions that form TF logics in regulating target genes. By combining cis-regulatory logics and transcriptional kinetics into one single model framework, LogicTRN can naturally integrate dynamic gene expression data and TF-DNA-binding signals in order to identify the TF logics and to reconstruct the underlying TRNs. We evaluated the newly developed methodology using simulation, comparison and application studies, and the results not only show their consistence with existing knowledge, but also demonstrate its ability to accurately reconstruct TRNs in biological complex systems.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-10-19

How changes in brain activity and connectivity are associated with motor performance in people with MS

Description

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit pronounced changes in brain structure, activity, and connectivity. While considerable work has begun to elucidate how these neural changes contribute to behavior, the heterogeneity

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit pronounced changes in brain structure, activity, and connectivity. While considerable work has begun to elucidate how these neural changes contribute to behavior, the heterogeneity of symptoms and diagnoses makes interpretation of findings and application to clinical practice challenging. In particular, whether MS related changes in brain activity or brain connectivity protect against or contribute to worsening motor symptoms is unclear. With the recent emergence of neuromodulatory techniques that can alter neural activity in specific brain regions, it is critical to establish whether localized brain activation patterns are contributing to (i.e. maladaptive) or protecting against (i.e. adaptive) progression of motor symptoms. In this manuscript, we consolidate recent findings regarding changes in supraspinal structure and activity in people with MS and how these changes may contribute to motor performance. Furthermore, we discuss a hypothesis suggesting that increased neural activity during movement may be either adaptive or maladaptive depending on where in the brain this increase is observed. Specifically, we outline preliminary evidence suggesting sensorimotor cortex activity in the ipsilateral cortices may be maladaptive in people with MS. We also discuss future work that could supply data to support or refute this hypothesis, thus improving our understanding of this important topic.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-28

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The Role of Descending Modulation in Manual Therapy and Its Analgesic Implications: A Narrative Review

Description

Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has

Manual therapy has long been a component of physical rehabilitation programs, especially to treat those in pain. The mechanisms of manual therapy, however, are not fully understood, and it has been suggested that its pain modulatory effects are of neurophysiological origin and may be mediated by the descending modulatory circuit. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine the neurophysiological response to different types of manual therapy, in order to better understand the neurophysiological mechanisms behind each therapy’s analgesic effects. It is concluded that different forms of manual therapy elicit analgesic effects via different mechanisms, and nearly all therapies appear to be at least partially mediated by descending modulation. Additionally, future avenues of mechanistic research pertaining to manual therapy are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-11-29

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Review of the PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for fifth grade students

Description

Study aim: this study examined the item difficulty and item discrimination scores for the HRFK PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for 5th-grade students.
Materials and methods: ten elementary physical education

Study aim: this study examined the item difficulty and item discrimination scores for the HRFK PE Metrics cognitive assessment tool for 5th-grade students.
Materials and methods: ten elementary physical education teachers volunteered to participate. Based on convenience, participating teachers selected two 5th grade physical education classes. Teachers then gave students (N = 633) a 28-question paper and pencil HRFK exam using PE Metrics Standards 3 and 4. Item difficulty and discrimination analysis and Rasch Modeling were used data to determine underperforming items.
Results: analysis suggests that at least three items are problematic. The Rasch Model confirmed this result and identified similar items with high outfit mean square values and low Point Biserial correlation values.
Conclusions: teachers are in need of valid and reliable HRFK assessment tools. Without the removal of three items in the PE Metrics HRFK exam for 5th-grade students, complete use of the exam could offer incorrect conclusions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09-08

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Partially overlapping sensorimotor networks underlie speech praxis and verbal short-term memory: evidence from apraxia of speech following acute stroke

Description

We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM) depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by

We tested the hypothesis that motor planning and programming of speech articulation and verbal short-term memory (vSTM) depend on partially overlapping networks of neural regions. We evaluated this proposal by testing 76 individuals with acute ischemic stroke for impairment in motor planning of speech articulation (apraxia of speech, AOS) and vSTM in the first day of stroke, before the opportunity for recovery or reorganization of structure-function relationships. We also evaluated areas of both infarct and low blood flow that might have contributed to AOS or impaired vSTM in each person. We found that AOS was associated with tissue dysfunction in motor-related areas (posterior primary motor cortex, pars opercularis; premotor cortex, insula) and sensory-related areas (primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, parietal operculum/auditory cortex); while impaired vSTM was associated with primarily motor-related areas (pars opercularis and pars triangularis, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex). These results are consistent with the hypothesis, also supported by functional imaging data, that both speech praxis and vSTM rely on partially overlapping networks of brain regions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-08-25

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Orphan drugs in development for primary biliary cirrhosis: challenges and progress

Description

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive liver disease that often leads to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease. The diagnosis is made when there is evidence of cholestasis

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic progressive liver disease that often leads to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease. The diagnosis is made when there is evidence of cholestasis and reactivity to the antimitochondrial antibody. The etiology of PBC is poorly understood; however, several lines of evidence suggest an environmental factor that triggers a series of immune-mediated inflammatory reactions in the bile ducts in a genetically susceptible individual. Fatigue and pruritus are the most common symptoms of PBC; however, many patients are diagnosed with PBC only based on laboratory abnormalities. The only pharmacological treatment approved for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Several controlled studies have shown that UDCA improves liver biochemistries and prolongs transplant-free survival in PBC patients. Nearly 40% of PBC patients do not respond to UDCA, and those patients are at high risk of serious adverse events, such as the development of liver failure. Therefore, newer alternative therapeutic options for PBC are needed. Obeticholic acid is a first-in-class farnesoid X receptor agonist that has been recently evaluated in PBC patients with inadequate response to UDCA, and demonstrated beneficial results in improving liver biochemistries. Several other agents (fibrates and glucocorticoids) have been previously examined in PBC patients with inadequate response to UDCA, and preliminary results showed biochemical improvement. However, large-scale controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the long-term effects of fibrates and glucocorticoids on the clinical outcomes of PBC. Clinical trials of NGM282 (a fibroblast growth factor-19 analog) and Abatacept (a fusion protein composed of the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G1 fused to CTLA4) are currently underway.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09-10

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Social ecological correlates of workplace sedentary behavior

Description

Background
To identify social ecological correlates of objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior.
Methods
Participants from 24 worksites - across academic, industrial, and government sectors - wore an activPAL-micro accelerometer for

Background
To identify social ecological correlates of objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior.
Methods
Participants from 24 worksites - across academic, industrial, and government sectors - wore an activPAL-micro accelerometer for 7-days (Jan-Nov 2016). Work time was segmented using daily logs. Sedentary behavior outcomes included time spent sitting, standing, in light intensity physical activity (LPA, stepping cadence <100 steps/min), and in prolonged sitting bouts (>30 min). Outcomes were standardized to an 8 h work day. Two electronic surveys were completed to derive individual (job type and work engagement), cultural (lunch away from the desk, walking at lunch and face-to-face interaction), physical (personal printer and office type) and organizational (sector) factors. Mixed-model analyses with worksite-level clustering were performed to examine multi-level associations. Secondary analyses examined job type and sector as moderators of these associations. All models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and gender.
Results
Participants (N = 478; 72% female; age: 45.0 ± 11.3 years; 77.8% non-Hispanic white) wore the activPAL-micro for 90.2 ± 15.5% of the reported workday. Walking at lunch was positively associated with LPA (5.0 ± 0.5 min/8 h, P < 0.001). Regular face-to-face interaction was negatively associated with prolonged sitting (−11.3 ± 4.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05). Individuals in private offices sat more (20.1 ± 9.1 min/8 h, P < 0.05), stood less (−21.5 ± 8.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05), and engaged in more prolonged sitting (40.9 ± 11.2 min/8 h, P < 0.001) than those in public office space. These associations were further modified by job type and sector.
Conclusions
Work-specific individual, cultural, physical and organizational factors are associated with workplace sedentary behavior. Associations vary by job type and sector and should be considered in the design of workplace interventions to reduce sedentary behavior.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08-31

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Nutrition Facts Panel use is associated with diet quality and dietary patterns among Latinos with type 2 diabetes

Description

Objective: The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type

Objective: The study aims were to (i) identify determinants of Nutrition Facts Panel (NFP) use and (ii) describe the association between NFP use and dietary intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.
Design: Baseline cross-sectional data from a clinical trial were used to assess the association between NFP use and dietary intake. Diet was measured using two methods: (i) a diet quality score (the Healthy Eating Index-2010) derived from a single 24 h recall and (ii) dietary pattern (exploratory factor analyses) from an FFQ. Multivariable logistic and non-parametric quantile regressions were conducted, as appropriate.
Settings: Hartford County, Connecticut, USA.
Subjects: Latino adults (n 203), ≥21 years of age, with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, glycosylated Hb≥7 %, and without medical conditions limiting physical activity.
Results: Participants’ education level, diabetes-related knowledge and English speaking were positively associated with NFP use. At the higher percentiles of diet quality score, NFP use was significantly associated with higher diet quality. Similarly, NFP users were more likely to consume a ‘healthy’ dietary pattern (P=0·003) and less likely to consume a ‘fried snack’ pattern (P=0·048) compared with NFP non-users.
Conclusions: The association between reported NFP use and diet quality was positive and significantly stronger among participants who reported consuming a healthier diet. While NFP use was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, not using NFP was associated with a less-healthy, fried snack pattern. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand whether improving NFP use could be an effective intervention to improve diet quality among Latinos with type 2 diabetes.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-06-20