Matching Items (17)

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Arizona Extreme Weather and Public Health Workshop Summary Report

Description

In June 2016, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) with researchers from Arizona State University (ASU) convened a one-day workshop of public health professionals and experts from Arizona’s county

In June 2016, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) with researchers from Arizona State University (ASU) convened a one-day workshop of public health professionals and experts from Arizona’s county and state agencies to advance statewide preparedness for extreme weather events and climate change. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsors the Climate-Ready Cities and States Initiative, which aims to help communities across the country prepare for and prevent projected disease burden associated with climate change. Arizona is one of 18 public health jurisdictions funded under this initiative. ADHS is deploying the CDC’s five-step Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework to assist counties and local public health partners with becoming better prepared to face challenges associated with the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards. Workshop participants engaged in facilitated exercises designed to rigorously consider social vulnerability to hazards in Arizona and to prioritize intervention activities for extreme heat, wildfire, air pollution, and flooding.

This report summarizes the proceedings of the workshop focusing primarily on two sessions: the first related to social vulnerability mapping and the second related to the identification and prioritization of interventions necessary to address the impacts of climate-sensitive hazards.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-11-28

Urban Forestry and Cool Roofs: Assessment of Heat Mitigation Strategies in Phoenix Residential Neighborhoods

Description

The City of Phoenix (Arizona, USA) developed a Tree and Shade Master Plan and a Cool Roofs initiative to ameliorate extreme heat during the summer months in their arid city.

The City of Phoenix (Arizona, USA) developed a Tree and Shade Master Plan and a Cool Roofs initiative to ameliorate extreme heat during the summer months in their arid city. This study investigates the impact of the City's heat mitigation strategies on daytime microclimate for a pre-monsoon summer day under current climate conditions and two climate change scenarios. We assessed the cooling effect of trees and cool roofs in a Phoenix residential neighborhood using the microclimate model ENVI-met. First, using xeric landscaping as a base, we created eight tree planting scenarios (from 0% canopy cover to 30% canopy cover) for the neighborhood to characterize the relationship between canopy cover and daytime cooling benefit of trees. In a second set of simulations, we ran ENVI-met for nine combined tree planting and landscaping scenarios (mesic, oasis, and xeric) with regular roofs and cool roofs under current climate conditions and two climate change projections. For each of the 54 scenarios, we compared average neighborhood mid-afternoon air temperatures and assessed the benefits of each heat mitigation measure under current and projected climate conditions. Findings suggest that the relationship between percent canopy cover and air temperature reduction is linear, with 0.14 °C cooling per percent increase in tree cover for the neighborhood under investigation. An increase in tree canopy cover from the current 10% to a targeted 25% resulted in an average daytime cooling benefit of up to 2.0 °C in residential neighborhoods at the local scale. Cool roofs reduced neighborhood air temperatures by 0.3 °C when implemented on residential homes. The results from this city-specific mitigation project will inform messaging campaigns aimed at engaging the city decision makers, industry, and the public in the green building and urban forestry initiatives.

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Date Created
  • 2015

Impact of Shade on Outdoor Thermal Comfort: A Seasonal Field Study in Tempe, Arizona

Description

Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through

Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University’s Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C–38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-18

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Resilience and Disaster-Affected Youth: A Case Study on Our Global Family, Ama Ghar

Description

Using the case of a children's home in Nepal, Ama Ghar, this study utilizes concepts of resiliency and community service to assess children's ability to react and recover from disaster.

Using the case of a children's home in Nepal, Ama Ghar, this study utilizes concepts of resiliency and community service to assess children's ability to react and recover from disaster. As earthquakes continues to strike rural and urban populations \u2014 from Mexico to Italy \u2014 learning the recovery stories of the 2015 Nepal Earthquake from the Ama Ghar family may further understanding on how to promote resiliency for youth in a post-disaster stage. Although community service in many respects has been supported as a successful youth development tool in Western contexts, researchers call for a more extensive look that compares variables of community service through a global lens. Because of the research backing the benefits that community involvement has on promoting civic responsibility, citizenship, and human and societal well-being, this study proposes that facilitating an active role through community service is a positive way to generate resilience among a child. After conducting in-depth interviews on Ama Ghar caretakers and alumni, it was ultimately concluded that there is a positive relationship between community service and overall resilience of a child. It was found that different forms of discussions of disaster, community service, and resilience shows the complex interconnectedness among these attributes and how this relationship accounts for the building up of resiliency among children who have faced disaster such as the earthquake in Nepal. Learning about the nurturing of children within the blended Ama Ghar family and their vivid first-hand experiences may be scalable however more in-depth research should be conducted to fully understand the complex factors that contribute to the rebuilding of well-being for disaster-affected youth.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Volunteer Tourism with Primates in Costa Rica

Description

There is little research on volunteer tourism to primate sanctuaries. The purpose of this study was to help fill this knowledge gap and gain insights into how animal sanctuaries with

There is little research on volunteer tourism to primate sanctuaries. The purpose of this study was to help fill this knowledge gap and gain insights into how animal sanctuaries with volunteers in Costa Rica can be improved operationally to strengthen their conservation efforts. My research questions were: 1. How does volunteer tourism with primates in Costa Rica affect volunteers? 2. How does this volunteer tourism affect Costa Rica’s environment? The methodology used was an exploratory qualitative design that included a literature review of previous research and case studies and a visit with interviews at a primate sanctuary in Costa Rica. The findings did not generate sufficient data to answer the first research question. I did find that altruism was a key factor in recruiting effective volunteers. The study also found that conservation in Costa Rica relies on volunteer tourism to fill a human resource gap. This research will allow sanctuaries in Costa Rica to respond better to protect biodiversity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

The Sport of Water Skiing: What it is, how to do it, and a look at the various factors affecting skier participation

Description

A niche group of non-traditional sports have grown in popularity over the course of most of the last century but especially in the last few decades. Adventure sports provide alternative

A niche group of non-traditional sports have grown in popularity over the course of most of the last century but especially in the last few decades. Adventure sports provide alternative forms of physical activity typically involving elements of nature, speed, adrenaline, and physical risk. These sports often take place in remote locations, require specialized equipment, and receive limited exposure to those that are not participants. There are many factors that contribute to limited participation within adventure sports but their popularity has continued to grow. Participants frequently devote much of their time, effort, and money showing a true passion for their sport. A case study on water skiers was performed to learn more about adventure sports and their participants. A detailed description of competitive water skiing is included because the competition format is not widely known. It was found that there are a number of reasons why people competitively water ski. The main ones are the unique sensations it offers, the water ski community, and the environment in which it takes place. It is a tough sport to become involved because of the costs, time commitments, access to lakes, and lack of knowledgeable skiers willing to mentor beginners. Although for different reasons, all respondents seemed to truly love the sport. People participate in adventure sports because of the unique aspects and opportunities involved with sports of this nature. The second portion is a coaching guide on all three events, driving, and judging including video examples of all but very high difficulty tricks. These tips and advice have been derived from fifteen years of experience with competitive water skiing. There is no single way to water ski but this is what one skier has found to help at each stage of improvement. It could not have been accomplished without the unimaginable amount of support received from family, coaches, and friends. It is always better to be watched by a coach but that is not always possible. This guide will give skiers a starting point for what to think about to help them figure out how to continue to improve in all three events. With the necessary time, resources, ambition, and circumstances; a small group of people who know nothing about water skiing could learn to become high performance competitors. It will be left with Sun Devil Water Ski Club to help future skiers who do not always have another skier to help teach them.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Theoretical Model of Solar Photovoltaic Air Conditioning with Ice Thermal Storage

Description

An investigation is undertaken of a prototype building-integrated solar photovoltaic-powered thermal storage system and air conditioning unit. The study verifies previous thermodynamic and economic conclusions and provides a more thorough

An investigation is undertaken of a prototype building-integrated solar photovoltaic-powered thermal storage system and air conditioning unit. The study verifies previous thermodynamic and economic conclusions and provides a more thorough analysis. A parameterized model was created for optimization of the system under various conditions. The model was used to evaluate energy and cost savings to determine viability of the system in several circumstances, such as a residence in Phoenix with typical cooling demand. The proposed design involves a modified chest freezer as a thermal storage tank with coils acting as the evaporator for the refrigeration cycle. Surrounding the coils, the tank contains small containers of water for high-density energy storage submerged in a low freezing-point solution of propylene glycol. The cooling power of excess photovoltaic and off-peak grid power that is generated by the air conditioning compressor is stored in the thermal storage tank by freezing the pure water. It is extracted by pumping the glycol across the ice containers and into an air handler to cool the building. Featured results of the modeling include the determination of an optimized system for a super-peak rate plan, grid-connected Phoenix house that has a 4-ton cooling load and requires a corresponding new air conditioner at 4.5 kW of power draw. Optimized for the highest payback over a ten year period, the system should consist of a thermal storage tank containing 454 liters (120 gallons) of water, a 3-ton rated air conditioning unit, requiring 2.7 kW, which is smaller than conventionally needed, and no solar photovoltaic array. The monthly summer savings would be $45.The upfront cost would be $5489, compared to a conventional system upfront cost of $5400, for a payback period of 0.33 years. Over ten years, this system will provide $2600 of savings. To optimize the system for the highest savings over a twenty year period, a thermal storage tank containing 272 liters (72 gallons) of water, a 40-m2 photovoltaic array with 15% efficiency, and a 3.5-ton, 3.1-kW rated air conditioning unit should be installed for an upfront cost of $19,900. This would provide monthly summer savings of $225 and 1062 kWh grid electricity, with a payback period of only 11 years and a total cost savings of $12,300 over twenty years. In comparison, a system with the same size photovoltaic array but without storage would result in a payback period of 16 years. Results are also determined for other cooling requirements and installation sizes, such that the viability of this type of system in different conditions can be discussed. The use of this model for determining the optimized system configuration given different constraints is also described.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Urban forestry and cool roofs: Assessment of heat mitigation strategies in Phoenix residential neighborhoods

Description

The City of Phoenix (Arizona, USA) developed a Tree and Shade Master Plan and a Cool Roofs initiative to ameliorate extreme heat during the summer months in their arid city.

The City of Phoenix (Arizona, USA) developed a Tree and Shade Master Plan and a Cool Roofs initiative to ameliorate extreme heat during the summer months in their arid city. This study investigates the impact of the City's heat mitigation strategies on daytime microclimate for a pre-monsoon summer day under current climate conditions and two climate change scenarios. We assessed the cooling effect of trees and cool roofs in a Phoenix residential neighborhood using the microclimate model ENVI-met. First, using xeric landscaping as a base, we created eight tree planting scenarios (from 0% canopy cover to 30% canopy cover) for the neighborhood to characterize the relationship between canopy cover and daytime cooling benefit of trees. In a second set of simulations, we ran ENVI-met for nine combined tree planting and landscaping scenarios (mesic, oasis, and xeric) with regular roofs and cool roofs under current climate conditions and two climate change projections. For each of the 54 scenarios, we compared average neighborhood mid-afternoon air temperatures and assessed the benefits of each heat mitigation measure under current and projected climate conditions. Findings suggest that the relationship between percent canopy cover and air temperature reduction is linear, with 0.14 °C cooling per percent increase in tree cover for the neighborhood under investigation. An increase in tree canopy cover from the current 10% to a targeted 25% resulted in an average daytime cooling benefit of up to 2.0 °C in residential neighborhoods at the local scale. Cool roofs reduced neighborhood air temperatures by 0.3 °C when implemented on residential homes. The results from this city-specific mitigation project will inform messaging campaigns aimed at engaging the city decision makers, industry, and the public in the green building and urban forestry initiatives.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-30

Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort-a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona

Description

Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through

Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-13

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Sustainable Fashion Through Five Different Cultures

Description

Fashion is individual in its expression. It is also universal. Fashion is a cumulation of different influences and different interpretations. We currently live in a climate divided by race, culture,

Fashion is individual in its expression. It is also universal. Fashion is a cumulation of different influences and different interpretations. We currently live in a climate divided by race, culture, gender, and so much more. It is so difficult to find common ground on a global platform. Something that stands alone is fashion. Fashion is influenced by so many aspects. Of these, aspects that I am interested in are culture and sustainability. When combined with culture, fashion can anchor and have a root to the generations that came before us. When combined with sustainability, we have an anchor to the planet that we share with everyone. The result of fashion is always the same, beautiful art. I want people to see the beauty not only in the art itself, but the differences and similarities that such art provides. We all come from the same world but have different ways of expressing that world. My goal is to show people that they need to acknowledge the differences but can choose to see the similarities of each culture. Additionally, I redesign garments that capture an emotion and a story. Making each piece individual yet serving a greater purpose sustainability wise. I envision the principle of sustainable fashion to be the basis of each piece of clothing. Therefore, for my creative project I am constructing five art pieces representing five cultures that has had a significant influence on my life and personal style. These cultures are those of UAE, Germany, Nepal, Mexico, and Spain. Each of these garments are made from recycled fabric and clothing donated by family and friends. My objective is to display sustainable fashion that has deep cultural influence. Every piece has a story and an emotion attached as well to create a connection with the clothing itself.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05