Matching Items (51)

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Predictors of Effortful Control in Early Adolescence

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Effortful Control (EC) is a person's ability to self-regulate when presented with an environmental stimulus (Rothbart, et al., 2003). It has been well-established that high levels of EC are associated with multiple positive social and academic outcomes in adolescence (Spinrad

Effortful Control (EC) is a person's ability to self-regulate when presented with an environmental stimulus (Rothbart, et al., 2003). It has been well-established that high levels of EC are associated with multiple positive social and academic outcomes in adolescence (Spinrad et al., 2009). Research suggests that parents have a strong impact on numerous child outcomes, such as EC, through both genetic and environmental pathways. Past research has also examined how parents diagnosed with psychopathology contribute to maladaptive outcomes in their children, including poor regulation, through both genetic and environmental processes (Ellis, et al., 1997). However, less is known about the longitudinal effects of parent dysfunction on the child's environment and regulatory abilities and potential mediators of those effects. The current study tested the hypotheses that parent Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) would specifically predict early adversity, biological mother conscientiousness, and child EC longitudinally and that early adversity and biological mother conscientiousness would predict child EC. Participants were from a longitudinal study of familial alcoholism (N = 195). Regression analyses indicated that parent AUD was not specifically associated with child EC or with biological mother conscientiousness. However, parent AUD was related to higher levels of early adversity. Additionally, biological mother conscientiousness was associated with higher levels of child EC and early adversity was associated with lower levels of child EC when controlling for earlier EC. Given these findings, future research should test mediation models in which parent AUD predicts child EC indirectly through early adversity.

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2017-12

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Analyzing Statistical Mediation With Multiple Informants: A New Approach With an Application in Clinical Psychology

Description

Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of

Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes some limitations of prior approaches. An application of the new approach to mother, father, and child reports of impulsivity, frustration tolerance, and externalizing problems (N = 454) is presented. The results showed that frustration tolerance mediated the relationship between impulsivity and externalizing problems. The new approach allows for a more comprehensive and effective use of MI data when testing mediation models.

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Date Created
2015-11-13

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Indirect and Moderated Effects of Parent-Child Communication on Drinking Values and Alcohol Use in the Transition to College.

Description

The transition from high school to college is marked by many changes, one of the most significant being the increased accessibility of alcohol, putting college students at high risk for alcohol-related consequences. It is imperative to identify factors that can

The transition from high school to college is marked by many changes, one of the most significant being the increased accessibility of alcohol, putting college students at high risk for alcohol-related consequences. It is imperative to identify factors that can protect young adults against these risks during this critical period. Although peers become increasingly influential in college, extant literature has shown that parents still have an impact on their children's behavior during this time. While parents spend less time with their children after college matriculation, they may indirectly protect against risky drinking behaviors by instilling certain values into their children before they make this transition. Using data from a large sample of students during their senior year of high school and their freshman year of college, the current study sought to examine interactive effects of parental communication and parental knowledge and caring on drinking behavior, and the extent to which internalization of personal drinking values mediate these effects. The primary study hypotheses were tested using path analysis conducted in Mplus 7.0. Full information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimation was utilized to estimate missing data and bootstrapping was used to address non-normality in the data. Results showed that, for those whose parents were high in knowledge and caring, higher levels of communication were associated with lower risk for alcohol use and problems at wave 3 through less permissive drinking values at wave 1. This finding has important implications for prevention approaches designed to reduce risk for heavy drinking and related problems during the transition to college.

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2015-05

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Gender differences in the links between alcohol-related consequences and perceived need for and utilization of treatment

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Past literature has indicated that the majority of people with alcohol problems never seek treatment and that this is especially true of women. Relatively few studies have investigated how different types of alcohol-related consequences longitudinally predict men and women's perceived

Past literature has indicated that the majority of people with alcohol problems never seek treatment and that this is especially true of women. Relatively few studies have investigated how different types of alcohol-related consequences longitudinally predict men and women's perceived need for treatment and their utilization of treatment services. The current study sought to expand the literature by examining whether gender moderates the links between four frequently endorsed types of consequences and perceived need for or actual utilization of treatment. Two-hundred thirty-seven adults ages 21-36 completed a battery of questionnaires at two time points five years apart. Results indicated that there were four broad types of consequences endorsed by both men and women. Multiple-group models and Wald chi square tests indicated that there were no significant relationships between consequences and treatment outcomes. No gender moderation was found but post-hoc power analyses indicated that the study was underpowered to detect moderation. Researchers need to continue to study factors that predict utilization of alcohol treatment services and the process of recovery so that treatment providers can better address the needs of people with alcohol-related consequences in the areas of referral procedures, clinical assessment, and treatment service provision and planning.

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Date Created
2013

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Does race/ethnicity moderate the relationship between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of substance use disorder services for males in the juvenile justice system?

Description

Juvenile offenders suffer from substance use disorders at higher rates than adolescents in the general public. Substance use disorders also predict an increased risk for re-offending. Therefore, it is important that these juveniles, in particular, receive the appropriate substance use

Juvenile offenders suffer from substance use disorders at higher rates than adolescents in the general public. Substance use disorders also predict an increased risk for re-offending. Therefore, it is important that these juveniles, in particular, receive the appropriate substance use disorder treatment. The present study used logistic regression to test whether race/ethnicity would moderate the match between substance use disorder diagnosis and the receipt of a substance use disorder related service in a sample of male, serious juvenile offenders. Results showed that among those with a substance use disorder diagnosis, there were no race/ethnicity differences in the receipt of the appropriate service. However, among those without a substance use disorder diagnosis, non-Hispanic Caucasians were more likely to receive substance use service than were Hispanics or African-Americans. Post-hoc analyses revealed that when using a broader definition of substance use problems, significant differences by race/ethnicity in the prediction of service receipt were only observed at low levels of substance use problems. These findings shed light on how race/ethnicity may play a role in the recommendation of substance use disorder services in the juvenile justice system.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Genes moderate the association of trait diurnal cortisol and externalizing in boys

Description

The hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the human genome are important components of the biological etiology of externalizing disorders. By studying the associations between specific genetic variants, diurnal cortisol, and externalizing symptoms we can begin to unpack this complex

The hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the human genome are important components of the biological etiology of externalizing disorders. By studying the associations between specific genetic variants, diurnal cortisol, and externalizing symptoms we can begin to unpack this complex etiology. It was hypothesized that genetic variants from the corticotropine releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), and dopamine transporter (DAT1) genes and diurnal cortisol intercepts and slopes would separately predict externalizing symptoms. It was also hypothesized that genetic variants would moderate the association between cortisol and externalizing. Participants were 800 twins (51% boys), 88.5% Caucasian, M=7.93 years (SD=0.87) participating in the Wisconsin Twin Project. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to separate the variance associated with state and trait cortisol measured across three consecutive days and trait cortisol measures were used. There were no main effects of genes on externalizing symptoms. The evening cortisol intercept, the morning cortisol slope and the evening cortisol slope predicted externalizing, but only in boys, such that boys with higher cortisol and flatter slopes across the day also had more externalizing symptoms. The morning cortisol intercept and CRHR1 rs242924 interacted to predict externalizing in both boys and girls, with GG carriers significantly higher compared to TT carriers at one standard deviation below the mean of morning cortisol. For boys only there was a significant interaction between the DAT1 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and the afternoon slope and a significant slope for 9/9 carriers and 9/10 carriers such that when the slope was more steep, boys carrying a nine had fewer externalizing symptoms but when the slope was less steep, they had more. Results confirm a link between diurnal trait cortisol and externalizing in boys, as well as moderation of that association by genetic polymorphisms. This is the first study to empirically examine this association and should encourage further research on the biological etiology of externalizing disorder symptoms.

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2012

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Generational Changes in Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Use

Description

Substance use during adolescence is a significant predictor of developing a later substance use disorder. An encouraging trend is that there have been recent declines in rates of adolescent substance use, including alcohol and marijuana. However, these two substances may

Substance use during adolescence is a significant predictor of developing a later substance use disorder. An encouraging trend is that there have been recent declines in rates of adolescent substance use, including alcohol and marijuana. However, these two substances may be decreasing differently from one another as a result of age, period, and cohort effects. Therefore, the overall trend of decreased substance use in more recent generations of adolescents may be greater for one substance than the other. The current study tested declines in adolescent alcohol and marijuana use across two generations measured in 1988-1990 and 2006-2012. Methodological strengths include controls for demographic characteristics and for parental alcohol disorder (as a proxy for genetic risk). Moreover, we tested whether findings would replicate using two methods—first comparing all assessed members of one generational cohort with all assessed members of the other generational cohort, and then comparing only matched parent-child pairs. Testing this second matched sample removes some potential demographic and risk confounds that might occur across cohorts in typical epidemiological studies. Results demonstrated that the younger cohort of adolescents used both substances less than the older cohort, and this effect was stronger for alcohol than for marijuana. These results were replicated in both samples over and above demographic variables. The parent-child sample showed that children used less alcohol and marijuana than did their parent during the same age period, suggesting that these trends cannot simply be due to changes in the demographics of the adolescent population over time. Taken together with epidemiological studies, these findings suggest encouraging declines in adolescent substance use rates but also indicate less decline in marijuana use compared to alcohol use. This prompts further surveillance to determine if marijuana use rates may start increasing among adolescents in the future.

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2020-05

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Depressive Symptoms and Drinking to Cope in Relation to Alcohol Use Outcomes Among European American and African American College Students

Description

Prior research suggests that African American adults are more likely than White adults to experience negative alcohol use outcomes such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) despite reporting lower rates of alcohol consumption. Research also shows that African Americans experience higher

Prior research suggests that African American adults are more likely than White adults to experience negative alcohol use outcomes such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) despite reporting lower rates of alcohol consumption. Research also shows that African Americans experience higher rates of depression, which can increase risk for alcohol consumption and AUD through drinking to cope. The current study examined the role of depressive symptoms and drinking to cope in alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms among White and Black/African American college students. Participants completed an online survey during the fall (T1) and spring semester (T2) of their first year of college (N = 2,168, 62.8% female, 75.8% White). Path analyses were conducted to examine whether depressive symptoms and drinking to cope mediated the association between race/ethnicity and alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms, as well as whether race/ethnicity moderated the associations between depressive symptoms, drinking to cope, and alcohol use outcomes. Results indicated that White participants had higher levels of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption than African American participants. Drinking to cope at T1 was also associated with more depressive symptoms at T1, higher levels of alcohol consumption at T2, and higher levels of AUD symptoms at T2. Also, there was an indirect effect of depressive symptoms on AUD symptoms via drinking to cope. Results from multigroup path analyses suggested that depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with drinking to cope for White students than African American students. There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in the associations between depressive symptoms or drinking to cope and alcohol use outcomes. Future research should examine the roles of race, depression, and drinking to cope in alcohol use outcomes for college students.

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2020-12

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The factor structure of the externalizing spectrum in adolescence and the role of GABRA2

Description

The present study tested the factor structure of the externalizing disorders (e.g. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (SE), and substance experimentation (SE) ) in adolescence. In addition, this study tested the influence of the GABRA2 gene on the factors

The present study tested the factor structure of the externalizing disorders (e.g. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (SE), and substance experimentation (SE) ) in adolescence. In addition, this study tested the influence of the GABRA2 gene on the factors of the externalizing spectrum. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the factor structure of the externalizing spectrum. Specifically, three competing alternate confirmatory factor analytic models were tested: a one-factor model where all disorders loaded onto a single externalizing factor, a two-factor model where CD and SE loaded onto one factor and ADHD loaded onto another, and a three-factor model, where all three disorders loaded onto separate factors. Structural equation modeling was used to test the effect of a GABRA2 SNP, rs279858, on the factors of the externalizing spectrum. Analyses revealed that a three-factor model of externalizing disorders with correlated factors fit the data best. Additionally, GABRA2 had a significant effect on the SE factor in adolescence, but not on the CD or ADHD factors. These findings demonstrate that the externalizing disorders in adolescence share commonalities but also have separate sources of systematic variance. Furthermore, biological mechanisms may act as a unique etiological factor in the development of adolescent substance experimentation.

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Date Created
2012

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The role of relationship status changes in college students' heavy episodic drinking

Description

The beginning of college is a period in which increased alcohol use often coincides with greater involvement in romantic relationships. Existing literature yields inconsistent findings regarding the influence of different relationship statuses on drinking behavior, perhaps because these studies have

The beginning of college is a period in which increased alcohol use often coincides with greater involvement in romantic relationships. Existing literature yields inconsistent findings regarding the influence of different relationship statuses on drinking behavior, perhaps because these studies have not accounted for recent changes in the way college students engage in dating/sexual relationships. In the current college environment, many students who define themselves as non-daters are nonetheless sexually active, a phenomenon referred to as the 'hook up' culture. The present study sought to address this issue by examining the effects of both relationship status and sexual activity on heavy episodic drinking (HED) among 1,467 college students over the course of their first three semesters. Results indicated that the effects of relationship status depended on whether or not an individual was sexually active. Non-dating but sexually active students reported rates of heavy drinking comparable to students who defined themselves as casual daters, but non-dating students who were not sexually active reported drinking behavior similar to those involved in committed relationships. Further, transitions between low and high risk relationship/sexual activity statuses were associated with corresponding changes in HED. Transitioning into a high risk status was associated with greater levels of heavy episodic drinking, whereas transitioning into a low risk status was associated with decreases in this behavior. Together, results indicate that engaging in nonexclusive dating or sexual relationships may play an important role in the development of problematic patterns of alcohol use during the early college years. These findings have potentially important implications both for future research and for prevention and intervention efforts targeting high risk college drinkers.

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2012