Matching Items (14)

Lessons Learned from the Halle Heart Museum: A Content Analysis of Student Letters

Description

The purpose of this study was to gain greater insight on the educational growth and experience of children who visit the Halle Heart Children's Museum, by analyzing and exploring student thank you letters received from 2011-2016. Of the major contributors

The purpose of this study was to gain greater insight on the educational growth and experience of children who visit the Halle Heart Children's Museum, by analyzing and exploring student thank you letters received from 2011-2016. Of the major contributors of cardiovascular disease taught in the museum, nutrition was discussed about most in the letters (42.6%). Children are able to learn about health related topics in museums, as evidenced by recall of topics and facts in student letters. Museums can be an influential and education experience for children, especially museums teaching about health related topics.

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2017-12

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Effects of a Lifestyle Intervention on Diabetes Risk in Latino Youth

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Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a community based

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity has disproportionately affected Latino youth. This increase in obesity is seen with an increased incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Objective/Hypothesis: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a community based lifestyle intervention, which encompassed nutrition education and physical activity, on diabetes risk in pre-diabetic Latino adolescents. Diabetes risk was assessed using pancreatic beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. It was hypothesized that reductions in added sugar intake and reductions in saturated fat intake will be associated with improved beta cell function as measured by proinsulin: insulin ratio. Study Design/Participants: In this quasi-experimental study design, n=17 pre-diabetic Latino adolescents between the ages of 14-16 participated in a lifestyle intervention. Methods: Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference, BMI) and body composition (body %) were determined for all participants at baseline and post intervention. Fasting proinsulin (PI), fasting insulin (I) and 2hr-OGTT were also determined. Dietary intake was measured using the Block Kids Food Screener for kids ages 2-17y (2007). The intervention consisted of nutrition education classes and physical activity sessions for 12 weeks. Results: We found significant decreases in body fat % following the intervention. There were no significant decreases in fasting insulin. Proinsulin significantly decreased. However we did no see a significant change in PI/I (p= 0.003). Dietary behaviors of added sugar (p=0.03) and saturated fat (p=0.04) showed significant decreases. No significant associations were found between changes in added sugar to improvements in beta cell function, r=0.072, p-value= 0.7. We also did not observe significant associations between reductions in saturated fat intake and improvements in beta cell function, r=0.152, p-value =0.6. Conclusions: We concluded that a 12-week lifestyle intervention resulted in significant changes in dietary behaviors. These changes were not however associated with improvements in beta cell function.

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2015-05

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Sustainability Practices of University Food Pantries in the US

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The objective of this study was to evaluate sustainability knowledge and practices in place at university-associated food pantries across the United States. A survey was sent to university- associated food pantries and responses were collected at a rate of 25%

The objective of this study was to evaluate sustainability knowledge and practices in place at university-associated food pantries across the United States. A survey was sent to university- associated food pantries and responses were collected at a rate of 25% (n=84 of 326) to assess the knowledge and practices of this topic. The pantries surveyed were chosen solely based on ability to contact through email (emails were retrieved from online sources) and about 50% of the 680 university-associated pantries in the United States were sent the survey. The data was analyzed by quantifying the qualitative responses to the 9 sustainability- rated questions addressing zero- waste practice, barriers to offering sustainably sourced foods, types of sustainable donations, desire for sustainable products, and client demand for sustainable products and practices were posed to pantries. Results from this study provided insight into awareness of sustainability in these pantries and also assessed what sustainability practices are already being practiced by these pantries. Among those surveyed, a low percentage of university-associated pantries actually provide sustainably sourced foods (9.5%), but given the choice about a third (38.1%) would choose to offer these foods. It was reported that availability and cost were perceived as main barriers to providing sustainably sourced foods and that a small proportion of pantries teach their clients about zero waste practices, compost, and recycling. There is little client concern about this issue. Most pantries reported recycling more often than composting and also reported participating in some zero-waste practices. These results are unique to this study as not much research has been done in this area to assess environmental sustainability awareness in university-associated food pantries. Further research is required to further evaluate pantries across the nation as this sample size is approximately 12% of all university- associated pantries in the United States.

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2019-05

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Are weight and diet related to the gut microbiome in healthy college students living in the dorms?: a cross-sectional observational analysis

Description

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring

College weight gain and obesity are significant problems impacting our society, leading to a considerable number of comorbidities during and after college. Gut microbiota are increasingly recognized for their role in obesity and weight gain. Currently, research exploring the gut microbiome and its associations with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is limited among this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between the gut microbiome, BMI, and dietary intake in a population of healthy college students living in two dorms at Arizona State University (n=90). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken including 24-hour dietary recalls and anthropometrics (height, weight and BMI). High throughput Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal samples was performed to quantify the gut microbiome and analyses were performed at phyla and family levels. Within this population, the mean BMI was 24.4 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and mean caloric intake was 1684 ± 947 kcals/day. Bacterial community analysis revealed that there were four predominant phyla and 12 predominant families accounting for 99.3% and 97.1% of overall microbial communities, respectively. Results of this study suggested that a significant association occurred between one principal component (impacted most by 22 microbial genera primarily within Firmicutes) and BMI (R2=0.053, p=0.0301). No significant correlations or group differences were observed when assessing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in relation to BMI or habitual dietary intake. These results provide a basis for gut microbiome research in college populations. Although, findings suggest that groups of microbial genera may be most influential in obesity, further longitudinal research is necessary to more accurately describe these associations over me. Findings from future research may be used to develop interventions to shift the gut microbiome to help moderate or prevent excess weight gain during this important life stage.

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Date Created
2016

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Associations between self-perception of health and diet, and awareness and use of calorie labeling

Description

The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

The increase in obesity since the 1980's has been associated with fast-food consumption. In hopes that calorie labeling will be an effective tool to combat obesity, congress included a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) that will require all restaurants with twenty or more locations to post calorie information for each menu item. Current research has provided mixed results regarding the effectiveness of calorie labeling, but overall seems to suggest that calorie labeling may only be effective among certain populations. In September, 2012 McDonald's began to post calorie labels on their menu boards before it was federally mandated under the ACA. This policy provided the opportunity to study the impact of calorie labeling on the purchasing behavior of McDonald's patrons. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine if self-perception of diet, self-perception of health, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, or knowledge of daily calorie requirements is associated with the likelihood of noticing or using calorie labels, or total calories purchased. In addition, relationships between noticing or using calorie labels with total calories purchased were also examined. Receipts and survey responses were collected from 330 participants who purchased food and beverage items from 27 different McDonald's locations within a 20 mile radius of downtown Phoenix, Arizona. Results indicated that only 16.1% of the sample reported using calorie labels, and those who reported using calorie labels purchased an average of 136 fewer calories. Multivariate analysis indicated there were no statistically significant relationships between self-perception of diet, self-perception of health, smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, or knowledge of daily calorie requirements with the likelihood of noticing or using calorie labels, or total calories purchased. However, it is possible that the small sample size of participants using calorie labeling precluded any statistically significant relationships among these variables from emerging. Further research with larger sample sizes should be conducted, to investigate individual level factors that may be associated with use of calorie labeling.

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Date Created
2013

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Applying MyPlate to procurement in food banks: implications for policy

Description

Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has incited the need for better nutritional control with regards to

Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has incited the need for better nutritional control with regards to procurement of inventory at food banks. The purpose of this research was to determine if procured inventory at United Food Bank in Mesa, Arizona could meet minimum MyPlate recommendations for a typical food bank client and what implications the results could have for future policy. Inventory data was obtained from United Food Bank for fiscal year 2013-2014 and analyzed utilizing the MyPlate Analysis Program to determine contributions of each food category to MyPlate recommendations. Inventory was separated by MyPlate food category and analyzed to determine contribution towards a meal built around MyPlate recommendations. Results showed that the inventory could meet the minimum requirements for protein and grains for a family of four for at least three days, the amount of time an emergency food box is designed to last. On the contrary, the inventory did not meet minimum vegetable, fruit or dairy requirements. These results indicate that typical food bank inventory does not meet USDA MyPlate recommendations and that having nutritional policy in place could potentially drive donations and purchases to enhance the nutritional quality of future food bank inventory.

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2015

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Measuring the effects of a school and community-based dietary change intervention on the home food environment among parents with school-aged children

Description

Availability and accessibility of foods in the home influence dietary behaviors. However, much of the literature involving measurement of the home food environment (HFE) has examined only self-reported data, and home food inventory tools have not been used to assess

Availability and accessibility of foods in the home influence dietary behaviors. However, much of the literature involving measurement of the home food environment (HFE) has examined only self-reported data, and home food inventory tools have not been used to assess behavior change intervention efficacy. Thus, this quasi-experimental study was conducted to test the preliminary efficacy of a 10-week dietary behavioral intervention on the HFE, measured through the presence of fruits, vegetables, and sources of sugars in the household. Participants included 23 parents (21 females; age=36±5.5) of children 6-11 years old living in an ethnically diverse community within a Southwestern metropolitan area. Sociodemographic information was collected at baseline using a survey. A modified version of the Home Food Inventory was completed in the homes of participants by trained research assistants at baseline and following termination of the intervention. Relative to baseline, the intervention resulted in significant increases in availability of different types of fruits (7.7±3.2 vs. 9.4±3.1; p=0.004) and high fiber/low sugar cereal (2.3±1.4 vs. 2.7±1.4; p=0.033). There was a significant reduction in availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (3.2±1.9 vs. 1.7±1.3; p=0.004), and an increase in the number of households with accessible 100% fruit juice (3 vs. 17 households; p=0.001) and bottled/contained water (9 vs. 22 households; p<0.001). Moreover, there were meaningful changes in the number of households with accessible chocolate milk (7 vs. 0), strawberry milk (3 vs. 0), and diet soda pop (2 vs. 0). There was a significant increase in the number of households with accessible ready-to-eat vegetables (8 vs. 19 households; p=0.007), and ready-to-eat fruit (8 vs. 17; p=0.022), and a significant reduction in available prepared desserts (3.0±2.0 vs. 1.7±1.3; p=0.005), and candy (2.0±1.7 vs. 0.6±0.7; p<0.001). There were no significant changes in availability of vegetables and sugar-laden cereals, or accessibility of fresh fruit, fresh vegetables, dry cereal, candy, soda pop, desserts, and sports/fruit drinks. Overall, results suggest that the current dietary behavior change intervention resulted in positive changes in the HFE. Further research to confirm these results in a randomized controlled trial is warranted.

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Date Created
2015

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Cut vs Whole Fruit and Vegetable Selection, Consumption, and Waste in K12 School Lunch

Description

Objective: Increasing fruit/vegetable (FV) consumption and decreasing waste during the school lunch is a public health priority. Understanding how serving style of FV impacts FV consumption and waste may be an effective means to changing nutrition behaviors in schools. This

Objective: Increasing fruit/vegetable (FV) consumption and decreasing waste during the school lunch is a public health priority. Understanding how serving style of FV impacts FV consumption and waste may be an effective means to changing nutrition behaviors in schools. This study examined whether students were more likely to select, consume, and waste FV when FVs were cut vs. whole. Methods: Baseline data from the ASU School Lunch Study was used to explore associations between cut vs. whole FV serving style and objectively measured FV selection, consumption, and waste and grade level interactions among a random selection of students (n=6804; 47.8% female; 78.8% BIPOC) attending Arizona elementary, middle, and high schools (N=37). Negative binomial regression models evaluated serving style on FV weight (grams) selected, consumed, and wasted, adjusted for sociodemographics and school.
Results: Students were more likely to select cut FVs (IRR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) and waste cut FVs (IRR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.39); however, no differences were observed in the overall consumption of cut vs. whole FVs. Grade-level interactions impacted students’ selection of FVs. Middle school students had a significantly higher effect modification for the selection of cut FVs (IRR=1.18; p=0.006) compared to high school and elementary students. Further, high school students had a significantly lower effect modification for the selection of cut FVs (IRR=0.83; p=0.010) compared to middle and elementary students. No other grade-level interactions were observed.
Discussion: Serving style of FV may impact how much FV is selected and wasted, but further research is needed to determine causality between these variables.

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2021

The Associations of Romantic Relationships, Eating Out Habits, and Alcohol Consumption in College Freshman Over Time

Description

Background: While a growing body of literature acknowledges the role that close relationships have on nutrition outcomes, little research has assessed how significant others impact health during youth. This study assessed how being in a relationship during freshman year is

Background: While a growing body of literature acknowledges the role that close relationships have on nutrition outcomes, little research has assessed how significant others impact health during youth. This study assessed how being in a relationship during freshman year is associated with fast food consumption, restaurant meals, and alcohol intake.Methods: The current study is a secondary analysis from SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College), a longitudinal study of nutrition and weight outcomes among college freshman. Participants (n=535; 73% female; 50% non-white) completed web-based surveys during the 2015-2016 academic year at two different time points: August 2015 (Time 1) and November 2015 (Time 2). Mixed generalized logistic regression, adjusted for participant sociodemographic and clustering of students within residence halls, examined the association between fast food consumption, restaurant meals, and alcohol intake at Time 2, after controlling for Time 1 relationship status and Time 1 eating out, and alcohol intake.
Results: At Time 1, 34% of participants were in a relationship, 23% of participants reported fast food consumption >2 days/week and 31% reported restaurant meals >1 day/week, and 43% reported weekly alcohol intake. Participants in a relationship at Time 1 were significantly more likely to eat in a restaurant at Time 2, after controlling for Time 1 restaurant use (OR= 1.78, p=0.009). No association was observed with relationship status and fast food consumption (OR=1.36, p=0.226), or alcohol consumption (OR=0.67, p=0.096).
Conclusions: Findings suggest romantic relationships are associated with greater restaurant use in college freshman, but none of the other assessed behaviors. Future research is needed to assess the extent to which being in a relationship influences eating behavior among college freshman, and how it may relate to weight changes.

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Date Created
2021

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Lay theories of healthy eating: insights from cross-cultural comparisons

Description

Lay theories of healthy eating are a potentially important consideration for public health and nutrition efforts as perceptions and beliefs about “healthiness” are key determinants of dietary choices (Furst et al. 1996; Grunert, 2007). A rich body of social science

Lay theories of healthy eating are a potentially important consideration for public health and nutrition efforts as perceptions and beliefs about “healthiness” are key determinants of dietary choices (Furst et al. 1996; Grunert, 2007). A rich body of social science literature has examined how people across cultures decide what counts as healthy eating, yet such work has focused mainly on what people think is good and bad to consume, overlooking another important aspect- how one eats. The ways one eats can include patterns and timing of meal intake, as well as mental and emotional states during eating (henceforth, “eating styles”). This dissertation aims to 1) examine whether beliefs on eating styles constitute a separate category of healthy eating perceptions, 2) describe American and Eastern European lay models of how both food characteristics and styles of eating shape health outcomes, and 2) investigate cross-cultural variation in the endorsement of eating styles as important for health in the United States and Eastern Europe. Aims 1 and 2 use pile sorts (n=48), in-person interviews (n=49), and online surveys (n=283) to elicit subjective perspectives on how different eating considerations impact health, and aim 3 involves two sets of questionnaires collected in the U.S. (n=50; n=42) and Eastern Europe (n=42; n=35) to test the hypothesis that levels of collectivism influence variation in endorsement of eating styles for health. Results demonstrate that “eating styles” is a separate category of beliefs in people’s models of healthy eating and individuals in both cultures perceive a variety of important health outcomes from how one eats- weight management, energy levels, digestive health, and overall feeling of wellbeing. These perceptions are not uniform, as participants held contrasting models of how styles of food consumption can influence weight control, and Eastern European respondents held additional views on how aspects of food timing can affect long-term health. Finally, results show that individual level of collectivism, not differences in nationality, accounts for variation in endorsement of eating styles for health. These results suggest that the holistic pattern of attention characteristic of the collectivist social orientation extends to the domain of diet.

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2017