Matching Items (4)

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The validation study of the Persistent Academic Possible Selves Scale for Adolescents

Description

Possible selves researchers have uncovered many issues associated with the current possible selves measures. For instance, one of the most famous possible selves measures, Oyserman (2004)'s open-ended possible selves, has proven to be difficult to score reliably and also involves

Possible selves researchers have uncovered many issues associated with the current possible selves measures. For instance, one of the most famous possible selves measures, Oyserman (2004)'s open-ended possible selves, has proven to be difficult to score reliably and also involves laborious scoring procedures. Therefore, this study was initiated to develop a close-ended measure, called the Persistent Academic Possible Selves Scale for Adolescents (PAPSS), that meets these challenges. The PAPSS integrates possible selves theories (personal and social identities) and educational psychology (self-regulation in social cognitive theory). Four hundred and ninety five junior high and high school students participated in the validation study of the PAPSS. I conducted confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to compare fit for a baseline model to the hypothesized models using Mplus version 7 (Muthén & Muthén, 2012). A weighted least square means and a variance adjusted (WLSMV) estimation method was used for handling multivariate nonnormality of ordered categorical data. The final PAPSS has validity evidence based on the internal structure. The factor structure is composed of three goal-driven factors, one self-regulated factor that focuses on peers, and four self-regulated factors that emphasize the self. Oyserman (2004)'s open-ended questionnaire was used for exploring the evidence of convergent validity. Many issues regarding Oyserman (2003)'s instructions were found during the coding process of academic plausibility. It was complicated to detect hidden academic possible selves and strategies from non-academic possible selves and strategies. Also, interpersonal related strategies were over weighted in the scoring process compared to interpersonal related academic possible selves. The study results uncovered that all of the academic goal-related factors in the PAPSS are significantly related to academic plausibility in a positive direction. However, self-regulated factors in the PAPSS are not. The correlation results between the self-regulated factors and academic plausibility do not provide the evidence of convergent validity. Theoretical and methodological explanations for the test results are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Explicit teaching of the nature of science: a study of the impact of two variations of explicit instruction on student learning

Description

The nature of science (NOS) is included in the National Science Education Standards and is described as a critical component in the development of scientifically literate students. Despite the significance of NOS in science education reform, research shows that many

The nature of science (NOS) is included in the National Science Education Standards and is described as a critical component in the development of scientifically literate students. Despite the significance of NOS in science education reform, research shows that many students continue to possess naïve views of NOS. Explicit and reflective discussion as an instructional approach is relatively new in the field of research in NOS. When compared to other approaches, explicit instruction has been identified as more effective in promoting informed views of NOS, but gaps in student understanding still exist. The purpose of this study was to deepen the understanding of student learning of NOS through the investigation of two variations of explicit instruction. The subjects of the study were two seventh grade classes taught by the same classroom teacher. One class received explicit instruction of NOS within a plate tectonics unit and the second class received explicit instruction of NOS within a plate tectonics unit plus supporting activities focused on specific aspects of NOS. The instruction time for both classes was equalized and took place over a three week time period. The intention of this study was to see if the additional NOS activities helped students build a deeper understanding of NOS, or if a deep understanding could be formed solely through explicit and reflective discussion within content instruction. The results of the study showed that both classes progressed in their understanding of NOS. When the results of the two groups were compared, the group with the additional activities showed statistically significant gains on two of the four aspects of NOS assessed. These results suggest that the activities may have been valuable in promoting informed views, but more research is needed in this area.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Student conceptions of the nature of science

Description

ABSTRACT Research has shown that students from elementary school to college have major misconceptions about the nature of science. While an appropriate understanding of the nature of science has been an objective of science education for a century, researchers using

ABSTRACT Research has shown that students from elementary school to college have major misconceptions about the nature of science. While an appropriate understanding of the nature of science has been an objective of science education for a century, researchers using a variety of instruments, continue to document students' inadequate conceptions of what science is and how it operates as an enterprise. Current research involves methods to improve student understanding of the nature of science. Students often misunderstand the creative, subjective, empirical, and tentative nature of science. They do not realize the relationship between laws and theories, nor do they understand that science does not follow a prescribed method. Many do not appreciate the influence culture, society, and politics; nor do they have an accurate understanding of the types of questions addressed by science. This study looks at student understanding of key nature of science (NOS) concepts in order to examine the impact of implementing activities intended to help students better understand the process of science and to see if discussion of key NOS concepts following those activities will result in greater gains in NOS understanding. One class received an "activities only" treatment, while the other participated in the same activities followed by explicit discussion of key NOS themes relating to the activity. The interventions were implemented for one school year in two high school anatomy and physiology courses composed of juniors and seniors. Student views of the nature of science were measured using the Views of the Nature of Science - Form C (VNOS-C). Students in both classes demonstrated significant gains in NOS understanding. However, contrary to current research, the addition of explicit discussion did not result in significantly greater gains in NOS understanding. This suggests that perhaps students in higher-level science classes can draw the correlations between NOS related activities and important aspects of "real" science. Or perhaps that a curriculum with a varied approach my expose students to more aspects of science thus improving their NOS understanding.

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Created

Date Created
2010

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Sub-par attributions: why women give up golf

Description

In the United States, recreational female golfers give up golf at twice the rate of recreational male golfers. This study explored the causal attributions of 240 recreational golfers after a practice session at a public golf facility. Attributions can be

In the United States, recreational female golfers give up golf at twice the rate of recreational male golfers. This study explored the causal attributions of 240 recreational golfers after a practice session at a public golf facility. Attributions can be adaptive or maladaptive after a performance and can influence subsequent motivation to engage in a similar task again. It was hypothesized that male and female golfers would make significantly different attributions for their performance and that female golfers' attributions would be maladaptive. As the attrition rate for female golfers is highest in the first five years, it is also hypothesized that women's attributions will become more adaptive over time and that attributions will be moderated by the number of years playing golf and perceived level of success. A survey was used to measure golfers' attributions and general questions provided data for the number of years playing golf and gender. The subscales in the attribution survey were internal control, external control and stability. Attributions are adaptive or maladaptive depending on the level of perceived success, so success of the practice performance was collected. The hypothesis that recreational female golfers make significantly different attributions than recreational male golfers was supported only by the external control sub-scale. Female golfers perceived their performance as significantly less successful than male golfers. Considering this perception of success, women golfers' attributions were maladaptive. The hypothesis that women golfers' attributions become more adaptive over time was supported. Time playing golf predicted a significant amount of variance for internal attributions of female golfers. However, the hypothesis that attributions will be moderated by the number of years playing golf and perceived success was not supported.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2010