Matching Items (11)

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Operation Recreation: Enhancing Program Delivery to Boy Scouts

Description

This Honors Thesis evaluates a recreation program entitled Operation Recreation that was implemented at Camp Raymond, a Boy Scout Camp in Northern Arizona. The mission of Operation Recreation is to

This Honors Thesis evaluates a recreation program entitled Operation Recreation that was implemented at Camp Raymond, a Boy Scout Camp in Northern Arizona. The mission of Operation Recreation is to enhance each Scout's knowledge and passion for the Scouting Ideals, Patrol, and Personal Growth Methods of Scouting. Data were collected to evaluate Operation Recreation and measure whether the two program goals were met. The program development cycle was used to design Operation Recreation to meet the unique programming needs of Camp Raymond. Operation Recreation is a week-long recreation program that gives Scouts the opportunity to participate in activities that develop their knowledge of the Scouting Ideals, encourage an increase in engagement of the personal growth method, and create a time devoted to practicing the patrol method. Analysis of evaluation results was conducted and suggestions for modifications are made.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

Sustainable communities: through the lens of Cherokee youth

Description

This study argues for Indigenous-led community development as a salient field of study whereby both theory and practice would be held to the goals of decolonizing entrenched systems that suppress

This study argues for Indigenous-led community development as a salient field of study whereby both theory and practice would be held to the goals of decolonizing entrenched systems that suppress indigeneity, as well as embodying processes to rediscover, regain, and reimage aspects integral to Indigenous well-being and sustainability. Building on fieldwork with Cherokee youth in Stilwell, OK using community mapping and photovoice methods, it is argued that holistic and culturally relevant frameworks that fully situate such salient factors are needed when examining topics related to sustainability, well-being, and resurgence in Native American communities. Utilizing youth narratives, the study proposes a starting point for a Cherokee-led community development framework.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Small business participation in sustainable tourism certification: internal and external influences

Description

As the number of travelers around the world grows, the importance of managing tourism destinations in a sustainable manner becomes increasingly important. Sustainable tourism has long been discussed as necessary

As the number of travelers around the world grows, the importance of managing tourism destinations in a sustainable manner becomes increasingly important. Sustainable tourism has long been discussed as necessary for managing tourism responsibly, yet adoption of sustainable strategies and operationalization has been slow. Initiatives and programs often focus on environmental components of sustainability and the role of large companies. Certification programs are one way in which destinations are operationalizing community-wide sustainable tourism and small businesses are engaging in sustainability initiatives and recognition.

Using social cognitive theory as the research framework, this study examined internal and external motives and their influence on small business participation in sustainable tourism certification and sustainability practices. Incentives for behavior, modeling of other businesses, company values, and self-efficacy were examined as motives and barriers. Regression analysis and independent samples t-tests were used to examine statistical relationships.

This study partnered with the Alaska Travel Industry Association (ATIA) to study businesses that hold Adventure Green Alaska sustainable tourism certification or are viewed as prospects for certification. From a list of 77, 44 Alaska tourism businesses responded to an online questionnaire to participate in this study. Businesses were categorized into those with certification (n = 31) and those without (n=13). Results indicated participation in sustainability practices to be higher among certified businesses than non-certified. Internal motives indicated to be more significant than external motives for participation in sustainable practices and certification. Company values were of high importance to both certified and non-certified businesses in implementing sustainable practices and certification. Consumer interest and marketing benefits were important incentives for participation in sustainability strategies. These findings have implications for tourism industry associations and organizations interested in the operationalization and development of sustainable tourism. This study is expected to aid in marketing and retention efforts for sustainable tourism certification programs, as well as future direction for development of sustainable tourism certification.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Identifying barriers to field based environmental education in K-8 public elementary schools in Arizona

Description

The purpose of this case study was to explore the barriers, or constraints, to the integration of field-based environmental education (EE) programs in K-8 public elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona.

The purpose of this case study was to explore the barriers, or constraints, to the integration of field-based environmental education (EE) programs in K-8 public elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona. Research continues to show that field based EE programs improve student outcomes (Bartosh, Tudor, Ferguson, & Taylor, 2006; Cole, 2007; James and Williams, 2017). Despite the empirical evidence, there appear to be obstacles to integrating field based EE into school curriculum. This study used Hierarchical Leisure Constraints Theory (HLCT) to identify and understand these constraints. There were 22 focus group participants and 13 interviewees from ten different schools and five school districts within the Phoenix area. Looking at the constraints identified by all participants, funding and the availability of transportation play a major role barring the use of field based EE programming. However, when applying HLCT, both of these barriers are structural in nature. This means these are constraints beyond the control of the individual but are negotiable. According to HLCT, you must first understand intrapersonal and interpersonal constraints and the effect they have on overcoming barriers. This study found that perception and prior knowledge emerged as the root of most constraints. In other words, while structural constraints are named as the primary issue in integrating field based EE in public schools, this study concludes from the findings that human nature and human values influence whether teachers and administrators participate in field based programming with their students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Exploring Destination Social Carrying Capacity Through the Lens of Community Residents

Description

Social Carrying Capacity (SCC) has been used commonly in the past to study the impact of increasing numbers of tourists on tourists’ satisfaction with a destination. However, it has been

Social Carrying Capacity (SCC) has been used commonly in the past to study the impact of increasing numbers of tourists on tourists’ satisfaction with a destination. However, it has been used less commonly to research the impact of increasing levels of tourism on residents of tourism destinations. As definitions of sustainable tourism shift to be more inclusive of residents, commonly used constructs should also be refined or modified to reflect this ontological shift. Current operational definitions of SCC tend to focus on crowding as the major indicator SCC has been reached. Even the theories commonly used to study SCC, stimulus-overload and expectancy theories, relate directly to crowding. This Master’s thesis aimed to expand the concept of SCC to be more representative of the manifold impacts experienced by residents of tourism destinations as tourism increases. This aim was accomplished through an exploratory mixed methods study ultimately resulting in the creation of a new SCC measurement tool.

The qualitative phase of this research consisted of four focus groups in three sites with varying levels of tourism development. The data from the focus groups were used to inform item writing of a measurement tool that represented a greater number of SCC indicators than crowding to confirm the validity of the indicators in the quantitative phase of the research. After the instrument was distributed via a statewide poll, two structural equation models were fit to compare the operational definitions. A better understanding of the relationship between one of the supporting theories, stimulus-overload theory, and SCC was uncovered with evidence of an emergent connection between SCC and tourism-related stressors.

The results of the research indicate that there are multiple indicators of SCC experienced by residents of tourism destinations which can change in degree and expression as tourism development in a community increases. The operational definition including these indicators explained more variance in support for tourism development than overcrowding alone. A greater awareness of these indicators and their evolution can strengthen the theoretical foundation of SCC and enable practitioners to make multi-faceted, proactive decisions when managing a destination.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Perceptions of international tourism destinations

Description

Destination image has been explored by studying various aspects of the process of forming a perception about an area and choosing to visit or not. This study uses a variety

Destination image has been explored by studying various aspects of the process of forming a perception about an area and choosing to visit or not. This study uses a variety of theories from previous research which has focused on subsets of factors which influence the overall process to create a model to organize the perception formation and decision making progress into one continuous and interrelated progression. Online questionnaires using Likert scale statements and questions were distributed to participants through Facebook in order to measure and test the model. A total of 266 questionnaires were completed and analyzed using t test, ANOVA, regression, factor analysis, and cluster analysis. The original model from the beginning of the study transformed with the removal of some variables and the alteration of others. The factors that were shown to influence perception of the destination were tourist type and knowledge of the country. Tourists who were more likely to seek new environments and had a higher level of knowledge of the country used in the marketing video had a better perception of the destination before and after the video. Obstacles for deciding to visit the destination were found to be long distances traveling and substitution of alternative destinations. The results show that marketing videos do create a positive change in the perception of the destination, but this alone is not likely enough to influence the decision to visit the destination. Marketing agencies should consider more ways of informing consumers of the destination in addition to commercials so that overall knowledge of the area can be improved. In addition, marketing agencies should target consumers that are interested in visiting new environments by using travel magazine subscriptions, international airline agencies and hotels, and social media groups.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Perceived impacts of volunteer tourism in favela communities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Description

This phenomenological qualitative study examines the experiences of volunteer tourism on host communities using social representations theory. The experiences of three stakeholder-groups (community residents, volunteers, and nongovernmental organizations) are considered.

This phenomenological qualitative study examines the experiences of volunteer tourism on host communities using social representations theory. The experiences of three stakeholder-groups (community residents, volunteers, and nongovernmental organizations) are considered. Overall objectives of this project are to investigate the following questions: a) what are the effects of volunteer tourism on a community as perceived by different stakeholders; b) what effects do volunteer tourists have on the community compared to other forms of tourism as perceived by different stakeholders; c) how do the various stakeholders perceive the different forms of tourism in communities in which they live or work; and d) why and how do nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) use volunteer tourism as a strategy for their projects. This study attempts to describe and interpret these meanings with a high degree of depth and richness using interviews, observation, and document analysis. Each chapter is written as a stand-alone paper to be published in a journal and describes the perspectives of the three groups interviewed with the final chapter a summary and comparison from all three groups. Findings show that there are both positive and negative impacts of volunteer tourism in favela communities, with the majority of the three groups expressing its positives and its importance to the community. All groups mentioned similar positive and negative elements of volunteer tourism with some elements that were unique to each group. This study also attempted to compare and contrast the differences between volunteer tourism and favela tours. The findings show that volunteer tourism helps recreate the social representations of the favela thereby improving self-esteem in the community, helps breakdown preconceptions, and helps create community pride. The community feels as equals with the volunteers and describes the interactions as friendships, sharing cultural experiences, and exchanging of knowledge. Conversely, all three groups described favela tours as dehumanizing using words like `safari tour' or `zoo tour' and felt that their community was being sold as a commodity. However, the interviews showed that all three groups, although had strong opinions about the ethical implications of favela tours, still felt conflicted when comparing it with some of the potential social and economic benefits that it may bring.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Enlightened travelers?: cultural attitudes, cultural competency and study abroad

Description

In this study the impact of outside the classroom activities and experiences of study abroad participants on cultural attitude change and perceived cultural competence was investigated. Motives to participate, expectations

In this study the impact of outside the classroom activities and experiences of study abroad participants on cultural attitude change and perceived cultural competence was investigated. Motives to participate, expectations and outcomes of study abroad programs were also explored. The study used a mixed methods approach and was conducted in three parts including an exploratory sequential component followed by a concurrent embedded component. The exploratory sequential component included a photo elicitation project, the results of which contributed both to the results of the study and the development of the questionnaire used in the concurrent embedded component. The concurrent embedded component used a pre and post-test survey design and included a qualitative writing exercise with select participants between the completion of their pre and post-test questionnaires. The results suggest that study abroad participation does result in changes in both participants' cultural attitudes and cultural competency. It was hypothesized that length of time abroad and the cultural distance of the host country would have an influence on the change in cultural attitudes and cultural competency. As found in previous research, length of time abroad was not found to be a major contributing factor to this change when considering the results of the pre and post-test survey. However, the results of the qualitative studies resulted in many questions about the impact of length abroad. Participants in longer-term programs discussed changes in their cultural attitudes in a more complex way than short-term participants. Longer-term participants expressed changes in their cultural competency differently as well, though not in a way that it can be conclusively said they were more culturally competent. The reverse was the case for cultural distance. Cultural distance was a factor in the changes in cultural competency, however not in cultural attitudes when considering the results of the quantitative component. The qualitative results seem to bring up more questions. While shorter-term participants discussed cultural competency differently than longer-term participants, surprisingly the short-term programs had a higher percentage of participants studying in countries with large cultural distance than did long-term programs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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A comparison of two approaches to measuring brand equity in the hotel industry

Description

Branding and brand management have been top management priorities in the hotel industry. Some researchers have concluded that strong branding would be an efficient way for hotels and hotel chains

Branding and brand management have been top management priorities in the hotel industry. Some researchers have concluded that strong branding would be an efficient way for hotels and hotel chains to differentiate themselves from each other. Recent studies have focused on the establishment of a brand equity model and the relevant causal relationships of the model. Most of these studies have used types of desirability scales examining the importance of individual factors in measuring brand equity. However, they ignore the trade-offs that affect and characterize choice. Particularly, the personal decision process implied by the hierarchical brand equity model is absent. This study proposed two alternative measures of brand equity, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and conjoint analysis (CA), to address these limitations. The AHP and the CA were compared using several validity measures to aid in selecting efficient methods. This study examined the validity of AHP and CA under two data collection methods applied to hotel branding: paper-based survey and online survey. Result showed that the AHP data collection methods were easier, as well as with respect to saving time and costs. Results also indicated that the AHP is equivalent to the CA with respect to predictive accuracy. Practical differences for hotel branding in attribute preferences were clearly observed between the AHP and the CA. The AHP results were consistent with previous studies by awarding high importance to perceived quality and brand loyalty and lower importance to brand awareness and brand image. Managerial implications were provided for results. In terms of practicality in data collection, the study results revealed that the data gathered online leads to a slightly lower internal and predictive validity. A limitation of this study was that the two methods were not perfectly comparable. Nevertheless, the validity of both AHP and CA seems satisfactory for both methods. The study results also offer useful perspectives to consider when choosing between the two methods, as well as between AHP and CA.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Is whale watching a win-win for people and nature?: an analysis of the economic, environmental, and social impacts of whale watching in the Caribbean

Description

Whale watching has been hailed by environmental non-governmental organizations like Greenpeace and the International Fund for Animal Welfare as a responsible form of tourism that has the potential to enhance

Whale watching has been hailed by environmental non-governmental organizations like Greenpeace and the International Fund for Animal Welfare as a responsible form of tourism that has the potential to enhance conservation outcomes for cetaceans, while also supporting the economic development of coastal communities. Tourism research suggests that while it is possible for whale watching to provide these benefits, it may also have considerable costs to members of host communities and cetaceans. My dissertation sought to gather data on the economic, ecological, and social impacts of whale watching in the Caribbean in order to evaluate the industry's performance in the region. My project thus took the form of three sub-projects. The first used an ordinary least squares analysis to examine the relationship between Caribbean country characteristics and whale watching expenditures. This analysis showed that a country's level of development changes the strength of correlations, that mass tourism development is negatively associated with whale watching profits, and that cetacean biodiversity and whale watching regulations designed to protect cetaceans both had positive relationships with the whale watching industry. In the second sub-project, I developed an index of Caribbean cetacean vulnerability to the negative impacts of whale watching with a traditional literature review informed by systematic methods. The index illustrated that both target and non-target species had vulnerabilities, and that regulations addressing these issues in the Caribbean were lacking overall. Considerable gaps in data were also identified. Finally, I used qualitative interviews in Dominica and the Dominican Republic to gather information on resident perceptions of whale watching. This analysis revealed overall positive perceptions of the industry in both countries, but also uncovered considerable levels of social conflict surrounding whale watching. Taken together, the results of my study suggest that better regulatory structures, investment in the local community, and efforts to maximize cooperation are needed in order for the Caribbean whale watch industry to better serve local communities, while mitigating its impacts on cetaceans.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017