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Feature Adaptive Ray Tracing of Subdivision Surfaces

Description

Subdivision surfaces have gained more and more traction since it became the standard surface representation in the movie industry for many years. And Catmull-Clark subdivision scheme is the most popular one for handling polygonal meshes. After its introduction, Catmull-Clark surfaces

Subdivision surfaces have gained more and more traction since it became the standard surface representation in the movie industry for many years. And Catmull-Clark subdivision scheme is the most popular one for handling polygonal meshes. After its introduction, Catmull-Clark surfaces have been extended to several eminent ways, including the handling of boundaries, infinitely sharp creases, semi-sharp creases, and hierarchically defined detail. For ray tracing of subdivision surfaces, a common way is to construct spatial bounding volume hierarchies on top of input control mesh. However, a high-level refined subdivision surface not only requires a substantial amount of memory storage, but also causes slow and inefficient ray tracing. In this thesis, it presents a new way to improve the efficiency of ray tracing of subdivision surfaces, while the quality is not as good as general methods.

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Date Created
2017

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Ensemble Learning on Deep Neural Networks for Image Caption Generation

Description

Capturing the information in an image into a natural language sentence is

considered a difficult problem to be solved by computers. Image captioning involves not just detecting objects from images but understanding the interactions between the objects to be translated into

Capturing the information in an image into a natural language sentence is

considered a difficult problem to be solved by computers. Image captioning involves not just detecting objects from images but understanding the interactions between the objects to be translated into relevant captions. So, expertise in the fields of computer vision paired with natural language processing are supposed to be crucial for this purpose. The sequence to sequence modelling strategy of deep neural networks is the traditional approach to generate a sequential list of words which are combined to represent the image. But these models suffer from the problem of high variance by not being able to generalize well on the training data.

The main focus of this thesis is to reduce the variance factor which will help in generating better captions. To achieve this, Ensemble Learning techniques have been explored, which have the reputation of solving the high variance problem that occurs in machine learning algorithms. Three different ensemble techniques namely, k-fold ensemble, bootstrap aggregation ensemble and boosting ensemble have been evaluated in this thesis. For each of these techniques, three output combination approaches have been analyzed. Extensive experiments have been conducted on the Flickr8k dataset which has a collection of 8000 images and 5 different captions for every image. The bleu score performance metric, which is considered to be the standard for evaluating natural language processing (NLP) problems, is used to evaluate the predictions. Based on this metric, the analysis shows that ensemble learning performs significantly better and generates more meaningful captions compared to any of the individual models used.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Modeling and Design Analysis of Facial Expressions of Humanoid Social Robots Using Deep Learning Techniques

Description

A lot of research can be seen in the field of social robotics that majorly concentrate on various aspects of social robots including design of mechanical parts and their move- ment, cognitive speech and face recognition capabilities. Several robots have

A lot of research can be seen in the field of social robotics that majorly concentrate on various aspects of social robots including design of mechanical parts and their move- ment, cognitive speech and face recognition capabilities. Several robots have been developed with the intention of being social, like humans, without much emphasis on how human-like they actually look, in terms of expressions and behavior. Fur- thermore, a substantial disparity can be seen in the success of results of any research involving ”humanizing” the robots’ behavior, or making it behave more human-like as opposed to research into biped movement, movement of individual body parts like arms, fingers, eyeballs, or human-like appearance itself. The research in this paper in- volves understanding why the research on facial expressions of social humanoid robots fails where it is not accepted completely in the current society owing to the uncanny valley theory. This paper identifies the problem with the current facial expression research as information retrieval problem. This paper identifies the current research method in the design of facial expressions of social robots, followed by using deep learning as similarity evaluation technique to measure the humanness of the facial ex- pressions developed from the current technique and further suggests a novel solution to the facial expression design of humanoids using deep learning.

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Date Created
2017

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SA128 - A Smart Data Compression Technique for Columnar Databases Based on Characteristics of Data

Description

Traditionally, databases have been categorized as either row-oriented or column-oriented databases. Row-oriented databases store each row of the table’s data contiguously onto the disk whereas column-oriented databases store each column’s data contiguously onto the disk. In recent years, columnar database

Traditionally, databases have been categorized as either row-oriented or column-oriented databases. Row-oriented databases store each row of the table’s data contiguously onto the disk whereas column-oriented databases store each column’s data contiguously onto the disk. In recent years, columnar database management systems are becoming increasingly popular because deep and narrow queries are faster on them. Hence, column-oriented databases are highly optimized to be used with analytical (OLAP) workloads (Mike Freedman 2019). That is why they are very frequently used in business intelligence (BI), data warehouses, etc., which involve working with large data sets, intensive queries and aggregated computing. As the size of data keeps growing, efficient compression of data becomes an important consideration for these databases to optimize storage as well as improve query performance. Since column-oriented databases store data of the same data type contiguously, most modern compression techniques provide better compression ratios as compared to row-oriented databases. This thesis introduces a new compression technique called SA128 for column-oriented databases that performs a column-wise compression of database tables. SA128 is a multi-stage compression technique which performs a column-wise compression followed by a table-wide compression of database tables. In the first stage, SA128 performs an analysis based on the characteristics of data (such as data type and distribution) and determines which combination of lossless compression algorithms would result in the best compression ratio. In the second phase, SA128 uses an entropy encoding technique such as rANS (Duda, J., 2013) to further improve the compression ratio.

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Date Created
2021

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Next-Generation Smart Cars: Towards a More Intelligent Interactive Infotainment System

Description

Today, in a world of automation, the impact of Artificial Intelligence can be seen in every aspect of our lives. Starting from smart homes to self-driving cars everything is run using intelligent, adaptive technologies. In this thesis, an attempt is

Today, in a world of automation, the impact of Artificial Intelligence can be seen in every aspect of our lives. Starting from smart homes to self-driving cars everything is run using intelligent, adaptive technologies. In this thesis, an attempt is made to analyze the correlation between driving quality and its impact on the use of car infotainment system and vice versa and hence the driver distraction. Various internal and external driving factors have been identified to understand the dependency and seriousness of driver distraction caused due to the car infotainment system. We have seen a number UI/UX changes, speech recognition advancements in cars to reduce distraction. But reducing the number of casualties on road is still a persisting problem in hand as the cognitive load on the driver is considered to be one of the primary reasons for distractions leading to casualties. In this research, a pathway has been provided to move towards building an artificially intelligent, adaptive and interactive infotainment which is trained to behave differently by analyzing the driving quality without the intervention of the driver. The aim is to not only shift focus of the driver from screen to street view, but to also change the inherent behavior of the infotainment system based on the driving statistics at that point in time without the need for driver intervention.

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Date Created
2017

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A comparative analysis of graph vs relational database for instructional module development system

Description

In today's data-driven world, every datum is connected to a large amount of data. Relational databases have been proving itself a pioneer in the field of data storage and manipulation since 1970s. But more recently they have been challenged by

In today's data-driven world, every datum is connected to a large amount of data. Relational databases have been proving itself a pioneer in the field of data storage and manipulation since 1970s. But more recently they have been challenged by NoSQL graph databases in handling data models which have an inherent graphical representation. Graph databases with the ability to store physical relationships between two nodes and native graph processing technique have been doing exceptionally well in graph data storage and management for applications like recommendation engines, biological modeling, network modeling, social media applications, etc.

Instructional Module Development System (IMODS) is a web-based software system that guides STEM instructors through the complex task of curriculum design, ensures tight alignment between various components of a course (i.e., learning objectives, content, assessments), and provides relevant information about research-based pedagogical and assessment strategies. The data model of IMODS is highly connected and has an inherent graphical representation between all its entities with numerous relationships between them. This thesis focuses on developing an algorithm to determine completeness of course design developed using IMODS. As part of this research objective, the study also analyzes the data model for best fit database to run these algorithms. As part of this thesis, two separate applications abstracting the data model of IMODS have been developed - one with Neo4j (graph database) and another with PostgreSQL (relational database). The research objectives of the thesis are as follows: (i) evaluate the performance of Neo4j and PostgreSQL in handling complex queries that will be fired throughout the life cycle of the course design process; (ii) devise an algorithm to determine the completeness of a course design developed using IMODS. This thesis presents the process of creating data model for PostgreSQL and converting it into a graph data model to be abstracted by Neo4j, creating SQL and CYPHER scripts for undertaking experiments on both platforms, testing and elaborate analysis of the results and evaluation of the databases in the context of IMODS.

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Date Created
2017

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A Neural Network Model for a Tutoring Companion Supporting Students in a Programming with Java Course

Description

Feedback represents a vital component of the learning process and is especially important for Computer Science students. With class sizes that are often large, it can be challenging to provide individualized feedback to students. Consistent, constructive, supportive feedback through a

Feedback represents a vital component of the learning process and is especially important for Computer Science students. With class sizes that are often large, it can be challenging to provide individualized feedback to students. Consistent, constructive, supportive feedback through a tutoring companion can scaffold the learning process for students.

This work contributes to the construction of a tutoring companion designed to provide this feedback to students. It aims to bridge the gap between the messages the compiler delivers, and the support required for a novice student to understand the problem and fix their code. Particularly, it provides support for students learning about recursion in a beginning university Java programming course. Besides also providing affective support, a tutoring companion could be more effective when it is embedded into the environment that the student is already using, instead of an additional tool for the student to learn. The proposed Tutoring Companion is embedded into the Eclipse Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

This thesis focuses on the reasoning model for the Tutoring Companion and is developed using the techniques of a neural network. While a student uses the IDE, the Tutoring Companion collects 16 data points, including the presence of certain key words, cyclomatic complexity, and error messages from the compiler, every time it detects an event, such as a run attempt, debug attempt, or a request for help, in the IDE. This data is used as inputs to the neural network. The neural network produces a correlating single output code for the feedback to be provided to the student, which is displayed in the IDE.

The effectiveness of the approach is examined among 38 Computer Science students who solve a programming assignment while the Tutoring Companion assists them. Data is collected from these interactions, including all inputs and outputs for the neural network, and students are surveyed regarding their experience. Results suggest that students feel supported while working with the Companion and promising potential for using a neural network with an embedded companion in the future. Challenges in developing an embedded companion are discussed, as well as opportunities for future work.

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Date Created
2019

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Affect-driven self-adaptation: a manufacturing vision with a software product line paradigm

Description

Affect signals what humans care about and is involved in rational decision-making and action selection. Many technologies may be improved by the capability to recognize human affect and to respond adaptively by appropriately modifying their operation. This capability, named affect-driven

Affect signals what humans care about and is involved in rational decision-making and action selection. Many technologies may be improved by the capability to recognize human affect and to respond adaptively by appropriately modifying their operation. This capability, named affect-driven self-adaptation, benefits systems as diverse as learning environments, healthcare applications, and video games, and indeed has the potential to improve systems that interact intimately with users across all sectors of society. The main challenge is that existing approaches to advancing affect-driven self-adaptive systems typically limit their applicability by supporting the creation of one-of-a-kind systems with hard-wired affect recognition and self-adaptation capabilities, which are brittle, costly to change, and difficult to reuse. A solution to this limitation is to leverage the development of affect-driven self-adaptive systems with a manufacturing vision.

This dissertation demonstrates how using a software product line paradigm can jumpstart the development of affect-driven self-adaptive systems with that manufacturing vision. Applying a software product line approach to the affect-driven self-adaptive domain provides a comprehensive, flexible and reusable infrastructure of components with mechanisms to monitor a user’s affect and his/her contextual interaction with a system, to detect opportunities for improvements, to select a course of action, and to effect changes. It also provides a domain-specific architecture and well-documented process guidelines, which facilitate an understanding of the organization of affect-driven self-adaptive systems and their implementation by systematically customizing the infrastructure to effectively address the particular requirements of specific systems.

The software product line approach is evaluated by applying it in the development of learning environments and video games that demonstrate the significant potential of the solution, across diverse development scenarios and applications.

The key contributions of this work include extending self-adaptive system modeling, implementing a reusable infrastructure, and leveraging the use of patterns to exploit the commonalities between systems in the affect-driven self-adaptation domain.

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Date Created
2016