Matching Items (136)
- Genre: Academic theses
- Creators: Bakkaloglu, Bertan
- Member of: Theses and Dissertations
- Status: Published
Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) is one of the most critical blocks in Phase Lock Loops (PLLs). LC-tank VCOs have a superior phase noise performance, however they require bulky passive resonators and often calibration architectures to overcome their limited tuning range. Ring oscillator (RO) based VCOs are attractive for digital technology applications owing to their ease of integration, small die area and scalability in deep submicron processes. However, due to their supply sensitivity and poor phase noise performance, they have limited use in applications demanding low phase noise floor, such as wireless or optical transceivers. Particularly, out-of-band phase noise of RO-based PLLs is dominated by RO performance, which cannot be suppressed by the loop gain, impairing RF receiver's sensitivity or BER of optical clock-data recovery circuits. Wide loop bandwidth PLLs can overcome RO noise penalty, however, they suffer from increased in-band noise due to reference clock, phase-detector and charge-pump. The RO phase noise is determined by the noise coming from active devices, supply, ground and substrate. The authors adopt an auxiliary circuit with inverse delay sensitivity to supply noise, which compensates for the delay variation of inverter cells. Feed-forward noise-cancelling architecture that improves phase noise characteristic of RO based PLLs is presented. The proposed circuit dynamically attenuates RO phase noise contribution outside the PLL bandwidth, or in a preferred band. The implemented noise-cancelling loop potentially enables application of RO based PLL for demanding frequency synthesizers applications, such as optical links or high-speed serial I/Os.
Power management plays a very important role in the current electronics industry. Battery powered and handheld applications require novel power management techniques to extend the battery life. Most systems have multiple voltage regulators to provide power sources to the different circuit blocks and/or sub-systems. Some of these voltage regulators are low dropout regulators (LDOs) which typically require output capacitors in the range of 1's to 10's of µF. The necessity of output capacitors occupies valuable board space and can add additional integrated circuit (IC) pin count. A high IC pin count can restrict LDOs for system-on-chip (SoC) solutions. The presented research gives the user an option with regard to the external capacitor; the output capacitor can range from 0 - 1µF for a stable response. In general, the larger the output capacitor, the better the transient response. Because the output capacitor requirement is such a wide range, the LDO presented here is ideal for any application, whether it be for a SoC solution or stand-alone LDO that desires a filtering capacitor for optimal transient performance. The LDO architecture and compensation scheme provide a stable output response from 1mA to 200mA with output capacitors in the range of 0 - 1µF. A 2.5V, 200mA any-cap LDO was fabricated in a proprietary 1.5µm BiCMOS process, consuming 200µA of ground pin current (at 1mA load) with a dropout voltage of 250mV. Experimental results show that the proposed any-cap LDO exceeds transient performance and output capacitor requirements compared to previously published work. The architecture also has excellent line and load regulation and less sensitive to process variation. Therefore, the presented any-cap LDO is ideal for any application with a maximum supply rail of 5V.
During the last decades the development of the transistor and its continuous down-scaling allowed the appearance of cost effective wireless communication systems. New generation wideband wireless mobile systems demand high linearity, low power consumption and the low cost devices. Traditional RF systems are mainly analog-based circuitry. Contrary to digital circuits, the technology scaling results in reduction on the maximum voltage swing which makes RF design very challenging. Pushing the interface between the digital and analog boundary of the RF systems closer to the antenna becomes an attractive trend for modern RF devices. In order to take full advantages of the deep submicron CMOS technologies and digital signal processing (DSP), there is a strong trend towards the development of digital transmitter where the RF upconversion is part of the digital-to-analog conversion (DAC). This thesis presents a new digital intermediate frequency (IF) to RF transmitter for 2GHz wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). The proposed transmitter integrates a 3-level digital IF current-steering cell, an up-conversion mixer with a tuned load and an RF variable gain amplifier (RF VGA) with an embedded finite impulse response (FIR) reconstruction filter in the up-conversion path. A 4th-order 1.5-bit IF bandpass sigma delta modulator (BP SDM) is designed to support in-band SNR while the out-of-band quantization noise due to the noise shaping is suppressed by the embedded reconstruction filter to meet spectrum emission mask and ACPR requirements. The RF VGA provides 50dB power scaling in 10-dB steps with less than 1dB gain error. The design is fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS technology with a total core area of 0.8 x 1.6 mm2. The IC delivers 0dBm output power at 2GHz and it draws approximately 120mA from a 1.8V DC supply at the maximum output power. The measurement results proved that a digital-intensive digital IF to RF converter architecture can be successfully employed for WCDMA transmitter application.
A dual-channel directional digital hearing aid (DHA) front-end using a fully differential difference amplifier (FDDA) based Microphone interface circuit (MIC) for a capacitive Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) microphones and an adaptive-power analog font end (AFE) is presented. The Microphone interface circuit based on FDDA converts the capacitance variations into voltage signal, achieves a noise of 32 dB SPL (sound pressure level) and an SNR of 72 dB, additionally it also performs single to differential conversion allowing for fully differential analog signal chain. The analog front-end consists of 40dB VGA and a power scalable continuous time sigma delta ADC, with 68dB SNR dissipating 67u¬W from a 1.2V supply. The ADC implements a self calibrating feedback DAC, for calibrating the 2nd order non-linearity. The VGA and power scalable ADC is fabricated on 0.25 um CMOS TSMC process. The dual channels of the DHA are precisely matched and achieve about 0.5dB gain mismatch, resulting in greater than 5dB directivity index. This will enable a highly integrated and low power DHA
The high cut-off frequency of deep sub-micron CMOS technologies has enabled the integration of radio frequency (RF) transceivers with digital circuits. However, the challenging point is the integration of RF power amplifiers, mainly due to the low breakdown voltage of CMOS transistors. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) have been introduced to remedy the limited headroom concern in CMOS technologies. The MESFETs presented in this thesis have been fabricated on different SOI-CMOS processes without making any change to the standard fabrication steps and offer 2-30 times higher breakdown voltage than the MOSFETs on the same process. This thesis explains the design steps of high efficiency and wideband RF transmitters using the proposed SOI-CMOS compatible MESFETs. This task involves DC and RF characterization of MESFET devices, along with providing a compact Spice model for simulation purposes. This thesis presents the design of several SOI-MESFET RF power amplifiers operating at 433, 900 and 1800 MHz with ~40% bandwidth. Measurement results show a peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 55% and a peak output power of 22.5 dBm. The RF-PAs were designed to operate in Class-AB mode to minimize the linearity degradation. Class-AB power amplifiers lead to poor power added efficiency, especially when fed with signals with high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) such as wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA). Polar transmitters have been introduced to improve the efficiency of RF-PAs at backed-off powers. A MESFET based envelope tracking (ET) polar transmitter was designed and measured. A low drop-out voltage regulator (LDO) was used as the supply modulator of this polar transmitter. MESFETs are depletion mode devices; therefore, they can be configured in a source follower configuration to have better stability and higher bandwidth that MOSFET based LDOs. Measurement results show 350 MHz bandwidth while driving a 10 pF capacitive load. A novel polar transmitter is introduced in this thesis to alleviate some of the limitations associated with polar transmitters. The proposed architecture uses the backgate terminal of a partially depleted transistor on SOI process, which relaxes the bandwidth and efficiency requirements of the envelope amplifier in a polar transmitter. The measurement results of the proposed transmitter demonstrate more than three times PAE improvement at 6-dB backed-off output power, compared to the traditional RF transmitters.
The applications which use MEMS accelerometer have been on rise and many new fields which are using the MEMS devices have been on rise. The industry is trying to reduce the cost of production of these MEMS devices. These devices are manufactured using micromachining and the interface circuitry is manufactured using CMOS and the final product is integrated on to a single chip. Amount spent on testing of the MEMS devices make up a considerable share of the total final cost of the device. In order to save the cost and time spent on testing, researchers have been trying to develop different methodologies. At present, MEMS devices are tested using mechanical stimuli to measure the device parameters and for calibration the device. This testing is necessary since the MEMS process is not a very well controlled process unlike CMOS. This is done using an ATE and the cost of using ATE (automatic testing equipment) contribute to 30-40% of the devices final cost. This thesis proposes an architecture which can use an Electrical Signal to stimulate the MEMS device and use the data from the MEMS response in approximating the calibration coefficients efficiently. As a proof of concept, we have designed a BIST (Built-in self-test) circuit for MEMS accelerometer. The BIST has an electrical stimulus generator, Capacitance-to-voltage converter, ∑ ∆ ADC. This thesis explains in detail the design of the Electrical stimulus generator. We have also designed a technique to correlate the parameters obtained from electrical stimuli to those obtained by mechanical stimuli. This method is cost effective since the additional circuitry needed to implement BIST is less since the technique utilizes most of the existing standard readout circuitry already present.
Modern Complex electronic system include multiple power domains and drastically varying power consumption patterns, requiring the use of multiple power conversion and regulation units. High frequency switching converters have been gaining prominence in the DC-DC converter market due to their high efficiency. Unfortunately, they are all subject to higher process variations jeopardizing stable operation of the power supply.
This research mainly focus on the technique to track changes in the dynamic loop characteristics of the DC-DC converters without disturbing the normal mode of operation using a white noise based excitation and correlation. White noise excitation is generated via pseudo random disturbance at reference and PWM input of the converter with the test signal being spread over a wide bandwidth, below the converter noise and ripple floor. Test signal analysis is achieved by correlating the pseudo-random input sequence with the output response and thereby accumulating the desired behavior over time and pulling it above the noise floor of the measurement set-up. An off-the shelf power converter, LM27402 is used as the DUT for the experimental verification. Experimental results show that the proposed technique can estimate converter's natural frequency and Q-factor within ±2.5% and ±0.7% error margin respectively, over changes in load inductance and capacitance.
ABSTRACT As the technology length shrinks down, achieving higher gain is becoming very difficult in deep sub-micron technologies. As the supply voltages drop, cascodes are very difficult to implement and cascade amplifiers are needed to achieve sufficient gain with required output swing. This sets the fundamental limit on the SNR and hence the maximum resolution that can be achieved by ADC. With the RSD algorithm and the range overlap, the sub ADC can tolerate large comparator offsets leaving the linearity and accuracy requirement for the DAC and residue gain stage. Typically, the multiplying DAC requires high gain wide bandwidth op-amp and the design of this high gain op-amp becomes challenging in the deep submicron technologies. This work presents `A 12 bit 25MSPS 1.2V pipelined ADC using split CLS technique' in IBM 130nm 8HP process using only CMOS devices for the application of Large Hadron Collider (LHC). CLS technique relaxes the gain requirement of op-amp and improves the signal-to-noise ratio without increase in power or input sampling capacitor with rail-to-rail swing. An op-amp sharing technique has been incorporated with split CLS technique which decreases the number of op-amps and hence the power further. Entire pipelined converter has been implemented as six 2.5 bit RSD stages and hence decreases the latency associated with the pipelined architecture - one of the main requirements for LHC along with the power requirement. Two different OTAs have been designed to use in the split-CLS technique. Bootstrap switches and pass gate switches are used in the circuit along with a low power dynamic kick-back compensated comparator.
As residential photovoltaic (PV) systems become more and more common and widespread, their system architectures are being developed to maximize power extraction while keeping the cost of associated electronics to a minimum. An architecture that has become popular in recent years is the "DC optimizer" architecture, wherein one DC-DC converter is connected to the output of each PV module. The DC optimizer architecture has the advantage of performing maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) at the module level, without the high cost of using an inverter on each module (the "microinverter" architecture). This work details the design of a proposed DC optimizer. The design incorporates a series-input parallel-output topology to implement MPPT at the sub-module level. This topology has some advantages over the more common series-output DC optimizer, including relaxed requirements for the system's inverter. An autonomous control scheme is proposed for the series-connected converters, so that no external control signals are needed for the system to operate, other than sunlight. The DC optimizer in this work is designed with an emphasis on efficiency, and to that end it uses GaN FETs and an active clamp technique to reduce switching and conduction losses. As with any parallel-output converter, phase interleaving is essential to minimize output RMS current losses. This work proposes a novel phase-locked loop (PLL) technique to achieve interleaving among the series-input converters.
Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is commonly seen in p-channel transistors under negative gate voltages at an elevated temperature. The interface traps, oxide traps and NBTI mechanisms are discussed and their effect on circuit degradation and results are discussed. This thesis focuses on developing a model for simulating impact of NBTI effects at circuit level. The model mimics the effects of degradation caused by the defects.
The NBTI model developed in this work is validated and sanity checked by using the simulation data from silvaco and gives excellent results. Furthermore the susceptibility of CMOS circuits such as the CMOS inverter, and a ring oscillator to NBTI is investigated. The results show that the oscillation frequency of a ring oscillator decreases and the SET pulse broadens with the NBTI.