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Exploring additional dehalogenation abilities of DehaloR̂2, a previously characterized, trichloroethene-degrading microbial consortium

Description

DehaloR^2 is a previously characterized, trichloroethene (TCE)-dechlorinating culture and contains bacteria from the known dechlorinating genus, Dehalococcoides. DehaloR^2 was exposed to three anthropogenic contaminants, Triclocarban (TCC), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and

DehaloR^2 is a previously characterized, trichloroethene (TCE)-dechlorinating culture and contains bacteria from the known dechlorinating genus, Dehalococcoides. DehaloR^2 was exposed to three anthropogenic contaminants, Triclocarban (TCC), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and two biogenic-like halogenated compounds, 2,6-dibromophenol (2,6-DBP) and 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP). The effects on TCE dechlorination ability due to 2,6-DBP and 2,6-DCP exposures were also investigated. DehaloR^2 did not dechlorinate TCC or TCEP. After initial exposure to TCA, half of the initial TCA was dechlorinated to 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA), however half of the TCA remained by day 100. Subsequent TCA and TCE re-exposure showed no reductive dechlorination activity for both TCA and TCE by 120 days after the re-exposure. It has been hypothesized that the microbial TCE-dechlorinating ability was developed before TCE became abundant in groundwater. This dechlorinating ability would have existed in the microbial metabolism due to previous exposure to biogenic halogenated compounds. After observing the inability of DehaloR^2 to dechlorinate other anthropogenic compounds, DehaloR^2 was then exposed to two naturally occurring halogenated phenols, 2,6-DBP and 2,6-DCP, in the presence and absence of TCE. DehaloR^2 debrominated 2,6-DBP through the intermediate 2-bromophenol (2-BP) to the end product phenol faster in the presence of TCE. DehaloR^2 dechlorinated 2,6-DCP to 2-CP in the absence of TCE; however, 2,6-DCP dechlorination was incomplete in the presence of TCE. Additionally, when 2,6-DBP was present, complete TCE dechlorination to ethene occurred more quickly than when TCE was present without 2,6-DBP. However, when 2,6-DCP was present, TCE dechlorination to ethene had not completed by day 55. The increased dehalogenation rate of 2,6-DBP and TCE when present together compared to conditions containing only 2,6-DBP or only TCE suggests a possible synergistic relationship between 2,6-DBP and TCE, while the decreased dechlorination rate of 2,6-DCP and TCE when present together compared to conditions containing only 2,6-DCP or only TCE suggests an inhibitory effect.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Synergistic reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethene and aerobic degradation of 1,4-dioxane

Description

Widespread use of chlorinated solvents for commercial and industrial purposes makes co-occurring contamination by 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) a serious problem for groundwater. TCE and TCA

Widespread use of chlorinated solvents for commercial and industrial purposes makes co-occurring contamination by 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), and 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) a serious problem for groundwater. TCE and TCA often are treated by reductive dechlorination, while 1,4-D resists reductive treatment. Aerobic bacteria are able to oxidize 1,4-D, but the biological oxidation of 1,4-D could be inhibited TCA, TCE, and their reductive transformation products. To overcome the challenges from co-occurring contamination, I propose a two-stage synergistic system. First, anaerobic reduction of the chlorinated hydrocarbons takes place in a H2-based hollow-fiber “X-film” (biofilm or catalyst-coated film) reactor (MXfR), where “X-film” can be a “bio-film” (MBfR) or an abiotic “palladium-film” (MPfR). Then, aerobic removal of 1,4-D and other organic compounds takes place in an O2-based MBfR. For the reductive part, I tested reductive bio-dechlorination of TCA and TCE simultaneously in an MBfR. I found that the community of anaerobic bacteria can rapidly reduce TCE to cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), but further reductions of cis-DCE to vinyl chloride (VC) and VC to ethene were inhibited by TCA. Also, it took months to grow a strong biofilm that could reduce TCA and TCE. Another problem with reductive dechlorination in the MBfR is that mono-chloroethane (MCA) was not reduced to ethane. In contrast, a film of palladium nano-particles (PdNPs), i.e., an MPfR, could the simultaneous reductions of TCA and TCE to mainly ethane, with only small amounts of intermediates: 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA) (~3% of total influent TCA and TCE) and MCA (~1%) in continuous operation. For aerobic oxidation, I enriched an ethanotrophic culture that could oxidize 1,4-D with ethane as the primary electron donor. An O2-based MBfR, inoculated with the enriched ethanotrophic culture, achieved over 99% 1,4-D removal with ethane as the primary electron donor in continuous operation. Finally, I evaluated two-stage treatment with a H2-based MPfR followed by an O2-MBfR. The two-stage system gave complete removal of TCA, TCE, and 1,4-D in continuous operation.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Reductive dechlorination sustained by microbial chain elongation

Description

Trichloroethene (TCE) is a ubiquitous soil and groundwater contaminant. The most common bioremediation approach for TCE relies on the process of reductive dechlorination by Dehalococcoides mccartyi. D. mccartyi use TCE,

Trichloroethene (TCE) is a ubiquitous soil and groundwater contaminant. The most common bioremediation approach for TCE relies on the process of reductive dechlorination by Dehalococcoides mccartyi. D. mccartyi use TCE, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride as electron acceptors and hydrogen as an electron donor. At contaminated sites, reductive dechlorination is typically promoted by adding a fermentable substrate, which is broken down to short chain fatty acids, simple alcohols, and hydrogen. This study explored microbial chain elongation (MCE), instead of fermentation, to promote TCE reductive dechlorination. In MCE, microbes use simple substrates (e.g., acetate, ethanol) to build medium chain fatty acids and also produce hydrogen during this process. Soil microcosm using TCE and acetate and ethanol as MCE substrates were established under anaerobic conditions. In soil microcosms with synthetic groundwater and natural groundwater, ethene was the main product from TCE reductive dechlorination and butyrate and hydrogen were the main products from MCE. Transfer microcosms using TCE and either acetate and ethanol, ethanol, or acetate were also established. The transfers with TCE and ethanol showed the faster rates of reductive dechlorination and produced more elongated products (i.e., hexanoate). The microbial groups enriched in the soil microcosms likely responsible for chain elongation were most similar to Clostridium genus. These investigations showed the potential for synergistic microbial chain elongation and reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019