Matching Items (3)

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Executive function in preschoolers with primary language impairment

Description

Research suggests that some children with primary language impairment (PLI)

have difficulty with certain aspects of executive function; however, most studies examining executive function have been conducted using tasks that require

Research suggests that some children with primary language impairment (PLI)

have difficulty with certain aspects of executive function; however, most studies examining executive function have been conducted using tasks that require children to use language to complete the task. As a result, it is unclear whether poor performance on executive function tasks was due to language impairment, to executive function deficits, or both. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether preschoolers with PLI have deficits in executive function by comprehensively examining inhibition, updating, and mental set shifting using tasks that do and do not required language to complete the tasks.

Twenty-two four and five-year-old preschoolers with PLI and 30 age-matched preschoolers with typical development (TD) completed two sets of computerized executive function tasks that measured inhibition, updating, and mental set shifting. The first set of tasks were language based and the second were visually-based. This permitted us to test the hypothesis that poor performance on executive function tasks results from poor executive function rather than language impairment. A series of one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were completed to test whether there was a significant between-group difference on each task after controlling for attention scale scores. In each analysis the between-group factor was group and the covariate was attention scale scores.

Results showed that preschoolers with PLI showed difficulties on a broad range of linguistic and visual executive function tasks even with scores on an attention measure covaried. Executive function deficits were found for linguistic inhibition, linguistic and visual updating, and linguistic and visual mental set shifting. Overall, findings add to evidence showing that the executive functioning deficits of children with PLI is not limited to the language domain, but is more general in nature. Implications for early assessment and intervention will be discussed.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Using funds of knowledge to build trust between a teacher and parents of language-delayed preschoolers

Description

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language

Preschool children with language delays often struggle to learn new concepts. Proven strategies such as modeling, prompting, reinforcing responses, direct teaching, and hands-on experience matter to young children with language delays. Also important are social interactions and shared experiences with more knowledgeable persons. Within a cultural context Funds of Knowledge, that is the talents, traditions, and abilities families possess and pass down to their children may be a context for these. However, despite their importance the value Funds of Knowledge have has not been explored with parents of children with special needs. This action research study used a mixed-methods design to understand if Funds of Knowledge could be used as context to improve communication between parents and their children and build trust between parents and a teacher. Seven families participated in the study. Quantitative data were gathered with surveys and were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Qualitative data consisted of transcripts from home-visit interviews, parent presentations, and a focus group, and were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. Results indicate parents entered the study with trust in the teacher especially in terms of having competence in her abilities. Data also show that parents used the language strategies provided to improve communication with their children. Data also indicate that the use of a Funds of Knowledge activity allowed parents to share their knowledge and interests with their children and children in the classroom, feel empowered, and express emotions. From these findings, implication for practice and further research are provided.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Effects of different types of play on preschoolers' vocabulary learning

Description

This study investigated the effects of different types of play-embedded instruction on preschoolers' vocabulary learning during a vocabulary intervention known as Say-Tell-Do-Play (STDP). The goal of this study was to

This study investigated the effects of different types of play-embedded instruction on preschoolers' vocabulary learning during a vocabulary intervention known as Say-Tell-Do-Play (STDP). The goal of this study was to determine whether or not two types of play - Story Drama and a Vocabulary Matching Game - enhanced the effectiveness of the STDP strategy. To investigate this goal, the researcher implemented the STDP instructional routine for 17 children with three different picture books and their corresponding play activities and a control condition (Drawing) in a counterbalanced order. Descriptive statistics were utilized to understand the effects of these different play activities on the children's receptive and expressive vocabulary learning. Findings showed that the STDP vocabulary instructional strategy had a much larger impact on children's receptive vocabulary than on expressive vocabulary learning. The play activities did not seem to make much difference in the learning of receptive and expressive vocabulary. The results indicated that the STDP strategy is an effective way to teach receptive vocabulary. There was a lack of evidence that the different types of play significantly affected children's vocabulary learning.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012