Matching Items (5)

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Experimental Investigation of Laser-Induced Optoacoustic Wave Propagation for Damage Detection

Description

This thesis intends to cover the experimental investigation of the propagation of laser-generated optoacoustic waves in structural materials and how they can be utilized for damage detection. Firstly, a system

This thesis intends to cover the experimental investigation of the propagation of laser-generated optoacoustic waves in structural materials and how they can be utilized for damage detection. Firstly, a system for scanning a rectangular patch on the sample is designed. This is achieved with the help of xy stages which are connected to the laser head and allow it to move on a plane. Next, a parametric study was designed to determine the optimum testing parameters of the laser. The parameters so selected were then used in a series of tests which helped in discerning how the Ultrasound Waves behave when damage is induced in the sample (in the form of addition of masses). The first test was of increasing the mases in the sample. The second test was a scan of a rectangular area of the sample with and without damage to find the effect of the added masses. Finally, the data collected in such a manner is processed with the help of the Hilbert-Huang transform to determine the time of arrival. The major benefits from this study are the fact that this is a Non-Destructive imaging technique and thus can be used as a new method for detection of defects and is fairly cheap as well.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Feature and statistical model development in structural health monitoring

Description

All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects.

All structures suffer wear and tear because of impact, excessive load, fatigue, corrosion, etc. in addition to inherent defects during their manufacturing processes and their exposure to various environmental effects. These structural degradations are often imperceptible, but they can severely affect the structural performance of a component, thereby severely decreasing its service life. Although previous studies of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have revealed extensive prior knowledge on the parts of SHM processes, such as the operational evaluation, data processing, and feature extraction, few studies have been conducted from a systematical perspective, the statistical model development.

The first part of this dissertation, the characteristics of inverse scattering problems, such as ill-posedness and nonlinearity, reviews ultrasonic guided wave-based structural health monitoring problems. The distinctive features and the selection of the domain analysis are investigated by analytically searching the conditions of the uniqueness solutions for ill-posedness and are validated experimentally.

Based on the distinctive features, a novel wave packet tracing (WPT) method for damage localization and size quantification is presented. This method involves creating time-space representations of the guided Lamb waves (GLWs), collected at a series of locations, with a spatially dense distribution along paths at pre-selected angles with respect to the direction, normal to the direction of wave propagation. The fringe patterns due to wave dispersion, which depends on the phase velocity, are selected as the primary features that carry information, regarding the wave propagation and scattering.

The following part of this dissertation presents a novel damage-localization framework, using a fully automated process. In order to construct the statistical model for autonomous damage localization deep-learning techniques, such as restricted Boltzmann machine and deep belief network, are trained and utilized to interpret nonlinear far-field wave patterns.

Next, a novel bridge scour estimation approach that comprises advantages of both empirical and data-driven models is developed. Two field datasets from the literature are used, and a Support Vector Machine (SVM), a machine-learning algorithm, is used to fuse the field data samples and classify the data with physical phenomena. The Fast Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is evaluated on the model performance objective functions to search for Pareto optimal fronts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Damage detection in blade-stiffened anisotropic composite panels using lamb wave mode conversions

Description

Composite materials are increasingly being used in aircraft, automobiles, and other applications due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios. However, the presence of damage, such

Composite materials are increasingly being used in aircraft, automobiles, and other applications due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios. However, the presence of damage, such as delamination or matrix cracks, can significantly compromise the performance of these materials and result in premature failure. Structural components are often manually inspected to detect the presence of damage. This technique, known as schedule based maintenance, however, is expensive, time-consuming, and often limited to easily accessible structural elements. Therefore, there is an increased demand for robust and efficient Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques that can be used for Condition Based Monitoring, which is the method in which structural components are inspected based upon damage metrics as opposed to flight hours. SHM relies on in situ frameworks for detecting early signs of damage in exposed and unexposed structural elements, offering not only reduced number of schedule based inspections, but also providing better useful life estimates. SHM frameworks require the development of different sensing technologies, algorithms, and procedures to detect, localize, quantify, characterize, as well as assess overall damage in aerospace structures so that strong estimations in the remaining useful life can be determined. The use of piezoelectric transducers along with guided Lamb waves is a method that has received considerable attention due to the weight, cost, and function of the systems based on these elements. The research in this thesis investigates the ability of Lamb waves to detect damage in feature dense anisotropic composite panels. Most current research negates the effects of experimental variability by performing tests on structurally simple isotropic plates that are used as a baseline and damaged specimen. However, in actual applications, variability cannot be negated, and therefore there is a need to research the effects of complex sample geometries, environmental operating conditions, and the effects of variability in material properties. This research is based on experiments conducted on a single blade-stiffened anisotropic composite panel that localizes delamination damage caused by impact. The overall goal was to utilize a correlative approach that used only the damage feature produced by the delamination as the damage index. This approach was adopted because it offered a simplistic way to determine the existence and location of damage without having to conduct a more complex wave propagation analysis or having to take into account the geometric complexities of the test specimen. Results showed that even in a complex structure, if the damage feature can be extracted and measured, then an appropriate damage index can be associated to it and the location of the damage can be inferred using a dense sensor array. The second experiment presented in this research studies the effects of temperature on damage detection when using one test specimen for a benchmark data set and another for damage data collection. This expands the previous experiment into exploring not only the effects of variable temperature, but also the effects of high experimental variability. Results from this work show that the damage feature in the data is not only extractable at higher temperatures, but that the data from one panel at one temperature can be directly compared to another panel at another temperature for baseline comparison due to linearity of the collected data.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Probabilistic fatigue damage diagnostics and prognostics for metallic and composite materials

Description

In-situ fatigue damage diagnosis and prognosis is a challenging problem for both metallic and composite materials and structures. There are various uncertainties arising from material properties, component geometries, measurement noise,

In-situ fatigue damage diagnosis and prognosis is a challenging problem for both metallic and composite materials and structures. There are various uncertainties arising from material properties, component geometries, measurement noise, feature extraction techniques, and modeling errors. It is essential to manage and incorporate these uncertainties in order to achieve accurate damage detection and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction.

The aim of this study is to develop an integrated fatigue damage diagnosis and prognosis framework for both metallic and composite materials. First, Lamb waves are used as the in-situ damage detection technique to interrogate the damaged structures. Both experimental and numerical analysis for the Lamb wave propagation within aluminum are conducted. The RUL of lap joints under variable and constant fatigue loading is predicted using the Bayesian updating by incorporating damage detection information and various sources of uncertainties. Following this, the effect of matrix cracking and delamination in composite laminates on the Lamb wave propagation is investigated and a generalized probabilistic delamination size and location detection framework using Bayesian imaging method (BIM) is proposed and validated using the composite fatigue testing data. The RUL of the open-hole specimen is predicted using the overall stiffness degradation under fatigue loading. Next, the adjoint method-based damage detection framework is proposed considering the physics of heat conduction or elastic wave propagation. Different from the classical wave propagation-based method, the received signal under pristine condition is not necessary for estimating the damage information. This method can be successfully used for arbitrary damage location and shape profiling for any materials with higher accuracy and resolution. Finally, some conclusions and future work are generated based on the current investigation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Probabilistic fatigue damage localization at unknown temperatures using guided wave methods

Description

This research examines the current challenges of using Lamb wave interrogation methods to localize fatigue crack damage in a complex metallic structural component subjected to unknown temperatures. The goal of

This research examines the current challenges of using Lamb wave interrogation methods to localize fatigue crack damage in a complex metallic structural component subjected to unknown temperatures. The goal of this work is to improve damage localization results for a structural component interrogated at an unknown temperature, by developing a probabilistic and reference-free framework for estimating Lamb wave velocities and the damage location. The methodology for damage localization at unknown temperatures includes the following key elements: i) a model that can describe the change in Lamb wave velocities with temperature; ii) the extension of an advanced time-frequency based signal processing technique for enhanced time-of-flight feature extraction from a dispersive signal; iii) the development of a Bayesian damage localization framework incorporating data association and sensor fusion. The technique requires no additional transducers to be installed on a structure, and allows for the estimation of both the temperature and the wave velocity in the component. Additionally, the framework of the algorithm allows it to function completely in an unsupervised manner by probabilistically accounting for all measurement origin uncertainty. The novel algorithm was experimentally validated using an aluminum lug joint with a growing fatigue crack. The lug joint was interrogated using piezoelectric transducers at multiple fatigue crack lengths, and at temperatures between 20°C and 80°C. The results showed that the algorithm could accurately predict the temperature and wave speed of the lug joint. The localization results for the fatigue damage were found to correlate well with the true locations at long crack lengths, but loss of accuracy was observed in localizing small cracks due to time-of-flight measurement errors. To validate the algorithm across a wider range of temperatures the electromechanically coupled LISA/SIM model was used to simulate the effects of temperatures. The numerical results showed that this approach would be capable of experimentally estimating the temperature and velocity in the lug joint for temperatures from -60°C to 150°C. The velocity estimation algorithm was found to significantly increase the accuracy of localization at temperatures above 120°C when error due to incorrect velocity selection begins to outweigh the error due to time-of-flight measurements.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013