Matching Items (8)

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Photoluminescence enhancement of Ge quantum dots by exploiting the localized surface plasmon of epitaxial Ag islands

Description

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a nucleation and growth mechanism, and small islands form via precipitation of Ag contained in a planar layer between the big islands that is thicker than the Stranski-Krastanov layer existing at room-temperature.

The pseudodielectric functions of epitaxial Ag islands on Si(100) substrates were investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions obtained for Si with and without Ag islands clearly identifies a plasmon mode with its dipole moment perpendicular to the surface. This observation is confirmed using a simulation based on the thin island film (TIF) theory. Another mode parallel to the surface may be identified by comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions with the simulated ones from TIF theory. Additional results suggest that the LSP energy of Ag islands can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the infrared range by an amorphous Si (α-Si) cap layer.

Heterostructures were grown that incorporated Ge QDs, an epitaxial Si cap layer and Ag islands grown atop the Si cap layer. Optimum growth conditions for distinct Ge dot ensembles and Si cap layers were obtained. The density of Ag islands grown on the Si cap layer depends on its thickness. Factors contributing to this effect may include the average strain and Ge concentration on the surface of the Si cap layer.

The effects of the Ag LSP on the PL of Ge coherent domes were investigated for both α-Si capped and bare Ag islands. For samples with low-doped substrates, the LSPs reduce the Ge dot-related PL when the Si cap layer is below some critical thickness and have no effect on the PL when the Si cap layer is above the critical thickness. For samples grown on highly-doped wafers, the LSP of bare Ag islands enhanced the PL of Ge QDs by ~ 40%.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The optical and electronic properties of Ge₁-ySny and Ge₁-x-ySixSny materials and devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics

Description

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances the field by presenting a systematic study of the optical and electronic properties of Ge1-ySny and analogous Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys.

The fundamental direct and indirect band gaps of Ge1-ySny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence in samples containing 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 and a transition to direct gap materials is found to occur at yc = 0.087. This result is enabled by the development of sample growth and processing protocols that produce high-quality materials epitaxially on Ge-buffered Si(100) substrates. Strategies to optimize the optical performance are explored by varying the film thickness, thermal and surface treatments, and n-type doping. The electrical and optical properties of diodes based on these materials are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements. These show improved optical performance near yc with tunable emission out to 2500 nm. Measuring the carrier lifetimes in devices with strain relaxed and fully strained interfaces show significantly longer lifetimes in the fully strained case.

The direct and indirect band gaps of Sn-rich (y > x) Ge1-x-ySixSny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence on optimized samples. These data confirm a transition to direct gap materials occurs for the ternary alloy as well. Devices based on compositions 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 and 0.03 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements and show competitive performance with analogous devices based on Ge1-ySny materials. A detailed study of the direct gap in Ge1-xSix alloys gives parameters crucial en route to a global description of the Ge1-x-ySixSny fundamental band gaps.

Archetypal laser device designs on Si are explored by fabricating degenerate pn junction diodes and highly doped waveguide devices based on high-quality Ge1-ySny materials. The diodes showed tunnel-like current-voltage characteristics and tailored electroluminescence based on the doping profile. The waveguides demonstrate emission under optical stimulation.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Study of photoluminescence from amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoparticles synthesized using a non-thermal plasma

Description

High photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields reported from amorphous (a-Si) and crystalline (c-Si) nanoparticles have opened up lots of possibilities for use of silicon in optical applications such as light emitting

High photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields reported from amorphous (a-Si) and crystalline (c-Si) nanoparticles have opened up lots of possibilities for use of silicon in optical applications such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), photonics and solar cells with added processing and cost benefits. However, the PL response and the mechanisms behind it are highly dependent on the matrix in which the nanoparticles are grown and on the growth method. While, the bottom-up approach for deposition of free standing nanoparticles seem to be perfectly suited for large area deposition for LED and solar cell applications, the dominant growth techniques (laser ablation and pyrolysis) have been shown to suffer from limitations in control over size distribution of nanoparticles and the requirement of equipment capable of withstanding high temperature. This led to the exploration of plasma based synthesis methods in this work.

Towards this effort, the development and automation of a novel tool “Anny” for synthesis of silicon nanoparticles using non-thermal plasma chamber is reported. These nanoparticles are then accelerated due to choked flow through a nozzle leading to substrate independent deposition. The nanoparticle properties are characterized against precursor gas flow rates and RF power to identify the optimum growth conditions for a stable, continuous deposition. It is found that amorphous nanoparticles offer a wide variety of chamber conditions for growth with a high throughput, stable plasma for continuous, long term operations.

The quantum confinement model for crystalline and spatial confinement models for amorphous nanoparticles in our size regime (6-8nm) are suggested for free standing nanoparticles and we report a high PL output from well passivated amorphous nanoparticles.

The PL output and its dependence on stability of surface hydrogen passivation is explored using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is shown that the amorphous nanoparticles have a better and more stable passivation compared to crystalline nanoparticles grown under similar conditions. Hence, we show a-Si nanoparticles as exciting alternatives for optical applications to c-Si nanoparticles.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Vertical Carrier Transport Properties and Device Application of InAs/InAs1-xSbx Type-II Superlattice and a Water-Soluble Lift-Off Technology

Description

The first part of this dissertation reports the study of the vertical carrier transport and device application in InAs/InAs1-xSbx strain-balanced type-II superlattice. It is known that the low hole mobility

The first part of this dissertation reports the study of the vertical carrier transport and device application in InAs/InAs1-xSbx strain-balanced type-II superlattice. It is known that the low hole mobility in the InAs/InAs1-xSbx superlattice is considered as the main reason for the low internal quantum efficiency of its mid-wave and long-wave infrared photodetectors, compared with that of its HgCdTe counterparts. Optical measurements using time-resolved photoluminescence and steady-state photoluminescence spectroscopy are implemented to extract the diffusion coefficients and mobilities of holes in the superlattices at various temperatures from 12 K to 210 K. The sample structure consists of a mid-wave infrared superlattice absorber region grown atop a long-wave infrared superlattice probe region. An ambipolar diffusion model is adopted to extract the hole mobility. The results show that the hole mobility first increases from 0.2 cm2/Vs at 12 K and then levels off at ~50 cm2/Vs as the temperature exceeds ~60 K. An InAs/InAs1-xSbx type-II superlattice nBn long-wavelength barrier infrared photodetector has also been demonstrated with a measured dark current density of 9.5×10-4 A/cm2 and a maximum resistance-area product of 563 Ω-cm2 at 77 K under a bias of -0.5 V. The Arrhenius plot of the dark current density reveals a possible high-operating-temperature of 110 K.The second part of the dissertation reports a lift-off technology using a water-soluble sacrificial MgTe layer grown on InSb. This technique enables the seamless integration of materials with lattice constants near 6.5 Å, such as InSb, CdTe, PbTe, HgTe and Sn. Coherently strained MgTe with a lattice constant close to 6.5 Å acts as a sacrificial layer which reacts with water and releases the film above it. Freestanding CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe double-heterostructures resulting from the lift-off process show increased photoluminescence intensity due to enhanced extraction efficiency and photon-recycling effect. The lifted-off thin films show smooth and flat surfaces with 6.7 Å root-mean-square roughness revealed by atomic-force microscopy profiles. The increased photoluminescence intensity also confirms that the CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe double-heterostructures maintain the high optical quality after epitaxial lift-off.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Study of CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe double heterostructures and their application in high efficiency solar cells and in luminescence refrigeration

Description

CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe double heterostructures (DHs) have been grown on lattice matched InSb (001) substrates using Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The MgxCd1-xTe layers, which have a wider bandgap and type-I band edge alignment

CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe double heterostructures (DHs) have been grown on lattice matched InSb (001) substrates using Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The MgxCd1-xTe layers, which have a wider bandgap and type-I band edge alignment with CdTe, provide sufficient carrier confinement to CdTe, so that the optical properties of CdTe can be studied. The DH samples show very strong Photoluminescence (PL) intensity, long carrier lifetimes (up to 3.6 μs) and low effective interface recombination velocity at the CdTe/MgxCd1 xTe heterointerface (~1 cm/s), indicating the high material quality. Indium has been attempted as an n-type dopant in CdTe and it is found that the carriers are 100% ionized in the doping range of 1×1016 cm-3 to 1×1018 cm-3. With decent doping levels, long minority carrier lifetime, and almost perfect surface passivation by the MgxCd1-xTe layer, the CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe DHs are applied to high efficiency CdTe solar cells. Monocrystalline CdTe solar cells with efficiency of 17.0% and a record breaking open circuit voltage of 1.096 V have been demonstrated in our group.

Mg0.13Cd0.87Te (1.7 eV), also with high material quality, has been proposed as a current matching cell to Si (1.1 eV) solar cells, which could potentially enable a tandem solar cell with high efficiency and thus lower the electricity cost. The properties of Mg0.13Cd0.87Te/Mg0.5Cd0.5Te DHs and solar cells have been investigated. Carrier lifetime as long as 0.56 μs is observed and a solar cell with 11.2% efficiency and open circuit voltage of 1.176 V is demonstrated.

The CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe DHs could also be potentially applied to luminescence refrigeration, which could be used in vibration-free space applications. Both external luminescence quantum efficiency and excitation-dependent PL measurement show that the best quality samples are almost 100% dominated by radiative recombination, and calculation shows that the internal quantum efficiency can be as high as 99.7% at the optimal injection level (1017 cm-3). External luminescence quantum efficiency of over 98% can be realized for luminescence refrigeration with the proper design of optical structures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Raman and photoluminescence studies of in-plane anisotropic layered materials

Description

This thesis presents systematic studies on angle dependent Raman and Photoluminescence (PL) of a new class of layered materials, Transition Metal Trichalcogenides (TMTCs), which are made up of layers possessing

This thesis presents systematic studies on angle dependent Raman and Photoluminescence (PL) of a new class of layered materials, Transition Metal Trichalcogenides (TMTCs), which are made up of layers possessing anisotropic structure within the van-der-Waals plane. The crystal structure of individual layer of MX3 compounds consists of aligned nanowire like 1D chains running along the b-axis direction. The work focuses on the growth of two members of this family - ZrS3 and TiS3 - through Chemical Vapor Transport Method (CVT), with consequent angle dependent Raman and PL studies which highlight their in-plane optically anisotropic properties. Results highlight that the optical properties of few-layer flakes are highly anisotropic as evidenced by large PL intensity variation with polarization direction (in ZrS3) and an intense variation in Raman intensity with variation in polarization direction (in both ZrS3 and TiS3).

Results suggest that light is efficiently absorbed when E-field of the polarized incident excitation laser is polarized along the chain (b-axis). It is greatly attenuated and absorption is reduced when field is polarized perpendicular to the length of 1D-like chains, as wavelength of the exciting light is much longer than the width of each 1D chain. Observed PL variation with respect to the azimuthal flake angle is similar to what has been previously observed in 1D materials like nanowires. However, in TMTCs, since the 1D chains interact with each other, it gives rise to a unique linear dichroism response that falls between 2D and 1D like behavior. These results not only mark the very first demonstration of high PL polarization anisotropy in 2D systems, but also provide a novel insight into how interaction between adjacent 1D-like chains and the 2D nature of each layer influences the overall optical anisotropy of Quasi-1D materials. The presented results are anticipated to have impact in technologies involving polarized detection, near-field imaging, communication systems, and bio-applications relying on the generation and detection of polarized light.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Monocrystalline ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructure solar cells grown on InSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

Description

There has been recent interest in demonstrating solar cells which approach the detailed-balance or thermodynamic efficiency limit in order to establish a model system for which mass-produced solar cells can

There has been recent interest in demonstrating solar cells which approach the detailed-balance or thermodynamic efficiency limit in order to establish a model system for which mass-produced solar cells can be designed. Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe heterostructures are currently one of many competing solar cell material systems. Despite being polycrystalline, efficiencies up to 21 % have been demonstrated by the company First Solar. However, this efficiency is still far from the detailed-balance limit of 32.1 % for CdTe. This work explores the use of monocrystalline CdTe/MgCdTe and ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DHs) grown on (001) InSb substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for photovoltaic applications.

Undoped CdTe/MgCdTe DHs are first grown in order to determine the material quality of the CdTe epilayer and to optimize the growth conditions. DH samples show strong photoluminescence with over double the intensity as that of a GaAs/AlGaAs DH with an identical layer structure. Time-resolved photoluminescence of the CdTe/MgCdTe DH gives a carrier lifetime of up to 179 ns for a 2 µm thick CdTe layer, which is more than one order of magnitude longer than that of polycrystalline CdTe films. MgCdTe barrier layers are found to be effective at confining photogenerated carriers and have a relatively low interface recombination velocity of 461 cm/s. The optimal growth temperature and Cd/Te flux ratio is determined to be 265 °C and 1.5, respectively.

Monocrystalline ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe P-n-N DH solar cells are designed, grown, processed into solar cell devices, and characterized. A maximum efficiency of 6.11 % is demonstrated for samples without an anti-reflection coating. The low efficiency is mainly due to the low open-circuit voltage (Voc), which is attributed to high dark current caused by interface recombination at the ZnTe/CdTe interface. Low-temperature measurements show a linear increase in Voc with decreasing temperature down to 77 K, which suggests that the room-temperature operation is limited by non-radiative recombination. An open-circuit voltage of 1.22 V and an efficiency of 8.46 % is demonstrated at 77 K. It is expected that a coherently strained MgCdTe/CdTe/MgCdTe DH solar cell design will produce higher efficiency and Voc compared to the ZnTe/CdTe/MgCdTe design with relaxed ZnTe layer.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Quantum efficiency measurement of nanowires using integrating sphere

Description

This thesis mainly focuses on the study of quantum efficiency (QE) and its measurement, especially for nanowires (NWs). First, a brief introduction of nano-technology and nanowire is given to describe

This thesis mainly focuses on the study of quantum efficiency (QE) and its measurement, especially for nanowires (NWs). First, a brief introduction of nano-technology and nanowire is given to describe my initial research interest. Next various fundamental kinds of recombination mechanisms are described; both for radiative and non-radiative processes. This is an introduction for defining the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). A relative IQE measurement method is shown following that. Then it comes to the major part of the thesis discussing a procedure of quantum efficiency measurement using photoluminescence (PL) method and an integrating sphere, which has not been much applied to nanowires (NWs). In fact this is a convenient and useful approach for evaluating the quality of NWs since it considers not only the PL emission but also the absorption of NWs. The process is well illustrated and performed with both wavelength-dependent and power-dependent measurements. The measured PLQE is in the range of 0.3% ~ 5.4%. During the measurement, a phenomenon called photodegradation is observed and examined by a set of power-dependence measurements. This effect can be a factor for underestimating the PLQE and a procedure is introduced during the sample preparation process which managed to reduce this effect for some degree.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012