Matching Items (12)

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Pavement surfaces impact on local temperature and building cooling energy consumption

Description

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to study the effect of different properties of pavement on its diurnal surface temperatures. It is observed that the pavement surface temperature has a microclimatic effect on the air temperature above it. A major increase in local air temperature is caused by heating of solid surfaces in that locality. A case study was done and correlations have been established to calculate the air temperature above a paved surface. Validation with in-situ pavement surface and air temperatures were made. Experimental measurement for the city of Phoenix shows the difference between the ambient air temperature of the city and the microclimatic air temperature above the pavement is approximately 10 degrees Fahrenheit. One mitigation strategy that has been explored is increasing the albedo of the paved surface. Although it will reduce the pavement surface temperature, leading to a reduction in air temperature close to the surface, the increased pavement albedo will also result in greater reflected solar radiation directed towards the building, thus increasing the building solar load. The first effect will imply a reduction in the building energy consumption, while the second effect will imply an increase in the building energy consumption. Simulation is done using the EnergyPlus tool, to find the microclimatic effect of pavement on the building energy performance. The results indicate the cooling energy savings of an office building for different types of pavements can be variable as much as 30%.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Fiber dosage effects in asphalt binders and hot mix asphalt mixtures

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The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This

The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This thesis highlights the characteristics and performance properties of modified asphalt mixes using a blend of polypropylene and aramid fibers, The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different fiber dosages on the laboratory performance of both asphalt binder and mixture. The laboratory study was conducted on sixteen different dosages and blends of the fibers, with various combinations of polypropylene and aramid, using binder tests as well as hot mix asphalt tests. The binder tests included: penetration, softing point, and Brookfield viscosity tests. The asphalt mixture tests included the dynamic modulus, and indirect tensile strength. The binder test results indicated that the best viscosity - temperature susceptibility performance would be from the blend of three dosages of polypropylene and one dosage of aramid, the dynamic modulus test results also confirmed this finding. Overall, in almost every case, the addition of fibers resulted in an increase in mixture stiffness regardless of fiber content. From the indirect tensile strength results, the polypropylene fibers had less of an effect on post peak failure than the aramid fibers. Overall, the aramid fibers yielded better results than the polypropylene fibers. This study has important implications for the future of pavement design and the prospect of using optimal dosages of polypropylene and aramid fibers in further research to further determine their long-term performance and characteristics used in real world applications.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Effect of pavement condition on accident rate

Description

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents.

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents. In this study, analysis was performed on highways in the states of Arizona, North Carolina and Maryland for years between 2013 and 2015 in order to investigate the relationship between accident rate and pavement roughness and rutting. Two main types of data were collected: crash data from the accident records and roughness and rut depth data from the pavement management system database in each state. Crash rates were calculated using the U.S. Department of Transportation method, which is the number of accidents per vehicle per mile per year multiplied by 100,000,000. The variations of crash rate with both International Roughness Index (IRI) and rut depth were investigated. Linear regression analysis was performed to study the correlation between parameters. The analysis showed positive correlations between road roughness and rut depth in all cases irrespective of crash severity level. The crash rate data points were high for IRI values above 250-300 inches/mile in several cases. Crash road segments represent 37-48 percent of the total length of the network using 1-mile segments. Roughness and rut depth values for crash and non-crash segments were close to each other, suggesting that roughness and rutting are not the only factors affecting number of crashes but possibly in combination with other factors such as traffic volume, human factors, etc. In summary, it can be concluded that both roughness and rut depth affect crash rate and highway maintenance authorities should maintain good pavement condition in order to reduce crash occurrences.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Investigation and improvement in reliability of asphalt concrete fatigue modeling using fine aggregate matrix phase

Description

The fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete (AC) plays an important role in the service life of a pavement. For predicting the fatigue life of AC, there are several existing empirical

The fatigue resistance of asphalt concrete (AC) plays an important role in the service life of a pavement. For predicting the fatigue life of AC, there are several existing empirical and mechanistic models. However, the assessment and quantification of the ‘reliability’ of the predictions from these models is a substantial knowledge gap. The importance of reliability in AC material performance predictions becomes all the more important in light of limited monetary and material resources. The goal of this dissertation research is to address these shortcomings by developing a framework for incorporating reliability into the prediction of mechanical models for AC and to improve the reliability of AC material performance prediction by using Fine Aggregate Matrix (FAM) phase data. The goal of the study is divided into four objectives; 1) development of a reliability framework for fatigue life prediction of AC materials using the simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model, 2) development of test protocols for FAM in similar loading conditions as AC, 3) evaluation of the mechanical linkages between the AC and FAM mix through upscaling analysis, and 4) investigation of the hypothesis that the reliability of fatigue life prediction of AC can be improved with FAM data modeling.

In this research effort, a reliability framework is developed using Monte Carlo simulation for predicting the fatigue life of AC material using the S-VECD model. The reliability analysis reveals that the fatigue life prediction is very sensitive to the uncertainty in the input variables. FAM testing in similar loading conditions as AC, and upscaling of AC modulus and damage response using FAM properties from a relatively simple homogenized continuum approach shows promising results. The FAM phase fatigue life prediction and upscaling of FAM results to AC show more reliable fatigue life prediction than the fatigue life prediction of AC material using its experimental data. To assess the sensitivity of fatigue life prediction model to uncertainty in the input variables, a parametric sensitivity study is conducted on the S-VECD model. Overall, the findings from this research show promising results both in terms of upscaling FAM to AC properties and the reliability of fatigue prediction in AC using experimental data on FAM.

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Date Created
  • 2016

Reliability associated with the estimation of soil resilient modulus at different hierarchical levels of pavement design

Description

Deterministic solutions are available to estimate the resilient modulus of unbound materials, which are difficult to interpret because they do not incorporate the variability associated with the inherent soil heterogeneity

Deterministic solutions are available to estimate the resilient modulus of unbound materials, which are difficult to interpret because they do not incorporate the variability associated with the inherent soil heterogeneity and that associated with environmental conditions. This thesis presents the stochastic evaluation of the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM), which is a model used in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide to estimate the soil long-term equilibrium resilient modulus. The stochastic evaluation is accomplished by taking the deterministic equations in the EICM and applying stochastic procedures to obtain a mean and variance associated with the final design parameter, the resilient modulus at equilibrium condition. In addition to the stochastic evaluation, different statistical analyses were applied to determine that the uses of hierarchical levels are valid in the unbound pavement material design and the climatic region has an impact on the final design resilient moduli at equilibrium. After determining that the climatic regions and the hierarchical levels are valid, reliability was applied to the resilient moduli at equilibrium. Finally, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design concept based on the Structural Number (SN) was applied in order to illustrate the true implications the hierarchical levels of design and the variability associated with environmental effects and soil properties have in the design of pavement structures. The stochastic solutions developed as part of this thesis work together with the SN design concept were applied to five soils with different resilient moduli at optimum compaction condition in order to evaluate the variability associated with the resilient moduli at equilibrium condition. These soils were evaluated in five different climatic regions ranging from arid to extremely wet conditions. The analysis showed that by using the most accurate input parameters obtained from laboratory testing (hierarchical Level 1) instead of Level 3 analysis could potentially save the State Department of Transportation up to 10.12 inches of asphalt in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Pore water pressure response of a soil subjected to traffic loading under saturated and unsaturated conditions

Description

This study presents the results of one of the first attempts to characterize the pore water pressure response of soils subjected to traffic loading under saturated and unsaturated conditions. It

This study presents the results of one of the first attempts to characterize the pore water pressure response of soils subjected to traffic loading under saturated and unsaturated conditions. It is widely known that pore water pressure develops within the soil pores as a response to external stimulus. Also, it has been recognized that the development of pores water pressure contributes to the degradation of the resilient modulus of unbound materials. In the last decades several efforts have been directed to model the effect of air and water pore pressures upon resilient modulus. However, none of them consider dynamic variations in pressures but rather are based on equilibrium values corresponding to initial conditions. The measurement of this response is challenging especially in soils under unsaturated conditions. Models are needed not only to overcome testing limitations but also to understand the dynamic behavior of internal pore pressures that under critical conditions may even lead to failure. A testing program was conducted to characterize the pore water pressure response of a low plasticity fine clayey sand subjected to dynamic loading. The bulk stress, initial matric suction and dwelling time parameters were controlled and their effects were analyzed. The results were used to attempt models capable of predicting the accumulated excess pore pressure at any given time during the traffic loading and unloading phases. Important findings regarding the influence of the controlled variables challenge common beliefs. The accumulated excess pore water pressure was found to be higher for unsaturated soil specimens than for saturated soil specimens. The maximum pore water pressure always increased when the high bulk stress level was applied. Higher dwelling time was found to decelerate the accumulation of pore water pressure. In addition, it was found that the higher the dwelling time, the lower the maximum pore water pressure. It was concluded that upon further research, the proposed models may become a powerful tool not only to overcome testing limitations but also to enhance current design practices and to prevent soil failure due to excessive development of pore water pressure.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Pavement temperature effects on overall urban heat island

Description

In recent years, an increase of environmental temperature in urban areas has raised many concerns. These areas are subjected to higher temperature compared to the rural surrounding areas. Modification of

In recent years, an increase of environmental temperature in urban areas has raised many concerns. These areas are subjected to higher temperature compared to the rural surrounding areas. Modification of land surface and the use of materials such as concrete and/or asphalt are the main factors influencing the surface energy balance and therefore the environmental temperature in the urban areas. Engineered materials have relatively higher solar energy absorption and tend to trap a relatively higher incoming solar radiation. They also possess a higher heat storage capacity that allows them to retain heat during the day and then slowly release it back into the atmosphere as the sun goes down. This phenomenon is known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect and causes an increase in the urban air temperature. Many researchers believe that albedo is the key pavement affecting the urban heat island. However, this research has shown that the problem is more complex and that solar reflectivity may not be the only important factor to evaluate the ability of a pavement to mitigate UHI. The main objective of this study was to analyze and research the influence of pavement materials on the near surface air temperature. In order to accomplish this effort, test sections consisting of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), Porous Hot Mix asphalt (PHMA), Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), Pervious Portland Cement Concrete (PPCC), artificial turf, and landscape gravels were constructed in the Phoenix, Arizona area. Air temperature, albedo, wind speed, solar radiation, and wind direction were recorded, analyzed and compared above each pavement material type. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the air temperature at 3-feet and above, regardless of the type of the pavement. Near surface pavement temperatures were also measured and modeled. The results indicated that for the UHI analysis, it is important to consider the interaction between pavement structure, material properties, and environmental factors. Overall, this study demonstrated the complexity of evaluating pavement structures for UHI mitigation; it provided great insight on the effects of material types and properties on surface temperatures and near surface air temperature.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Multi-Scale Characterization of Bitumen Doped with Sustainable Modifiers

Description

This research is a comprehensive study of the sustainable modifiers for asphalt binder. It is a common practice to use modifiers to impart certain properties to asphalt binder; however, in

This research is a comprehensive study of the sustainable modifiers for asphalt binder. It is a common practice to use modifiers to impart certain properties to asphalt binder; however, in order to facilitate the synthesis and design of highly effective sustainable modifiers, it is critical to thoroughly understand their underlying molecular level mechanisms in combination with micro and macro-level behavior. Therefore, this study incorporates a multi-scale approach using computational modeling and laboratory experiments to provide an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between selected modifiers and the constituents of asphalt binder, at aged and unaged conditions. This study investigated the effect of paraffinic wax as a modifier for virgin binder in warm-mix asphalt that can reduce the environmental burden of asphalt pavements. The addition of wax was shown to reduce the viscosity of bitumen by reducing the self-interaction of asphaltene molecules and penetrating the existing nano agglomerates of asphaltenes. This study further examined how the interplay of various modifiers affects the modified binder’s thermomechanical properties. It was found that the presence of wax-based modifiers has a disrupting effect on the role of polyphosphoric acid that is another modifier of bitumen and its interactions with resin-type molecules.

This study was further extended to using nanozeolite as a mineral carrier for wax to better disperse wax in bitumen and reduce the wax's adverse effects such as physical hardening at low service temperatures and rutting at high service temperatures. This novel technique showed that using a different method of adding a modifier can help reduce the modifier's unwanted effects. It further showed that nanozeolite could carry wax-based modifiers and release them in bitumen, then acting as a scavenger for acidic compounds in the binder. This, in turn, could promote the resistance of asphalt binder to moisture damage by reducing the quantity of acidic compounds at the interface between the binder and the stone aggregates.

Furthermore, this study shows that iso-paraffin wax can reduce oxidized asphaltene molecules self-interaction and therefore, reduce the viscosity of aged bitumen while cause brittleness at low temperatures.

Additionally, a cradle to gate life-cycle assessment was performed for a new bio-modifier obtained from swine manure. This study showed that by partially replacing the bitumen with bio-binder from swine manure, the carbon footprint of the binder can be reduced by 10% in conjunction with reducing the cost and environmental impact of storing the manure in lagoons.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Enterprise Distress Cost: United States Air Force Airfield Pavement Inventory

Description

United States Air Force airfield PAVER pavement management system enterprise data was reviewed for 67 networks. The distress survey extents and severity fields were joined with treatment costs estimated using

United States Air Force airfield PAVER pavement management system enterprise data was reviewed for 67 networks. The distress survey extents and severity fields were joined with treatment costs estimated using RSMeans to determine the costliest distress. In asphalt surfaced pavements Longitudinal/transverse cracking, weathering, and block cracking resulted in the most pavement condition index (PCI) deducts while the costliest distresses are weathering, block cracking and longitudinal cracking. In portland cement concrete surfaced pavements linear cracking, joint seal damage, and joint spalling resulted in the most PCI deducts while the costliest distresses are joint seal damage, linear cracking, and corner spalling. The results of this data were then compared to airfield attributes: Pavement Temperature Group, Dominant American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Soil Classification, Pavement- Transportation Computer Assisted Structural Engineering (PCASE) Climate Zone, and years since last maintenance. Maps showing the Pavement Temperature Group, Dominant AASHTO Soil Classification, and PCASE Climate Zone are included in Appendix A. Alligator cracking is most prevalent at the airfields with PTG 64-34 (Ellsworth, Fairchild, Hill, and Offutt) and 58-22 (Niagara and Vandenberg). Rutting is most prevalent at PTG 64-34 (Ellsworth, Fairchild, Hill, and Offutt). An increasing trend of joint spalling, corner spalling, and corner break with decreasing soil quality (AASHOTO A-1 to A-8 soils). The PCASE Climate Zone Cost Indices the cost index for weathering is approximately double in the moist region over the dry region. The cost index for block cracking is approximately double in the cold region over the hot region. It is recommended that the agency review its pavement performance modeling in the pavement management system to increase the recommendation of pavement preservation treatments and review the use of higher quality materials for pavement maintenance treatments.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Implications of Bio-modification on Moisture Damage Mechanisms in Asphalt Binder Matrix

Description

Bio-modification of asphalt binder brings significant benefits in terms of increasing sustainable and environmental practices, stabilizing prices, and decreasing costs. However, bio-modified asphalt binders have shown varying performance regarding susceptibility

Bio-modification of asphalt binder brings significant benefits in terms of increasing sustainable and environmental practices, stabilizing prices, and decreasing costs. However, bio-modified asphalt binders have shown varying performance regarding susceptibility to moisture damage; some bio-oil modifiers significantly increase asphalt binder's susceptibility to moisture damage. This variability in performance is largely due to the large number of bio-masses available for use as sources of bio-oil, as well as the type of processing procedure followed in converting the bio-mass into a bio-oil for modifying asphalt binder. Therefore, there is a need for a method of properly evaluating the potential impact of a bio-oil modifier for asphalt binder on the overall performance of asphalt pavement, in order to properly distinguish whether a particular bio-oil modifier increases or decreases the moisture susceptibility of asphalt binder. Therefore, the goal of this study is a multi-scale investigation of bio-oils with known chemical compositions to determine if there is a correlation between a fundamental property of a bio-oil and the resulting increase or decrease in moisture susceptibility of a binder when it is modified with the bio-oil. For instance, it was found that polarizability of asphalt constituents can be a promising indicator of moisture susceptibility of bitumen. This study will also evaluate the linkage of the fundamental property to newly developed binder-level test methods. It was found that moisture-induced shear thinning of bitumen containing glass beads can differentiate moisture susceptible bitumen samples. Based on the knowledge determined, alternative methods of reducing the moisture susceptibility of asphalt pavement will also be evaluated. It was shown that accumulation of acidic compounds at the interface of bitumen and aggregate could promote moisture damage. It was further found that detracting acidic compounds from the interface could be done by either of neutralizing active site of stone aggregate to reduce affinity for acids or by arresting acidic compounds using active mineral filler. The study results showed there is a strong relation between composition of bitumen and its susceptibility to moisture. This in turn emphasize the importance of integrating knowledge of surface chemistry and bitumen composition into the pavement design and evaluation.

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Date Created
  • 2020