Matching Items (3)

Study of a night sky radiator cooling system utilizing direct fluid radiation emission and varying cover materials

Description

As the demand for power increases in populated areas, so will the demand for water. Current power plant technology relies heavily on the Rankine cycle in coal, nuclear and solar

As the demand for power increases in populated areas, so will the demand for water. Current power plant technology relies heavily on the Rankine cycle in coal, nuclear and solar thermal power systems which ultimately use condensers to cool the steam in the system. In dry climates, the amount of water to cool off the condenser can be extremely large. Current wet cooling technologies such as cooling towers lose water from evaporation. One alternative to prevent this would be to implement a radiative cooling system. More specifically, a system that utilizes the volumetric radiation emission from water to the night sky could be implemented. This thesis analyzes the validity of a radiative cooling system that uses direct radiant emission to cool water. A brief study on potential infrared transparent cover materials such as polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl carbonate (PVC) was performed. Also, two different experiments to determine the cooling power from radiation were developed and run. The results showed a minimum cooling power of 33.7 W/m2 for a vacuum insulated glass system and 37.57 W/m2 for a tray system with a maximum of 98.61 Wm-2 at a point when conduction and convection heat fluxes were considered to be zero. The results also showed that PE proved to be the best cover material. The minimum numerical results compared well with other studies performed in the field using similar techniques and materials. The results show that a radiative cooling system for a power plant could be feasible given that the cover material selection is narrowed down, an ample amount of land is available and an economic analysis is performed proving it to be cost competitive with conventional systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Dynamic control of radiative heat transfer with tunable materials for thermal management in both far and near fields

Description

The proposed research mainly focuses on employing tunable materials to achieve dynamic control of radiative heat transfer in both far and near fields for thermal management. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), which

The proposed research mainly focuses on employing tunable materials to achieve dynamic control of radiative heat transfer in both far and near fields for thermal management. Vanadium dioxide (VO2), which undergoes a phase transition from insulator to metal at the temperature of 341 K, is one tunable material being applied. The other one is graphene, whose optical properties can be tuned by chemical potential through external bias or chemical doping.

In the far field, a VO2-based metamaterial thermal emitter with switchable emittance in the mid-infrared has been theoretically studied. When VO2 is in the insulating phase, high emittance is observed at the resonance frequency of magnetic polaritons (MPs), while the structure becomes highly reflective when VO2 turns metallic. A VO2-based thermal emitter with tunable emittance is also demonstrated due to the excitation of MP at different resonance frequencies when VO2 changes phase. Moreover, an infrared thermal emitter made of graphene-covered SiC grating could achieve frequency-tunable emittance peak via the change of the graphene chemical potential.

In the near field, a radiation-based thermal rectifier is constructed by investigating radiative transfer between VO2 and SiO2 separated by nanometer vacuum gap distances. Compared to the case where VO2 is set as the emitter at 400 K as a metal, when VO2 is considered as the receiver at 300 K as an insulator, the energy transfer is greatly enhanced due to the strong surface phonon polariton (SPhP) coupling between insulating VO2 and SiO2. A radiation-based thermal switch is also explored by setting VO2 as both the emitter and the receiver. When both VO2 emitter and receiver are at the insulating phase, the switch is at the “on” mode with a much enhanced heat flux due to strong SPhP coupling, while the near-field radiative transfer is greatly suppressed when the emitting VO2 becomes metallic at temperatures higher than 341K during the “off” mode. In addition, an electrically-gated thermal modulator made of graphene covered SiC plates is theoretically studied with modulated radiative transport by varying graphene chemical potential. Moreover, the MP effect on near-field radiative transport has been investigated by spectrally enhancing radiative heat transfer between two metal gratings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Radiative heat transfer with nanowire/nanohole metamaterials for thermal energy harvesting applications

Description

Recently, nanostructured metamaterials have attracted lots of attentions due to its tunable artificial properties. In particular, nanowire
anohole based metamaterials which are known of the capability of large area fabrication

Recently, nanostructured metamaterials have attracted lots of attentions due to its tunable artificial properties. In particular, nanowire
anohole based metamaterials which are known of the capability of large area fabrication were intensively studied. Most of the studies are only based on the electrical responses of the metamaterials; however, magnetic response, is usually neglected since magnetic material does not exist naturally within the visible or infrared range. For the past few years, artificial magnetic response from nanostructure based metamaterials has been proposed. This reveals the possibility of exciting resonance modes based on magnetic responses in nanowire
anohole metamaterials which can potentially provide additional enhancement on radiative transport. On the other hand, beyond classical far-field radiative heat transfer, near-field radiation which is known of exceeding the Planck’s blackbody limit has also become a hot topic in the field.

This PhD dissertation aims to obtain a deep fundamental understanding of nanowire
anohole based metamaterials in both far-field and near-field in terms of both electrical and magnetic responses. The underlying mechanisms that can be excited by nanowire
anohole metamaterials such as electrical surface plasmon polariton, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic polariton, etc., will be theoretically studied in both far-field and near-field. Furthermore, other than conventional effective medium theory which only considers the electrical response of metamaterials, the artificial magnetic response of metamaterials will also be studied through parameter retrieval of far-field optical and radiative properties for studying near-field radiative transport. Moreover, a custom-made AFM tip based metrology will be employed to experimentally study near-field radiative transfer between a plate and a sphere separated by nanometer vacuum gaps in vacuum. This transformative research will break new ground in nanoscale radiative heat transfer for various applications in energy systems, thermal management, and thermal imaging and sensing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017