Matching Items (10)

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Meat consumption, moral foundations and ecological behaviors among college students

Description

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in

In recent years, overall consumption of meat products has been decreasing, and at the same time vegetarianism is on the rise. A variety of factors are likely driving changes in consumers' attitudes towards, and consumption of, meat products. Although concern regarding animal welfare may contribute to these trends, growing consumer interest in the roles that production and processing of meat play in terms of environmental degradation could also impact individuals' decisions about the inclusion of meat in their diets. Because these factors could be related to moral attitudes as well, the purpose of this study was to explore the relations among meat consumption, general environmental attitudes, and moral `foundations' of decision-making, including concern about minimizing `harm' and maximizing `care,' as well as issues of `purity' and `sanctity.' A survey was conducted among current college students using the New Ecological Paradigm scale and the Moral Foundations Questionnaire to assess environmental and moral attitudes. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess meat consumption. Multiple linear regression analyses explored the relations of environmental and moral attitudes with meat consumption, controlling for potential confounding variables. The results showed no significant correlations among meat consumption, environmental attitudes or moral foundations of harm/care and purity/sanctity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Sending students to prison: an impact evaluation of the Arizona Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program

Description

The prison classroom offers a transformative educational opportunity for incarcerated and non-incarcerated students alike. The current study uses place-conscious educational theories and the intergroup contact theory to examine how a

The prison classroom offers a transformative educational opportunity for incarcerated and non-incarcerated students alike. The current study uses place-conscious educational theories and the intergroup contact theory to examine how a prison education program can offer deeply impactful experiences for students. Using a pre/post-intervention survey design, this thesis analyzes differences in attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions about crime and criminal justice between and within groups of incarcerated (n=24) and university (n=20) students participating in two semester-long prison-based criminal justice courses in Arizona. Results show that prior to participating in the Inside-Out Prison Exchange programs, inside students had less favorable views about the criminal justice system compared to outside students, and outside students had less favorable attitudes about people who are incarcerated. Throughout the course, positive attitudes toward the criminal justice system increased for inside students and positive attitudes about incarcerated people increased among outside students, such that at the end of the course, the differences in attitudes between the two groups were no longer significant. Additionally, outside students’ punitive attitudes decreased throughout their participation in the course. Overall, the magnitude of the changes experienced by each student group were different, such that outside students experienced more significant changes in attitudes and beliefs about crime and criminal justice than did inside students.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Testing whether alternative goals of multifinal means are considered helpful in working towards a primary dietary goal in college students

Description

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets,

Multiple health-related benefits have been associated with adherence to plant-based diets, including vegan, vegetarian, and pescatarian dietary patterns. Despite a consistent body of evidence on the importance of healthy diets, Americans continue to find difficulty in establishing and adhering to dietary goals that could elicit long-term health benefits. Recent research suggests an important role for goal-setting strategies in health behavior change attempts, with some success shown in dietary behavior change, specifically. The current study thus aimed to explore whether having multiple goals alongside one primary goal of following a vegetarian, vegan, or pescatarian diet would increase the achievability of that goal. Participants of this study were broken into two groups: currently following a plant-based diet (ADHERE) and striving to follow a plant-based diet (STRIVE). Researchers hypothesized that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals set by participants would differ between the two groups, that the ADHERE group would report that their alternative goals were more helpful and less interfering in achieving their dietary goal than the STRIVE group, and that a higher rank of importance of the dietary goal would predict being in the ADHERE group. Results showed that the number of health and/or diet related alternative goals did not differ between groups. The ADHERE group and STRIVE group did not have significantly different helpfulness and interference reports. Although, in an exploratory analysis, it was shown that those participants who reported at least 2 health/diet related alternative goals found those goals to be significantly more helpful than those who reported 0 or 1 health/diet goal. Results showed that rank of dietary goal did not predict group assignment. Overall, the results from this study showed that the type of alternative goal was very important when pursuit of multiple goals was in effect. Type of alternative goal seemed to be a higher predictor of the perceived helpfulness of the alternative goals than previous achievement of goals.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Biophilia and educational satisfaction: analyzing the performative benefits of courtyards in university settings through the lenses of biophilic design

Description

This research aims to investigate the effect of campus courtyards on students’ satisfaction with education. It will look into two different types of courtyard within the Arizona State University. One

This research aims to investigate the effect of campus courtyards on students’ satisfaction with education. It will look into two different types of courtyard within the Arizona State University. One courtyard space has more elements and attributes of biophilic design and the other has less. In addition, this paper will provide guidelines for designing courtyards that would improve student’s satisfaction with education. The Methodology used is survey handouts to students after the researcher selects the two types of courtyards by observation. The participant in this study are randomly picked young adult college students (n=60). The results indicate a positive effect of biophilic design on student’s satisfaction with education in courtyards. Furthermore, guidelines for designing courtyards based on biophilic design elements and attributes are suggested.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The effect of perceived opportunities and regulatory focus on task performance for first- and continuing-generation college students

Description

First-generation college students, for whom neither parent has a bachelor's degree, are at an increased risk for dropping out of college compared with their continuing-generation counterparts. This research aims to

First-generation college students, for whom neither parent has a bachelor's degree, are at an increased risk for dropping out of college compared with their continuing-generation counterparts. This research aims to examine whether varying perceptions of the future may contribute to these differences; specifically, whether presentations of future opportunities with and without a college degree impact academic motivation and performance, and whether this relationship holds for people from different college generation status backgrounds. Additionally, the study explores whether the effect is consistent with regulatory focus profiles--whether someone is motivated to avoid negative outcomes (e.g., prevention orientation) or attain positive outcomes (e.g., promotion orientation). Prevention oriented first-generation students were expected to have increased motivation and performance when asked to contrast the future with and without a college degree, whereas promotion oriented continuing-generation students were expected to have increased motivation and performance by merely thinking about the future with a college degree. Participants consisted of 330 undergraduates from an introductory psychology course. Participants were randomly assigned to presentations of future opportunities with a degree, with and without a degree, or a no-prime control condition. Motivation and performance were assessed using academic motivation and delay of gratification scales and a short anagram task. The proposed hypotheses were not supported; however, important findings emerged from exploratory analysis. First- and continuing-generation college students perceived future opportunities with a college degree similarly, meaning that both first- and continuing-generation students believed that a degree would endow opportunities. Additionally, belief in future opportunities significantly predicted academic motivation, delay of gratification, and anagram performance; thus, belief in future opportunities is a determinant of academic motivation and performance. Finally, first-generation students' performance varied by belief that a college degree would create future opportunities. Therefore, future interventions to increase performance and retention among first-generation students should emphasize the value of a college degree for future success. This research has implications for the understanding of college generation status, academic motivation, and performance.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Depression, religiosity, and risky behavior among college students

Description

Depressive disorders are common among the general populations but are present at an even higher rate among college students. Some research suggests that new stressors during the transition to college

Depressive disorders are common among the general populations but are present at an even higher rate among college students. Some research suggests that new stressors during the transition to college may place young adults at increased risk of depressive disorders. In addition, depression in college students has been linked to a variety of risky behaviors such as alcohol use and risky sexual activity. Fortunately, research suggests that religiosity may act as a buffer and lead to lower levels of depressive symptoms and risky behavior. Current research has not adequately examined the relationship between religiosity, depression, and risky behavior among college students. In this study, depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, while risky behaviors were measured using the section on risky sexual behavior from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance survey and the section on alcohol consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, both developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Four questions frequently used in literature to measure critical behaviors and attitudes were used to assess participants' religiosity. It was predicted that engagement in risky behaviors would be associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms while increased religiosity would be associated with lower levels. Additionally, increased religiosity would be associated with lower levels of engagement in risky behavior. Multiple regression analyses revealed that risky behavior were not significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, while higher church attendance was associated with lower depressive symptoms. Although not considered a risky behavior, ever being forced to have sex was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Linear regression analyses revealed that increased religiosity was associated with increased engagement in risky behavior. These findings suggest that while depressive symptoms and risky behaviors are prevalent among college students, religiosity may act as a buffer and lead to lower levels of depression and risky behavior. Limitations, implications, and future research are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Predicting undergraduates' intent to persist in STEM: : self-efficacy, role salience and anticipated work-family conflict

Description

In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive

In recent years, women have made significant advances in traditionally male occupations. Despite this progress, women are still underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the model of Achievement Related Choices are two widely accepted career development theories. Both theories highlight the importance of self-efficacy and personal factors in career development; yet, neither of them has considered the predictive power of a specific outcome expectation, anticipated work family conflict (AWFC), in relation to the career development of men and women in STEM undergraduate programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the incremental validity of AWFC over and above that of self-efficacy and role salience, in predicting educational and occupational aspirations of undergraduate students in STEM programs at a large southwestern university. The study provides evidence that the factor structure of the AWFC scale does not hold up with the undergraduate population, and this finding was seen as reason to combine the AWFC subscales into one composite score. In a hierarchical multiple regression higher levels of STEM self-efficacy predicted higher intentions to persist in STEM. Role salience, AWFC, and the gender-AWFC interaction were not significantly related to intentions to persist. Although the study does not provide evidence for the incremental validity of AWFC, it does suggest that work-family balance considerations that have been observed in mature STEM populations may not yet be salient for students at the undergraduate level.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The relationship between perceived academic control, implicit theory of intelligence, and student responsibility

Description

Responsibility for academic outcomes is an important factor to consider within the study of student motivation, yet measures for the construct remain elusive and inconsistent. The present study uses a

Responsibility for academic outcomes is an important factor to consider within the study of student motivation, yet measures for the construct remain elusive and inconsistent. The present study uses a new measure developed by Lauermann and Karabenick to assess students' sense of responsibility for their academic outcomes. This study examined the relationship between perceived academic control, implicit theory of intelligence, and student responsibility. Results were based on a sample of 152 undergraduate students. A significant relationship between perceived academic control and student responsibility was established. Results also indicated a significant association between implicit theory of intelligence and student responsibility; however, contrary to hypotheses, implicit theory did not mediate the relationship between perceived academic control and student responsibility.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Relationship between perceived stress and depression in college students

Description

Other studies have previously demonstrated that perceived stress and maladaptive stress management can lead to harmful outcomes including depression, morbidity, and mortality. College students (especially freshmen) have more difficulty dealing

Other studies have previously demonstrated that perceived stress and maladaptive stress management can lead to harmful outcomes including depression, morbidity, and mortality. College students (especially freshmen) have more difficulty dealing with stress, which can increase their susceptibility to engage in high risk behaviors. The importance of conducting this research is to discover the effects that perceived stress levels may have on depression outcomes in college students, and to evaluate the influence of health related behaviors on this relationship. This study used a retrospective cross-sectional correlational design to examine correlations between perceived stress, physical activity, and other health behaviors on clinical and perceived depression in college students. A random sample of 20,000 students was drawn from 62,476 students enrolled at Arizona State University (ASU). Participants included 2,238 students who volunteered to take the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) in spring 2009. Supplemental questions for ASU students were developed by ASU Wellness and administered as a part of the ACHA-NCHA II. The university sent an invitation email, wherein students were directed through a hyperlink to the survey website. ACHA provided institutional survey data in an SPSS file for analysis. The data were evaluated with Spearman Rho Correlation Analysis and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. There were more female participants (n = 580) than males (n = 483), both averaged 23 years of age. Men had greater height, weight, and body mass index than females, all were significant mean differences. There were more significant correlations between health factors and having perceived depression than with having real or diagnosed depression. Logistic regression showed that out of all variables and behaviors studied, only high levels of stress, poor general health, substance use, and gender (female) resulted in significant odds in predicting that a participant would be in one of the depression categories. This research suggests that addressing these factors may be important to prevent and reduce depression among college students. This study provides empirical evidence that there is a significant relationship between perceived stress and depression among college students, and that health behaviors such as substance abuse have a negative mediating effect on this relationship.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Evaluation of Taylor Place Fit's motivational signage and mural painting to determine the influence on stair use

Description

Encouraging stair use may increase physical activity among college students. The overall goals of this study were to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate a stair use initiative, which included a

Encouraging stair use may increase physical activity among college students. The overall goals of this study were to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate a stair use initiative, which included a mural painting contest in a residential hall. The number of individuals exiting the stairs were counted and interview data were obtained regarding the visibility of the signs and murals and whether the signs or murals influenced stair use. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with the community assistants (CAs) and staff members involved with the project to obtain qualitative data on their perceptions and opinions of the mural painting event. It was hypothesized that the average number of individuals per half hour who used the stairs would significantly increase from baseline to post-test. To examine changes over time in individuals exiting the stairs, a quasi-experimental design was used with one baseline measurement and multiple posttests (n=5). Stair use was determined by counting individuals exiting the stairwells. Time differences in exiting stair use were examined with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze interview data. Qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. There was a significant time effect on stair use (F=7.512, p =0.000) and a significant interaction between staircase and time (F=7.518, p=0.000). There was no significant interaction of gender over time (F=.037, p=0.997). A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on each staircase individually and showed that significant time differences were only found in the Southwest staircase. Based on exit interviews (n=28), most students saw the directional signs (61%) and murals (89.3%). However, neither the signs (71.4%) nor the murals (82.1%) were perceived as influential on stair use. Data from the focus groups and interviews revealed that the mural painting contest did not occur as intended, because the contest piece did not take place. In conclusion, solely having residents of a residential hall paint murals in stairwells was insufficient for increasing stair use. A mural painting contest may be a viable approach if properly planned and implemented.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011