Matching Items (19)

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Maximizing the benefits of collaborative learning in the college classroom

Description

This study tested the effects of two kinds of cognitive, domain-based preparation tasks on learning outcomes after engaging in a collaborative activity with a partner. The collaborative learning method of

This study tested the effects of two kinds of cognitive, domain-based preparation tasks on learning outcomes after engaging in a collaborative activity with a partner. The collaborative learning method of interest was termed "preparing-to-interact," and is supported in theory by the Preparation for Future Learning (PFL) paradigm and the Interactive-Constructive-Active-Passive (ICAP) framework. The current work combined these two cognitive-based approaches to design collaborative learning activities that can serve as alternatives to existing methods, which carry limitations and challenges. The "preparing-to-interact" method avoids the need for training students in specific collaboration skills or guiding/scripting their dialogic behaviors, while providing the opportunity for students to acquire the necessary prior knowledge for maximizing their discussions towards learning. The study used a 2x2 experimental design, investigating the factors of Preparation (No Prep and Prep) and Type of Activity (Active and Constructive) on deep and shallow learning. The sample was community college students in introductory psychology classes; the domain tested was "memory," in particular, concepts related to the process of remembering/forgetting information. Results showed that Preparation was a significant factor affecting deep learning, while shallow learning was not affected differently by the interventions. Essentially, equalizing time-on-task and content across all conditions, time spent individually preparing by working on the task alone and then discussing the content with a partner produced deeper learning than engaging in the task jointly for the duration of the learning period. Type of Task was not a significant factor in learning outcomes, however, exploratory analyses showed evidence of Constructive-type behaviors leading to deeper learning of the content. Additionally, a novel method of multilevel analysis (MLA) was used to examine the data to account for the dependency between partners within dyads. This work showed that "preparing-to-interact" is a way to maximize the benefits of collaborative learning. When students are first cognitively prepared, they seem to make the most efficient use of discussion towards learning, engage more deeply in the content during learning, leading to deeper knowledge of the content. Additionally, in using MLA to account for subject nonindependency, this work introduces new questions about the validity of statistical analyses for dyadic data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Instructional choices, student participation, and the construction of knowledge in a social studies learning environment

Description

The purpose of this action research study was to explore the impact instructional choices had on student participation in the classroom learning environment, growth of knowledge in social studies, and

The purpose of this action research study was to explore the impact instructional choices had on student participation in the classroom learning environment, growth of knowledge in social studies, and self-efficacy in the learning process. The instructional choices implemented through a flipped learning instructional approach were designed to target motivation and participation in the learning process via individualized student-learning opportunities. This action research study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of collaborative student-centered learning environments to traditional instructional style learning environments. This study provided students with opportunities to analyze, think critically of, and apply studied content in a Participation in Government course to their personal lives through experiential out-of-class assignments and collaborative hands-on in-class activities. The theoretical foundations for this study include social cognitive theory, theory of self-efficacy, and social constructivism. Participants included 32 high school seniors from the High School of Fashion Industries in New York, NY. Participants completed a pre-/post-self-efficacy survey, pre/posttest measuring their knowledge of government, and several short interviews. Eight participants, four from the Treatment group and four from the Control group, completed a semi-structured interview at the conclusion of the study. Results showed participants experienced an increase in self-efficacy and participation in the learning process. Participants from the Treatment group outperformed the participants from the Control group with regards to knowledge of government. In the discussion, outcomes related to the theoretical frameworks and the problem of practice were discussed. Finally, limitations and a discussion regarding future iterations of the action research in a larger context were outlined.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Spoken dialogue in face-to-face and remote collaborative learning environments

Description

Research in the learning sciences suggests that students learn better by collaborating with their peers than learning individually. Students working together as a group tend to generate new ideas more

Research in the learning sciences suggests that students learn better by collaborating with their peers than learning individually. Students working together as a group tend to generate new ideas more frequently and exhibit a higher level of reasoning. In this internet age with the advent of massive open online courses (MOOCs), students across the world are able to access and learn material remotely. This creates a need for tools that support distant or remote collaboration. In order to build such tools we need to understand the basic elements of remote collaboration and how it differs from traditional face-to-face collaboration.

The main goal of this thesis is to explore how spoken dialogue varies in face-to-face and remote collaborative learning settings. Speech data is collected from student participants solving mathematical problems collaboratively on a tablet. Spoken dialogue is analyzed based on conversational and acoustic features in both the settings. Looking for collaborative differences of transactivity and dialogue initiative, both settings are compared in detail using machine learning classification techniques based on acoustic and prosodic features of speech. Transactivity is defined as a joint construction of knowledge by peers. The main contributions of this thesis are: a speech corpus to analyze spoken dialogue in face-to-face and remote settings and an empirical analysis of conversation, collaboration, and speech prosody in both the settings. The results from the experiments show that amount of overlap is lower in remote dialogue than in the face-to-face setting. There is a significant difference in transactivity among strangers. My research benefits the computer-supported collaborative learning community by providing an analysis that can be used to build more efficient tools for supporting remote collaborative learning.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Exploration of practices in partnering

Description

Exploration of Practice in Partnering is a curriculum-based, research thesis, focused on the investigation of the potential impact of studying multiple forms of dance partnering through a constructivist learning lens.

Exploration of Practice in Partnering is a curriculum-based, research thesis, focused on the investigation of the potential impact of studying multiple forms of dance partnering through a constructivist learning lens. The primary goal was to discover concepts and practices that underlie effective dance partnering. The study was conducted in a 15-week university dance course that provided a survey of partnering dance forms taught by the researcher who is versed in the chosen forms. In addition to professional knowledge and experience, the researcher includes theory and pedagogy from his graduate coursework. Teaching frameworks and learning experiences for the study were informed by somatics and constructivist pedagogy; a student-centered approach to learning in which students might find knowledge and meaning through experience.

The research documented in this thesis may be methodologically described as a case study and the data collection methods were qualitative. Due to IRB limitations, the data set draws only from biweekly journal entries from a class of eleven students, in addition to the researcher’s observation of students. Data streams from student journal entries were analyzed and interpreted using common protocols. Guiding questions for the research study included: How do students currently understand and perceive partnering? How do leader and follower roles play a part in dance partnering? What commonalities of partnering exist between different dance forms? Data gathered from the research revealed that each individual student’s understanding and definition of dance partnering changed over the course of the semester and students found increased meaning in their partnering interactions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Exploring the use of self-explanation prompts in a collaborative learning environment

Description

A recorded tutorial dialogue can produce positive learning gains, when observed and used to promote discussion between a pair of learners; however, this same effect does not typically occur when

A recorded tutorial dialogue can produce positive learning gains, when observed and used to promote discussion between a pair of learners; however, this same effect does not typically occur when an leaner observes a tutorial dialogue by himself or herself. One potential approach to enhancing learning in the latter situation is by incorporating self-explanation prompts, a proven technique for encouraging students to engage in active learning and attend to the material in a meaningful way. This study examined whether learning from observing recorded tutorial dialogues could be made more effective by adding self-explanation prompts in computer-based learning environment. The research questions in this two-experiment study were (a) Do self-explanation prompts help support student learning while watching a recorded dialogue? and (b) Does collaboratively observing (in dyads) a tutorial dialogue with self-explanation prompts help support student learning while watching a recorded dialogue? In Experiment 1, 66 participants were randomly assigned as individuals to a physics lesson (a) with self-explanation prompts (Condition 1) or (b) without self-explanation prompts (Condition 2). In Experiment 2, 20 participants were randomly assigned in 10 pairs to the same physics lesson (a) with self-explanation prompts (Condition 1) or (b) without self-explanation prompts (Condition 2). Pretests and posttests were administered, as well as other surveys that measured motivation and system usability. Although supplemental analyses showed some significant differences among individual scale items or factors, neither primary results for Experiment 1 or Experiment 2 were significant for changes in posttest scores from pretest scores for learning, motivation, or system usability assessments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Accountability groups to enhance language learning in a university intensive English program

Description

This mixed methods classroom research examined if accountability groups in the lower proficiency levels of a university intensive English program would improve students’ language acquisition. Students were assigned partners for

This mixed methods classroom research examined if accountability groups in the lower proficiency levels of a university intensive English program would improve students’ language acquisition. Students were assigned partners for the study period with whom they completed assignments inside and outside of class, as well as set goals for use of language in their own context. Based in the ecological perspective and socio- cultural theory, activities reinforced social bonds, scaffolded the learning objectives in a communicative way, modeled the transfer of knowledge to the world outside the classroom, and allowed students to create new affordances in which to practice and use the language. Analysis of qualitative data from interviews, text messages, exit slips, and field notes, as well as quantitative data from student academic records, pre and post tests of curricular objectives, and pre and post attitudinal surveys, showed that students were developing a stronger sense of autonomy in their language learning. They viewed their peers and themselves as knowledgeable others, helping one another to learn vocabulary and structures in each student’s zone of proximal development. Learner engagement in the treatment groups, as measured by classroom attendance, increased over a control group, as did overall grade averages in all courses. Students with no previous time in the program showed more improvement than those who had been in the program for at least one session prior. Students also showed increased fluency, as measured by the word count on a constructive task in the pre- and post-test of curricular objectives.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Using differential sequence mining to associate patterns of interactions in concept mapping activity with dimensions of collaborative process

Description

Computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has made great inroads in classroom teaching marked by the use of tools and technologies to support and enhance collaborative learning. Computer mediated learning environments

Computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) has made great inroads in classroom teaching marked by the use of tools and technologies to support and enhance collaborative learning. Computer mediated learning environments produce large amounts of data, capturing student interactions, which can be used to analyze students’ learning behaviors (Martinez-Maldonado et al., 2013a). The analysis of the process of collaboration is an active area of research in CSCL. Contributing towards this area, Meier et al. (2007) defined nine dimensions and gave a rating scheme to assess the quality of collaboration. This thesis aims to extract and examine frequent patterns of students’ interactions that characterize strong and weak groups across the above dimensions. To achieve this, an exploratory data mining technique, differential sequence mining, was employed using data from a collaborative concept mapping activity where collaboration amongst students was facilitated by an interactive tabletop. The results associate frequent patterns of collaborative concept mapping process with some of the dimensions assessing the quality of collaboration. The analysis of associating these patterns with the dimensions of collaboration is theoretically grounded, considering aspects of collaborative learning, concept mapping, communication, group cognition and information processing. The results are preliminary but still demonstrate the potential of associating frequent patterns of interactions with strong and weak groups across specific dimensions of collaboration, which is relevant for students, teachers, and researchers to monitor the process of collaborative learning. The frequent patterns for strong groups reflected conformance to the process of conversation for dimensions related to “communication” aspect of collaboration. In terms of the concept mapping sub-processes the frequent patterns for strong groups reflect the presentation phase of conversation with processes like talking, sharing individual maps while constructing the groups concept map followed by short utterances which represents the acceptance phase. For “joint information processing” aspect of collaboration, the frequent patterns for strong groups were marked by learners’ contributing more upon each other’s work. In terms of the concept mapping sub-processes the frequent patterns were marked by learners adding links to each other’s concepts or working with each other’s concepts, while revising the group concept map.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Small groups and figured worlds: an analysis of identities and literacy practices in small-group literacy sessions

Description

Small-group literacy instruction is frequently used in schools in order to engage students in discussions around texts. Instructional settings vary and produce a range of results. They are complex social

Small-group literacy instruction is frequently used in schools in order to engage students in discussions around texts. Instructional settings vary and produce a range of results. They are complex social spaces in which students position one another and themselves as they enact different identities. These identities are associated with sets of literacy practices. This paper describes the results of a study examining the ways in which 3rd and 4th grade students and their teachers positioned themselves and one another in three different small-group literacy settings and the literacy practices that they used as they performed their identities. Using a multimodal discourse analysis (Kress, 2012) and D/discourse analysis (Gee, 2005, 2011), the form and function of language and gestures were used to look at the kinds of identities that the participants enacted and the literacy practices that the students engaged in the different settings. The results of the analysis suggested that the identities that the participants performed were related to the context in which interactions around texts took place. The identities themselves were connected to the use certain literacy practices. The literacy practices used by the participants were also related to the classroom context. The findings suggest that it is important for teachers to consider the figured worlds active in small-group settings, the identities performed within those worlds, and the literacy practices in which students engage.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Learning college algebra by creating student experts

Description

In any instructional situation, the instructor's goal is to maximize the learning attained by students. Drawing on the adage, 'we learn best what we have taught,' this action research project

In any instructional situation, the instructor's goal is to maximize the learning attained by students. Drawing on the adage, 'we learn best what we have taught,' this action research project was conducted to examine whether students, in fact, learned college algebra material better if they taught it to their peers. The teaching-to-learn process was conducted in the following way. The instructor-researcher met with individual students and taught a college algebra topic to a student who served as the leader of a group of four students. At the next step, the student who originally learned the material from the instructor met with three other students in a small group session and taught the material to them to prepare an in-class presentation. Students in these small group sessions discussed how best to present the material, anticipated questions, and prepared a presentation to be shared with their classmates. The small group then taught the material to classmates during an in-class review session prior to unit examinations. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. Quantitative data consisted of pre- and post-test scores on four college algebra unit examinations. In addition, scores from Likert-scale items on an end-of-semester questionnaire that assessed the effectiveness of the teaching-to-learn process and attitudes toward the process were obtained. Qualitative data consisted of field notes from observations of selected small group sessions and in-class presentations. Additional qualitative data included responses to open-ended questions on the end-of-semester questionnaire and responses to interview items posed to groups of students. Results showed the quantitative data did not support the hypothesis that material, which was taught, was better learned than other material. Nevertheless, qualitative data indicated students were engaged in the material, had a deeper understanding of the material, and were more confident about it as a result of their participation in the teaching-to-learn process. Students also viewed the teaching-to-learn process as being effective and they had positive attitudes toward the teaching-to-learn process. Discussion focused on how engagement, deeper understanding and confidence interacted with one another to increase student learning. Lessons learned, implications for practice, and implications for further action research were also discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Cooperative learning in a community college setting: developmental coursework in mathematics

Description

This action research study, set in a community college in the southwestern United States, was designed to investigate the effects of implementing cooperative learning strategies in a developmental mathematics course.

This action research study, set in a community college in the southwestern United States, was designed to investigate the effects of implementing cooperative learning strategies in a developmental mathematics course. Introductory algebra was formerly taught in a lecture based format, and as such regularly had a low course completion rate. To create a more engaging learning environment, formal and informal cooperative learning activities were integrated into the curriculum. Bandura's self-efficacy theory, Vygotsky's constructivist theory, and Deutsch's social interdependence theory guided this study. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through pre and post self-efficacy surveys, semi-structured student interviews, student journal entries, class observations, focus groups, and pre and post mathematics assessments. Data were analyzed using a mixed methods approach. As a result of implementing cooperative learning practices as a part of my teaching, there was an increase in student attendance as well as a decrease in student withdrawal rates. Students were also more motivated to work with each other on mathematics homework outside of class sessions. There was a strong sense of community that I had not witnessed in previous courses that I have taught. Use of cooperative learning practices served as a vehicle to motivate students to work on their mathematics coursework with their peers. Keywords: cooperative learning, developmental mathematics, constructivism, social interdependence theory, self-efficacy, community college

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013